December 20, 2005
Luc Devroye

The Inland Type Foundry


The Inland Type Foundry in Saint Louis was established in 1892 by the three sons of Carl Schraubstadter (1827-1897), William A. Schraubstadter (1864-1957), Oswald Schraubstadter (1868-1955) and Carl Schraubstadter, Jr. (1862-1947). Carl had run the Central Type Foundry in Saint Louis and sold it to ATF (American Type Founders) in 1892, and the sons reacted by setting up Inland. Until 1911, Inland was one of the most successful foundries in the United States. In 1911 Inland was purchased by ATF and its equipment divided between that foundry and Barnhart Brothers and Spindler (BBS).

The sources for this text include an article by James Eckman in PAGA, vol. 8, pp. 31-52, 1960, entitled The Inland Type Foundry, 1894-1911, and an annotated list of typefaces in Mac McGrew's famous book, American Metal Typefaces of the Twentieth Century (1986, Oak Knoll, New Castle, DE)..


This page tries to describe most typefaces published by Inland. One should be aware that there was a lot of overlap between most foundries in that period, a situation we are familiar with even today.

Type from 1894

Woodward, a variation of De Vinne, and named for William H. Woodward, one of the earliest job printers in Saint Louis, was issued in August 1894. Designed by William A. Schraubstadter, other versions followed over the next few years. Woodward, Condensed Woodward (by Werner), Extended Woodward (by Werner)and Poster Woodward all were patented in 1897. BBS reissued Woodward and Woodward Outline as DeVinne Recut and DeVinne Recut Outline.

Type from 1895

From Eckman: The first specimen book of the Inland Type Foundry was issued early in 1895. A paper-bound book of ninety-six pages, it exhibited such standard faces as Miller & Richard's Tudor Black, and also Caledonian italic, Modern italic, French Old Style and Modern and Old Style faces.

Caledonian Italic is Marder and Luse's Law Italic (1870) which became ATF's Law Italic No. 520 and was also copied by Hansen as Barrister Italic. It was, like many other faces in the early Inland collections, not very original. McGrew about all these versions of Law Italic: Law Italic is said to have originated as an imitation of formal styles of penmanship used for legal documents. The most common of several substan- tially different varieties is ATF's Law Italic No. 520, which originated with Marder, Luse about 1870. Several of the capitals are swash-like, while lower- case fandg have distinctive shapes. It has long thin serifs and sharp contrast between thick and thin strokes. Inland called the same design Caledonian Italic, Hansen had Barrister Italic. Monotype's Law Italic No. 23 is a sloped roman, somewhat similar to Ronaldson. Other Law Italics are obsolete.

A supplement to the Inland specimen book of this year shows the first real Inland originals:

  • Saint John and Saint John Initials: said to have been based on some lettering done by Will Bradley for the Christmas cover of a printers' journal in either 1890 or 1894.
  • Cosmopolitan
  • Extended Old Style
  • Edwards (or: The Inland Series) by Nicholas J. Werner, who worked previously at the Central Type Foundry. This is also Bizarre Bold (the BBS name of Edwards).
  • Iroquois
  • Title Gothic Slope

The 1895 catalog shows also Condensed Tide Gothic No. 2, Condensed Gothic No.4, 48-point Tudor Black, Sheridan Antique, Gothic No.6, Title Gothic, Title Gothic Slope, Condensed NO.1, Condensed No.2, Condensed Title No.2, Schwabacher, German Full Face, Condensed German NO.1, and New Art ornaments.

Gothic No. 6 deserves a special mention. Monotype used it widely before the proper advent of sans faces. Baltimore Type copied the face and called it News Gothic.

Type from 1896

Studley was named for Robert P. Studley, the first user of lithographic presses in Saint Louis. It was said to be only a modification of Woodward. Extended, Condensed, and Extra Condensed versions would follow within four years. While Inland claimed this was original work, McGrew claims that it was just a copy of Quentell/Taylor Gothic/Globe Gothic. McGrew in general shows little trust in Inland and denounces its claims of originality in many cases. Eckman laments Inland's aggressive salesmanship and bullying tactics.

