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Hindu Arabic Numeric Medieval Ideograms

From Sao Paulo, Roberto Lyra's explanation on the origins of Arabic numerals: "Each Arabic number we use today is itself an ideogram created by Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (c.778 - c.850). Al-Khwarizmi was born in central Asia in what is known as Uzbekistan, and moved to Baghdad were he worked as a mathematician during the first golden age of Islamic science, at the "House of Wisdom". Using the abacus notations he developed the manuscript decimal system. By the end of the 12th century (Middle Ages) the academic word was divided between the algorists, followers of al-Khwarizmi, and the abacists, who used the abacus as a means of dealing with the unwieldy Roman notation. The oldest dated European manuscript containing Arabic numbers is the Codex Vigilanus written in Spain in 976. In 1202 Leonardo of Pisa (also know as Leonard Fibonacci) published his Liber Abaci, a book of arithmetic and algebraic information. The earliest French manuscript using the new number system was written in 1275. During the 14th century Arabic numerals became widely used by merchants in Italy."

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Luc Devroye ⦿ School of Computer Science ⦿ McGill University Montreal, Canada H3A 2K6 ⦿ lucdevroye@gmail.com ⦿ http://luc.devroye.org ⦿ http://luc.devroye.org/fonts.html