TYPE DESIGN INFORMATION PAGE last updated on Tue Nov 21 08:56:19 EST 2017






Assyrian/Syriac fonts

[Headline set in Bodoni Antiqua Cond Demi Bold by URW++]



The association of Assyro-Chaldeans in France offers an archive of Assyrian fonts, including CarloAtor (1997, Timm Erickson, Summer Institute of Linguistics), GabrialAtor (1997, Timm Erickson, Summer Institute of Linguistics), Issa-&GilianaClassic (1997), Nisibus (1998, a font modified by Tony Khoshaba), SPEdessa (1998, based on Leiden Peshitta, Estrangela). [Google] [More]  ⦿

[John Heise]

John Heise's page on Akkadian. He created the cfi family of cuneiform metafonts, with signs given in New Assyrian notation. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Alan M. Stanier

Alan M. Stanier from Essex University (UK) has created the following metafonts: ams1, cherokee, cypriote, dancers (the "Dancing Men" code of Conan Doyle), estrangelo (ancient Syriac language), georgian, goblin, iching, itgeorgian, ogham (found on ancient Irish and pictish carvings), osmanian (twentieth-century font used in Somalia), roughogham, shavian, southarabian (for various languages circa 1500BC), ugaritic (ancient cuneiform alphabet). More direct access. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Juan-José Marcos García]

Juan-José Marcos García (b. Salamanca, Spain, 1963) is a professor of classics at the University of Plasencia in Spain. He has developed one of the most complete Unicode fonts named ALPHABETUM Unicode for linguistics and classical languages (classical&medieval Latin, ancient Greek, Etruscan, Oscan, Umbrian, Faliscan, Messapic, Picene, Iberic, Celtiberic, Gothic, Runic, Modern Greek, Cyrillic, Devanagari-based languages, Old&Middle English, Hebrew, Sanskrit, IPA, Ogham, Ugaritic, Old Persian, Old Church Slavonic, Brahmi, Glagolitic, Ogham, ancient Greek Avestan, Kharoshti, Old Norse, Old Icelandic, Old Danish and Old Nordic in general, Bengali, Hindi, Marathi, Phoenician, Cypriot, Linear B with plans for Glagolitic). This font has over 5000 glyphs, and contains most characters that concern classicists (rare symbols, signs for metrics, epigraphical symbols, "Saxon" typeface for Old English, etcetera). A demo font can be downloaded [see also Lucius Hartmann's place]. His Greek font Grammata (2002) is now called Ellenike.

He also created a package of fonts for Latin paleography (medieval handwriting on parchments): Capitalis Elegans, Capitalis Rustica, Capitalis Monumentalis, Antiqua Cursiva Romana, Nova Cursiva Romana (2014), Uncialis, Semiuncialis, Beneventana Minuscula, Visigothica Minuscula, Luxoviensis Minuscula, Insularis Minuscula, Insularis Majuscula, Carolingia Minuscula, Gothica Textura Quadrata, Gothica Textura Prescissa, Gothica Rotunda, Gothica Bastarda, Gothica Cursiva, Bastarda Anglicana (2014) and Humanistica Antiqua. PDF entitled Fonts For Latin Palaeography (2008-2014), in which Marcos gives an enjoyable historic overview.

Alphabetum is not Marcos's only excursion into type design. In 2011, he created two simulation fonts called Sefarad and Al Andalus which imitate Hebrew and Arabic calligraphy, respectively.

Cyrillic OCS (2012) is a pair of Latin fonts that emulate Old Church Slavonic (old Cyrillic).

In 2013, he created Cuneus, a cuneiform simulation typeface.

Paleographic fonts for Greek (2014) has ten fonts designed by Marcos: Angular Uncial, Biblical Uncial, Coptic Uncial, Papyrus Uncial, Round Uncial, Slavonic Uncial, Sloping Uncial, Minuscule IX, Minuscule XI and Minuscule XV. These fonts are representative of the main styles of Greek handwriting used during the Classical World and Middle Ages on papyrus and parchments. There is also a short manual of Greek Paleography (71 pages) which explains the development of Greek handwriting from the fourth century B.C. to the invention of printing with movable type in the middle of the fifteenth A.D. He wrote a text book entitled History of Greek Typography: From the Invention of Printing to the Digital Age (in Spanish). See also here and here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Anton van de Repe
[ARP's free text utilities (MS-DOS) and TTF-fonts]

[More]  ⦿

Archaeological Fonts (by Bonneville Electronics)

Mayan, hieroglyphs, cuneiform, Syriac, etc.: commercial site located in West Clinton, Utah. Free demos. Etruscan, old Greek, old Hebrew, archeological fonts. Run by Scott T. Smith from Clinton, Utah. Plus Native American dingbats. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Peter R. Wilson]