McGrew about Studley: Globe Gothic is a refinement of Taylor Gothic, designed about 1897 by ATF at the suggestion of Charles H. Taylor of the Boston Globe, and used extensively by that paper. But Taylor Gothic has mostly the same lowercase as Quentell, though with hairlines heavied a bit. ATF's Central Type Foundry branch in St. Louis claims to have originated Quentell (q.v.) in 1895 or earlier. The conversion to Taylor Gothic was designed by Joseph W. Phinney, while the redesign as Globe Gothic in about 1900 is credited to Morris Benton. It is a serifless, thick-and-thin face, distinguished by the high crossbar on E, F, and H. The angular end on the stems of V, W, and most lowercase letters. Globe Gothic Condensed, Extra Condensed, and Extended were designed by Benton about 1900. Globe Gothic Bold and its italic are also credited to Benton, in 1907 and 1908 respectively. But Frederic W. Goudy, in the book on his typefaces, says, "This type (Globe Gothic Bold), drawn at the suggestion of Joseph Phinney, followed in the main certain points which he wished brought out. It never had much vogue and is the least satisfactory (to me) of all my types." This is puzzling, as the bold departs somewhat from the style of the lighter weights, but is not at all characteristic of Goudy's work-nor of Benton's, for that matter. Studley of Inland Type Foundry was similar. Compare Ryerson Condensed, Radiant, Matthews, Pontiac, World Gothic.

Footnote: In 2008, Jeff Levine created Bayview JNL, based upon Studley.

Other faces from 1896:

  • Skinner by Werner. Some say it was due to John K. Rogers. Menu Roman is the BBS rename, for the 1925 specimen book, of Skinner.
  • Invitation Script: a connected style similar to Typo Script Extended. It is entirely feasible that Typo Script and Tiffany Script were based in part on Invitation Script. McGrew explains: Typo Script and Typo Script Extended were designed by Benton and cut by ATF in 1902, originally as Tiffany Script and Extended, when they were called ''as close a copy as possible to reproduce in type the work of the artist who did much of the copperplate engraving for the Pan-American exposition." But Middleton says Tiffany Script was the "first face engraved by Wiebking (and Hardinge) on their engraving machine brought from Germany." They are a refinement of popular nineteenth-century scripts; like some of them, these two faces share the same capitals, figures, and punctuation marks-only the lowercase differs. They are similar to Bank Script and Commercial Script, but lighter and more delicate. Inland's Invitation Script was very similar to Typo Script Extended. Also see American Script, Formal Script, Plate Script.
  • Bruce Title by Werner. Menu Title (BBS), formerly Lining Menu, was Inland's Bruce Title.

Type from 1897

In 1897, Inland issued MacFarland, not an original face. Eckman: Inland cast and sold it by arrangement with Genzsch & Heyse, of Hamburg, Germany, which I called the face Römische Antiqua. The A. D. Farmer & Son Typefounding Company brought out a similar face they named Bradford after the colonial printer. Inland's naming of it was in honor of J. Horace MacFarland, proprietor of the Mount Pleasant Press in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

McGrew states that MacFarland was cut in 1899. He also reports that other copycats include Hansen's Crawford, Keystone's Dickens (which is a bit lighter; known as Classic on Linotype, but 18-point Classic Italic is the equivalent of MacFarland Italic (so McGrew says)), and Lorimer. McGrew goes on: The Inland faces, along with Condensed MacFarland designed and cut in 1903, went to ATF when that foundry acquired Inland in 1912. The faces have some relationship to Elzevir or French Old Style, but are heavier, though not as heavy as the related De Vinne series. Lacking the eccentricities of some characters of DeVinne, these faces became popular for book titles and other work for which DeVinne was considered unsuitable.

The extensive 1897 catalog shows of course other typefaces as well, some older and more established: Roman No. 20, and are interrupted on pp. 56-63 by showings of Caledonian italic, Modern italic, French Old Style, Modern Roman, Modern italic, Extended Old Style, Kelmscott, Ratdoldt, Saint John initials, as well as type made by others: Condensed Gothic No.4 (made by the Standard Type Foundry of Chicago) and cast cuts made by the Pacific States Type Foundry.

On the Kelmscott family, a copy of Jenson Oldstyle, McGrew writes: Jenson Oldstyle, though a comparatively crude face in itself, did, much to start the late nineteenth-century move toward better types and typography. Designed by J. W. Phinney of the Dickinson Type Foundry (ATF) and cut by John F. Cumming in 1893, it was based on the Golden Type of William Morris for the Kelmscott Press in 1890; that in turn was based on the 1470-76 types of Nicolas Jenson. Morris had established standards for fine' printing, in spite of the fact that he did not design really fine types. Serifs in , particular are clumsy, but the Jenson types quickly became popular. BB&S introduced Mazarin in 1895-96, as "a revival of the Golden type, redesigned by our artist." But it was a poor copy, and was replaced by Morris Jensonian. Inland's Kelmscott, shown in 1897, was acquired by BB&S and renamed Morris Jensonian in 1912; Keystone had Ancient Roman (q. v.); Crescent Type Foundry had Morris Old Style,. Hansen had Hansen Old Style (q. v.); and other founders had several other faces, all nearly like Jenson. It is hard to realize that Jenson was inspired by the same historic type as the later and more refined Centaur, Cloister, and Eusebius. ATF spelled the name "Jensen" in some early specimens, and added "No. 2" to the series, the latter presumably when it was adapted to standard alignment or when minor changes were made in the design. Jenson Italic was introduced at the same time as the roman. ATF advertised Phinney's Jenson Heavyface in 1899 as "new and novel-should have been here long ago." Jenson Condensed and Bold Condensed were introduced in 1901.

Type from 1898

Brandon is a thick-and-thin title face, similar to Engravers Roman, designed by Nicholas J. Werner and introduced by Inland Type Foundry in 1898. It was named for a printer in Nashville, Tennessee. Like a number of other such faces, it has no lowercase but was cast in several sizes on each of several bodies so numerous cap-and-small-cap combinations could easily be made. This style was popular for stationery and business forms. Hansen called the face Plate Roman. On Linotype and Intertype Bold Face No.9 is essentially the same face but a little narrower; typesetters not infrequently call it Engravers Roman. There was also a Brandon Gothic, cut only in two small 6-point sizes, which was similar to Combination Gothic, but with a letterspaced effect. (McGrew).

Type from 1899

In 1899, Inland negotiated with H. W. Caslon &. Company of London for exclusive rights to the casting and sale of Caslon types in America. Caslon Text was offered by Inland in January 1899, and Caslon Old Style roman was ready for sale by Inland in August of 1900. Caslon Old Style italic was introduced in September of 1901. McGrew situates Caslon Text: Caslon Text originated with William Caslon in 1734. Inland Type brought out a reproduction of it in 1899 as part of their agreement with the Caslon Type Foundry in England. It later became the property of ATF, and was copied by Linotype. Being handcut originally, it shows the expected varia- tions from one size to another, but some characters show decidedly different forms in some sizes. See Cloister Black and Engravers Old English, which are derived from this face.

The competition and the posturing around Caslon in 1900 and 1901 is vividly captured by this excerpt from McGrew: [...] Meanwhile, a prominent New York printer, Walter Gilliss, had promoted the adoption of Caslon for setting Vogue magazine, a fashion and art journal which was started in 1892, and the face quickly returned to popularity. A. D. Farmer & Son copied the face under the name Knickerbocker Old Style. But this was the time when standard alignment was being heavily promoted, necessitating the shortening of descenders. Inland Type Foundry, St. Louis, advertised its own version of Caslon Old Style in 1901, with the claim, "We have obtained the sole right from the originating house to manufacture this series in the United States. Inland is the only type foundry which casts this face on standard line. ..." This meant that they had considerably shortened the descending letters; they had also redesigned the italic extensively. ATF countered with Caslon No. 540, with similarly shortened descenders but essentially the original roman and italic designs otherwise. Several other foundries, including BB&S, Hansen, and Keystone, produced similar Caslons.

Other types from 1899:

  • Faust: Inland's equivalent of Bookman. Bookman Old Style was of course designed by A. C. Phemister about 1860: he had thickened the strokes of an oldstyle series. Nineteenth century copies include Antique No. 310 (Bruce Type Foundry), Oldstyle Antique (MacKellar), Oldstyle Antique (Keystone), Stratford Old Style (Hansen), Bartlett Oldstyle (1901, Bruce Type Foundry), Bookman Oldstyle (the ATF name for Bartlett Oldstyle after ATF took over Bruce in 1901).
  • Old Style No. 11
  • Condensed Gothic No.5
  • Olympia. Olympia belongs to the Typo Gothic group of typefaces, made by many founders. McGrew calls this Type Gothic style a plain, square, monotone gothic with very small serifs, cast in several sizes of caps and figures on each of several point sizes. From all sources it is essentially the same design, although there are some slight differences. Some versions have a horizontal crossbar on the G; some lack this on certain sizes. Versions of this style appeared everywhere. In chronological order:
    • Lining Antique (1889, Illinois Type Foundry), the earliest.
    • Lining Antique (Keystone Type Foundry).
    • Cleveland (Standard Type Foundry).
    • Standard Lining Antique (Marder, Luse).
    • Olympia (Inland).
    • Tiffany Gothic (ATF, 1901-1909). After 1909 ATF called this Typo Gothic.
    • Engravers Gothic (BB&S): Olympia renamed after the takeover.
    • Franklin Card Gothic (Damon & Peets).
    • Steel Plate Gothic (Hansen).
  • Manila. McGrew writes: Manila is an adaptation of nineteenth-century antiques known generally as Clarendon, Doric, or Ionic. Inland Type Foundry introduced a series under this name in 1899, and Monotype in 1909 produced a Manila, probably adapted from another foundry source, but differing somewhat from the Inland face. Both have the same general character, but the Monotype face is a little narrower. The Inland face apparently was not continued after ATF took over the foundry in 1912, perhaps because of its similarity to ATF's Doric No. 520. A completely different face with the same name was brought out by A. D. Farmer & Son, also in 1899; both series were named for the victory of Admiral Dewey over the Spanish at Manila in the Philippine Islands the previous year.
  • Osborne
  • Ionic
  • Gothic No.8 (by Werner)
  • Extended Studley
  • Palmer, ascribed to Sidney Gaunt. BBS renamed this Stationers Semiscript. It is similar to the BB&S Wedding Plate Script in slope, proportions, and general appearance, but characters do not join.
  • Becker (by Werner)

Type from 1900

Blanchard, Blanchard Italic and Condensed Blanchard (1901) are not my favorite faces. McGrew: It is one of the many display letters with irregular edges produced around the turn of the century for use where strength, boldness, and an effect of solidity were wanted. Only the italic and condensed forms seem to have survived long enough to be included in ATF's inventory of matrices when numbers were assigned. Compare Ben Franklin, Buffalo, Roycroft.

Courts was another face issued in 1900.

Corbitt (1900, Nicholas J. Werner) and Condensed Corbitt (1902): heavy, thick-and-thin face with tiny serifs.

Type from 1901

Inland Copperplate is a shaded Old English typeface, similar to Typo Text. McGrew about its originality: Typo Text was first shown by ATF as Tiffany Text in 1901, although this may be the same face shown by Bruce Type Foundry as Invitation Text a short time earlier, just before that foundry merged with ATF. Hansen copied it as Card Text. Also see Plate Text, Inland Copperplate.

Type from 1902

Hearst, named for William R. Hearst, the newspaper publisher, was introduced as the latest face, original and attractive character. What a lie that turned out to be! Goudy himself complained about a theft of his creations.

As Eckman tells the story: Hearst elicited a protest from Frederic W. Goudy, who recounted how, during his Chicago career, he had done some lettering for an edition of Mother Goose illustrated by W. W. Denslow. "To my surprise, a little later on, the Inland Type Foundry of Saint Louis, without consultation with me, brought out a new type copied- not inspired-from my Denslow lettering, and added insult to injury by naming it Hearst." By February of 1903, nonetheless, Marshall Field & Company of Chicago had adopted Hearst as a display face in its advertising material. Hearst does have some ideas from Goudy's Pabst and Powell faces, but it has a larger lowercase, with short ascenders and descenders.

Hearst Italic appeared in 1903. Similar faces elsewhere: Avil, Pabst, Plymouth, Post Oldstyle, Powell. Other faces from that year:

  • Rogers, designed by A. V. Haight. Similar typefaces: Bewick, Vanden Houten.
  • Haight, designed by A. V. Haight, of Poughkeepsie, New York.
  • McClure, named for S. S. McClure, publisher of McClure's magazine. McGrew: It is a medium-weight roman with the triangular serifs of some of the faces in the Latin family; contrast between thicks and thins is only moderate. It was cast for a time by ATF after that foundry absorbed Inland.
  • Havens. McGrew does not like Inlands's questionable claim, "as elegant an italic face as you may ever hope to see.". Apparently the matrices did not survive when Inland was absorbed into ATF.
  • Comstock (specific design for A. H. Comstock, of Omaha, Nebraska). McGrew writes: Comstock was advertised by Inland Type Foundry in 1902 as "a striking novelty, our brand new face." It was revived by ATF in 1957. It is a medium weight conventional gothic, distinguished by a hairline surrounding each letter. The G lacks a crossbar, typical of many nineteenth-century gothics. The design was sponsored by A. H. Comstock of Omaha, according to a review at the time of its introduction. Condensed Comstock was introduced by Inland in 1905, but patented in the name of William A. Schraubstadter in 1908. It has no lowercase, but the design is more contemporary. Monotype has copied both faces, but Monotype Comstock Condensed is in 18-point only, without figures. In both foundry faces, there are several sizes on 12-point body; No.1 is the largest in regular, but No.1 is the smallest in Condensed. In 1911, a copy of Comstock was issued by Bauer in Germany under the name Astoria, revived in 1957.
  • Inland French Script or simply French Script. Mayeur (Paris) cut several upright connected types based on 19th century engravings. BB&S had its own versions of this, like Wedding Plate Script and French Plate Script, the latter being a 1904 creation of Sidney Gaunt not unlike Typo Upright. Inland Franch Script was patented by William Schraubstadter, and later listed by ATF. Douglas C. McMurtrie, in his book Type Designs, calls this one of the finest script types ever produced.

Type from 1903

Edward Everett Winchell was the art director of the Matthews-Northrup Printing Works of Buffalo, New York. He designed Winchell, a bold and forceful letter (Eckman cit.), which was one of Inland's most popular designs, long after the Inland Type Foundry even ceased to exist. It vied for popularity with ATF's Cheltenham.

McGrew rates it as follows: It is a bold, thick-and-thin display face, but more like a nineteenth-century design, with some characters seeming to be poorly proportioned or having awkward shapes. These faults are less noticeable in Condensed Winchell, introduced by Inland the following year, but patented by William Schraubstadter in 1905. Neither is a distinguished face by later standards. Compare John Hancock, Bold Antique.

Type from 1904

In 1904, Inland continued with some imitations, its main type of that year being Kenilworth, an imitation of Cheltenham Oldstyle. Lowell is another similar typeface.

Other typefaces from 1904:

  • Avil. A typeface in the style in fashion in 1904: tall ascenders, small x-height, and irregular edges. Narrower than, and similar to Pabst Oldstyle.
  • Dorsey, named for a printer in Dallas, TX. McGrew's technical comments: It is an oldstyle antique series, much like Bookman but with slightly more contrast. Light Dorsey, introduced in 1910, is some- what similar to Cushing Monotone, but with smaller x-height and longer ascenders. There were also condensed and extra condensed versions.
  • Francis. According to McGrew, Francis is similar in style to Bizarre Bold, which in turn was originally known as Edwards, designed in 1895 by Nicholas J. Werner, also at Inland. Bizarre Bold was renamed by BBS in 1925 after that foundry took over Inland. A companion face called Inland, also by Werner, was produced around the same time.
  • Condensed Gothic No. 10
  • Condensed Winchell

Type from 1905

1905 started out with another boast by Inland, which by now had a reputation for aggressive advertising. They wrote: The Webb Series is the only outline face correctly cut. Outline faces have been made, but they were produced by taking an existing heavyface and cutting out the center. Such outline faces are always unsatisfactory in appearance and are always weak in color. Not only is the Webb of a new, striking and handsome design, but it was designed and engraved ~ especially for an outline face. Its companion face, the Foster, while of the same general design, was separately engraved.

Foster got clobbered by McGrew's review: Foster is a heavy square-serif letter, patented and probably designed by William Schraubstadter and introduced by Inland in 1905. It seems rather crude by later Stymie standards-even compared with the earlier Boston Breton-particularly for the narrow G, the wide J, the high-waisted B, P, and R, and several other unusual letters. Condensed Foster, introduced by the same foundry in 1908, is comparable. See Webb for the outline version of the same design. The outline version Webb was patented in 1905 by William Schraubstadter, probably the designer. Condensed Webb appeared soon thereafter.

Other designs:

  • Extra Condensed Gothic No.1
  • Condensed Tide Gothic No. 11
  • Extra Condensed Title Gothic No. 19.
  • McNally: very similar to DeVinne, but with heavier hairlines.
  • New Caslon (1905) and New Caslon Italic (1906). Finally some laurels from McGrew: Several attempts have been made to regularize Caslon and improve its so-called faults, but these have generally lost much of the character of the face, and have seldom achieved widespread use. They include Recut Caslon (In- land 1907), Caslon Lightface (Keystone 1910-12), Clearface Caslon (Robert Wiebking for Western 1913), etc., all with italics and some with condensed versions; Caslon Lightface Italic is non-kerning. New Caslon, introduced in 1905 by Inland, was the most successful of these attempts. In addition to eliminating irregularities, the aim of this face was to strengthen the design so that under modern printing conditions it would more closely resemble the effect of the original Caslon when printed heavily on dampened rough paper, as was commonly done in the eighteenth century. The italic followed in 1906. In 1919 ATF (successor to Inland) reversed the descender-shortening trend with the design by Morris Benton of long descenders, oldstyle figures, and italic swash characters as American Caslon; otherwise this face and New Caslon are identical. New Caslon was adapted to Linotype and Intertype as Caslon No.3, which some users call Caslon Bold, although it was not intended to be a bold face. However, in 18-point and larger, Cas Ion No.3 and Italic are copies of Cas Ion Bold rather than" New Caslon. Condensed Caslon is a modification of New Caslon, by Inland in 1907; it was inherited by ATF and copied by Monotype, both of which gave it the same series number (the only such incidence); printers often but incorrectly call it Caslon Bold Condensed. Caslon Extra Condensed is also derived from New Caslon, sometime between 1912 and 1917. Caslon Catalog, with heavied hairlines, was designed by Robert Wiebking for his Advance Type Foundry in 1913 under the name of Caslon Antique (not to be confused with a later use of this name); it was also shown by Laclede, and was renamed when BB&S acquired it.

Type from 1906

Blair was advertised in 1900 by Inland Type Foundry as new and original: an exact imitation of the small gothic letter now so popular with engravers for stylish stationery. It is similar to Copperplate Gothic Light, but has no tiny serifs. Litho Gothic is the same design but with lowercase. Mitchell (1906), according to McGrew, a plain, wide gothic, is similar to Blair but slightly heavier. Blair became very popular, and was produced by ATF until the 1950s. The condensed version of Blair was produced in 1903 or earlier. Hansen copied Blair as Card Gothic No.2. Lightline Gothic is similar to Blair.

Heavy Caslon. Ludlow copied it as Caslon Old Face Heavy in 1925 and Intertype in 1937. Ludlow has a compan- ion italic, while Intertype's italic is a sloped roman design. Caslon Shaded. comparable face is Caslon Shaded, which was adapted by ATF from Heavy Caslon in 1917 by W. F. Capitaine.

Type from 1907

Litho Roman became another Inland succes. A number of variations followed during the next four years: Condensed Litho followed in 1908, Bold Litho and Light Litho in 1909, and Compressed Litho and Title Shaded Litho in 1911. When Inland merged with ATF in 1912, all these faces ended up in the ATF catalog of that year.

McGrew writes: They are intended to imitate a style of lettering popular with lithographers in the days when lettering and designs were carefully drawn on lithographic stones. This process was especially in demand for high-quality stationery and announcements. The original Litho Roman is rather heavy, with fine hairlines. Serifs on heavy strokes are slightly filleted, while those on hairlines are heavy triangles. The ear of the g starts straight up from within the bowl, and in some series the tail of the cap R is not quite connected to the bowl. Title Shaded Litho, introduced by Inland in 1911, features horizontal shading, rather than the diagonal shading of almost all other such faces. Several versions have a title series, lacking lowercase and otherwise larger on the body, except in 6-point where caps are identical in the larger sizes but with additional smaller sizes. In 1917 two of these title series were modified by Morris F. Benton and reissued as Card Litho and Card Light Litho. The latter became the last survivor of the family, being shown by ATF as late as 1979 specimens. However, the Monotype copy of Light Litho may still be available elsewhere. Litho Light and Litho Bold were issued by Ludlow in 1941. They are essentially the same as Title Light Litho and Title Litho Roman (no lowercase), but the tail of the R connects and the lower end of the C does not turn inward, although an alternate C matches the foundry letter. Rimmed Litho is basically the same design, including lowercase, but with a fine line surrounding each character. Compare Engravers Roman series; Masterman.

Other faces of 1907 include Shaw Text, Condensed Caslon, Hammond Typewriter, Recut Caslon (see earlier negative comments about it by McGrew and contrast it with the cocky advertising from Inland: Recut Caslon as made by the Inland Type Foundry, is probably what the great typefounder, Caslon I, would have cut had he lived in the twentieth century instead of the early part of the eighteenth) and Title Litho Roman. Once again, McGrew cannot resist a poke: Shaw Text was introduced by Inland Type Foundry in 1907 as its "latest novelty," although it is a rather conventional Old English face, a little heavier than Wedding Text, and a little lighter and fancier than Engravers Old English. After Inland merged with ATF, Shaw Text continued to be shown until 1954. Compare Plate Text.

Type from 1908

Underwood Typewriter, for which punches were supplied by the Underwood Typewriter Company, was the main typeface that year.

Type from 1909

Alfred was named for Frederick Alfred, secretary of the J. W. Pratt Company of New York City. It was patented by William A. Schraubstadter in 1910. McGrew draws the connection with the well-known face Adcraft: Adcraft. The three weights shown by BB&S in 1927 under this name were assembled from three different sources. While they are acceptable as family members, their resemblance to each other is merely co-incidental and not as pronounced as in most families. The unifying feature is their rugged or irregular shape, a popular style of the time.

  • Adcraft Black, the oldest member, was introduced by BB&S under the name of Plymouth Bold in 1900 or earlier. It is very heavy, and the most rugged of the group. The regular weight of Plymouth (q.v.) was called Adcraft Bold by some users, but that name does not seem to be in any of the founders' literature.
  • Adcraft Medium was formerly known as Rugged Medium or Alfred [Medium].
  • Adcraft Lightface originated with Western Type Foundry in 1911 as Carlton and was taken over by BB&S as Rugged Light- face. It was also made under the name Puritan by Hansen.
Compare Avil, Drew.

Other faces of that year: Condensed Title Star Gothic, Condensed Title Herald Gothic and a series of ornaments based on art nouveau designs by Aubrey Beardsley. McGrew draws some compoarisons: American Extra Condensed is a medium weight gothic, popular for newspaper headlines, and was designed about 1905 but adapted from a late nineteenth-century style. It features 45-degree angles where curves would normally appear. Without the lowercase, similar designs were better known as Chamfer Condensed (q.v.) or Herald Extra Condensed, the latter introduced by Inland in 1909.

Type from 1910

The typefaces of 1910 include:

  • Litho Antique
  • Light Dorsey
  • Condensed Dorsey
  • Light Dorsey italic
  • Light Litho Gothic (followed by Litho Gothic in 1911). McGrew is impressed with the technical aspect--the thinness--of Light Litho Gothic: Litho Gothic and Light Litho Gothic were issued by Inland Type Found- ry in 1911 and 1910 respectively. Litho Gothic is light, but Light Litho Gothic has an extremely thin line, possibly the lightest typeface made. Both are very plain, wide, and loosely set. Blair is the same as Litho Gothic, but cast as a title face without lowercase. There is also an Offset Light Litho Gothic, the same design but cut in reverse of normal, used for transferring small type to lithographic stones before photolithography was developed.
  • Drew. McGrew describes Drew as a delicate, compact roman type with a pen-lettered effect. It has long ascenders and comparatively small x-height. The long serifs are mostly unbracketed, but the general feeling is informal and closer to oldstyle in details. Compare Adcraft, Avil; also Bernhard Modern, Cochin.

Litho Antique is a story by itself as it too became sucessful as one of the ancestors of a family of Egyptian typefaces. The text below is all from McGrew, who first tells how Rockwell Antique and then Stymie Bold were derived from Litho Antique.

Rockwell Antique was a reissue of Litho Antique, cut by William Schraubstadter for Inland Type Foundry and introduced in January 1910, when it was advertised as the "newest typeface; one of our best; closely imitating steelplate and lithography." In the late 1920s similar faces became popular in Europe, and some were imported into the United States. Morris Benton of ATF added several characters to the old Inland face, matrices of which were then in ATF's vaults, and it was reissued in 1931 as Rockwell Antique. But Benton saw that something more was needed, and redrew it as Stymie Bold (q.v.) in the same year. The alternate characters which were added to Rockwell are the same ones now shown with Stymie Bold. Monotype copied Rockwell but erroneously called it Stymie Bold in some literature, and there has been confusion between the two faces ever since; the latter name is often applied to fonts of Rockwell cast on Monotype machines by secondary suppliers. Indicative of this confusion, Stymie Bold Italic on Mono is series 1891, corresponding to Rockwell series 189, while Stymie Bold is 790. English Monotype has several weights of Rockwell, a square serif family which differs from this face and should not be confused with it; see Imports in Appendix. Antique Shaded (q. v.) is sometimes called Rockwell Antique Shaded.

Stymie Bold is a redesign of Rockwell Antique (q. v.), which in turn was a reissue of Litho Antique, introduced by Inland Type Foundry in 1910. Rockwell appeared in 1931, but Morris Benton redesigned it as Stymie Bold in the' same year, refining some characters and generally tightening the fit. Stymie: Light and Medium and their Italics were also drawn by Benton in 1931, and: the series quickly became very popular. Stymie Bold Italic followed a bit later. ' Elongated Ascenders and Descenders for Stymie Light, Medium, and Bold are a whimsical idea borrowed from the Parsons series (q.v.). Eleven characters as shown are offered for each weight from IS-point up, but there are actually only nine different characters, with an extra band d in each set to invert for p and q. The ascenders are cast to proper alignment for reasonably easy use, but the descenders must be carefully justified vertically. They were short-lived. Monotype exercised its option to copy ATF faces soon after the introduction of these faces-too soon, in fact, because they copied Rockwell and in some literature called it Stymie Bold, and there has been confusion between the two faces ever since, with some Monotype users applying the latter name to the older face. The actual Stymie Bold was duplicated by Monotype about 1936. But Monotype also did its part in expanding the family; Sol Hess designed Stymie Extrabold in 1934, a year before Morris Benton drew Stymie Black. These heavy versions differ slightly from each other and from the lighter faces; it's a matter of opinion as to which is more compatible with other Stymies. Sol Hess and Monotype also produced Stymie Light Condensed, Medium Condensed, and Extrabold Condensed, in 1935 and 1936. Gerry Powell drew the last major member of the family in 1937, with Stymie Bold Condensed, which departs a little more than the others from family characteristics. Trials of a medium condensed version at ATF were abandoned in favor of Tower (q.v.). Along the way Powell had also engineered the production in 1936 of Stymie Light Title and Stymie Medium Title, all-cap versions of their respective weights with several sizes cast on 6- and 12-point bodies in the manner of Copperplate Gothic. But there is more to the Stymie story. Shortly after the introduction of the family, perhaps as early as 1932, ATF undertook a program of producing type in extra-large sizes. Some of the Stymies were cast up to 144-point, along with a number of other designs, but even that was not enough. Stymie Compressed was cast in 288-point from drawings by Wadsworth A. Parker, head of the ATF specimen department. This is believed to be the largest complete font ever cast in regular type molds. However, apparently there never was a 288-point mold. Instead, all characters are designed to cast the long way in smaller molds, from 30-point for the I to 144-point for the W, each 288 points "wide." Round letters were virtually flush to the edges of the body-4 inches high! Fonts included capitals, figures, and ampersand, with an undersize dollar mark on 120-point body; for punctuation marks the foundry recommended using available sizes of Stymie Bold or Medium. One type each of all 38 characters weighed about 47 pounds, and sold originally for $28.05. The cap W alone weighed about 2 pounds! Stymie Stylus, the second largest type font, followed. It is an experimental font, with each character including lowercase cast on the minimum body with no unnecessary metal. There are five different body sizes in the one font, ranging from 96-point for lowercase letters without ascenders or descenders to 180-point for caps and 204-point for lowercase j. Like the previous face, these characters were cast sideways in smaller molds. Specimens said, "The letters justify quickly with point spacing material." This specimen has type bodies indicated for several letters. !?) were the only punctuation marks. And apparently this was the last of the giant faces produced. Stymie Inline Title was designed by Parker about 1931; it follows the basic Stymie Bold pattern but is cast full face, without lowercase. ATF literature lists a Stymie Open, but no specimen or other evidence of it has been found. Stymie Intaglio Figures are the Stymie Bold design reversed on black squares. Stymie Bold Open as offered by Baltimore is a copy of Beton Open from Germany, while Baltimore's Stymie Bold Open Condensed is a modifica- tion by pantagraph of the same face, offered in 1948. Stymie Shaded or Rockwell Shaded as offered by some secondary sources is Antique Shaded (q.v.). ATF offered alternate, condensed figures for Stymie Bold, but these were actually Foster Condensed (q.v.), with only a general similarity. Sixty-point Litho Antique as cast by Inland was oversize by about 5 points. This peculiarity is carried over into members of the Stymie family-even on Monotype. But in some versions of ATF Stymie, 60-point after a time was replaced by 66/60-point, wherein descenders are cast on the larger body. Compare Beton, Cairo, Karnak, Memphis.

Type from 1911

Inland was absorbed by ATF in September 1911. Typefaces in their last year include

  • Title Shaded Litho, another widely selling Inland face.
  • Pen Print and Pen Print Bold, the last typeface made by Inland. McGrew relates it to later typefaces: Pen Print Open was designed for ATF in 1921 by Morris Benton, and includes open versions of all the characters shown for the bold. The series has more the appearance of rather crude brush lettering than pen "printing," but the inclusion of an open version is contrary to the conception; perhaps it was intended for two-color printing. The letters have a slight backslant. The bold was also cut by Intertype, in 1927. Compare Dom Casual.
  • Litho Gothic (see discussion above).
  • Oliver Printype: a custom typeface for the Oliver Typewriter Company, made from strikes supplied by that firm.
  • Offset Light Litho Gothic

So, what happened to all those types? Many matrices came into the hands of BBS, as McGrew confirms: In the 1925 catalogue that company displays scores of Inland ornaments, cast cuts and other material, most of them still bearing the original Inland serial numbers. The old Inland Palmer script of 1899 reappears in the Barnhart catalogue as Stationers Semiscript 1863; the Alfred series of 1909 emerges in the Barnhart specimen book as Adcraft Medium 1502; the Inland Kelmscott series became Barnhart's Morris Jensonian 1790; and Edwards, an Inland face of 1897, reappeared as Barnhart's Bizarre Bold 1548.

Other Inland faces, such as Saint John, Comstock, Blair, Brandon, Pen Print and Pen Bold, MacFarland, Matthews, Studley, Hearst, Blanchard italic, Webb, Foster, Caslon Oldstyle roman and italic, Condensed Gothic NO.1, Oldstyle italic No. 20, Oldstyle No.9 roman and italic and Roman No. 20, went to the American Type Founders Company, where the matrices for all are still preserved. The American Type Founders Company enlarged the Pen Print series, and the Intertype Corporation in 1927 issued Pen Bold in sizes from 10 to 36 points.


Luc Devroye
School of Computer Science
McGill University
Montreal, Canada H3A 2K6