Peter R. Wilson's metafont code (2000-2005) for many archaic languages: Proto-Semitic (16bc), Phoenician (10bc), Greek (6bc), Greek (4bc), Etruscan (8bc), Futharc (Anglo-Saxon, 6ad), Hieroglyphics (30bc: the hieroglf provides a Metafont version of about 80 Egyptian hieroglyphs from Serge Rosmorduc's comprehensive hieroglyph package, see here for a type 1 version called Archaic-Poor-Mans-Hieroglyphs (2005)), Cypriot (9bc). Peter also developed metafont fonts for bookhands. The Archaic ollection contains fonts to represent Aramaic, Cypriot, Etruscan, Greek of the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, Egyptian hieroglyphics, Linear A, Linear B, Nabatean old Persian, the Phaistos disc, Phoenician, proto-Semitic, runic, South Arabian Ugaritic and Viking scripts. The bundle also includes a small font for use in phonetic transcription of the archaic writings. The bundle's own directory includes a font installation map file for the whole collection. The authors are Peter R. Wilson, Uwe Zimmermann and Apostolos Syropoulos. See here for the type 1 fonts Archaic-OandS (2005) and Archaic-OandS-Italic (2005). Here we find type 1 versions called Square-Capitals (2005) and Square-Capitals-Bold (2005). He also made the type 1 typefaces Archaic-Etruscan (2005), Archaic-Runic (2005) and Archaic-ProtoSemitic (2005). Further packages of type 1 and metafont fonts: Archaic-Aramaic (2005), South Arabian (2005, for the South Arabian script, in use for about 1000 years from roughly 600 BC; based on a metafont by Alan Stanier), Archaic-Linear-B (2005: a syllabary used in the Bronze Age (15bc) for writing Mycenaean Greek), Archaic-Nabatean (2005: the Nabatean script used in the Middle East between the fourth centuries BC and AD), Archaic-Old-Persian (2005: the Old Persian Cuneiform script in use between about 500 to 350 BC.), Archaic-Ugaritic-Cuneiform (2005: the Ugaritic Cuniform script in use about 1300 BC), Archaic-Cypriot (1999-2005). [Google] [More]  ⦿

[David Yoon]

Archaica is the foundry for the fonts created in 2005 by David Yoon for ancient languages. Yoon was born in Kalamazoo, MI in 1964, and resides in Woodside, NY. Archaica Nabataean50 (2005) provides a typical set of characters for the ancient Nabataean language, used in what is now Jordan and adjoining regions during the period of the Roman Empire, based on lapidary letter-forms of the first century of the present era. Archaica Aramaic-450 (2005) covers the ancient Imperial Aramaic language, which was used in the Persian Empire during the sixth to fourth centuries BC. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Ardwan AlSabti

Designer in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Behance link. In 2011, he made the squarish typeface Mandaicana, about which he writes: Mandaicana is one of the few Mandaic type[faces] which exist in the world. Mandaic, the most Southeastern Aramaic dialect spoken in antiquity in Babylonia (Mesene, Characene, Khuzistan), reflects similarities to Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, both belonging to the Eastern Middle Aramaic branch. Although most scholars located the origin of the baptizing community in the East Jordan regions (Mark Lidzbarski, Rudolf Macuch, Kurt Rudolph) the Mandaeans are considered to spent a large part of their still controversial and mysterious history alongside the big rivers (Euphrates, Tigris, Karunriver) in the southern borderland between present-day Iraq and Iran. This was followed by Ardwan Malka and Englaiscana (2011). Klingspor link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

ARP's free text utilities (MS-DOS) and TTF-fonts
[Anton van de Repe]

Two TrueType fonts: ARP Numfont replaces characters by ASCII values, and Celtic-Iberian is just that. All fonts by Anton van de Repe. Contains an archive of 40 Arabic fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Assyrian Names Project

The Issa-&GilianaClassic truetype fonts (1997) are for Syriac. At Fred Aprim's Assyrian Names project. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Assyria's Letters

Assletters: Assyria's letters, Estrangelo truetype fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bendt Alster

PC-Mac compatible true type fonts primarily intended for the transliteration of Akkadian and Sumerian cuneiform texts. Bendt Alster's page. The fonts made by him from Monotype fonts include the BaBo family (BookmanOldStyle), the BaCesPsB family (CenturySchoolbook), the BaTak family (TimesAkkad), BaGarUni (Garamond Unicode). His BATimesAkkad (2000) is also here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Beth Mardutho: Meltho Fonts
[George Kiraz]

Free Syriac fonts. And the page with the best links for Syriac fonts, by far! Included are the new Meltho fonts, being developed by the Syriac Computing Institute. Run by George Kiraz, Director of Beth Mardutho. George Kiraz, Christine Kiraz, and Paul Nelson created East Syriac Adiabene and Estrangelo Nisibin in 2001 as part of the Beth Mardutho fonts. See also here. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Site with fonts representing all Indic scripts (all made by C-DAC, Pune): AS-TTDurga-Normal, BN-TTDurga-Normal, DV1-TTYogesh-Normal, DV-TTYogesh-Normal, GJ-TTAvantika-Normal, KN-TTUma-Normal, ML-TTKarthika-Normal, OR-TTSarala-Normal, PN-TTAmar-Normal, TL-TTHemalatha-Normal, TM-TTValluvar-Normal. [Google] [More]  ⦿

CAC products page

Ishar2.ttf is an Eastern Assyrian Script font developed for the Assyrian Academic Societiy's Dictionary Project. Tony Koshaba's page. [Google] [More]  ⦿


CalSemitic-TR, CalSyriacTR, Web-Hebrew-AD. Made in 1998 for ancient Hebrew and Syriac. [Google] [More]  ⦿


CDAC is Pune's Center for Development of Advanced Computing. They sell typefaces for all Indic languages. They introduced the Indian Script FOnt Code (ISFOC) standards to enable composing Indian language text. Scripts covered include Devnagari (Hindi, Marathi), Gujarati, Punjabi, Kannada, Bengali, Assamese, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Oriya, Sanskrit, Diacritic Roman, Sinhalese, Bhutanese, Nepali, Tibetan. Useful type catalogs in PDF for Devnagari (Hindi, Marathi), Gujarati, Punjabi, Kannada, Bengali, Assamese, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Oriya, Sanskrit, Diacritic Roman, Sinhalese, Bhutanese, Nepali, Tibetan, PersoArabic (Urdu Open Type, Kashmiri Open Type, Sindhi Open Type, Nashir True Type fonts). Type subpages with catalogs. The Indian Script FOnt Code (ISFOC) standards were invented by CDAC for their software products, Most of their fonts follow this standard. Scans from 1996: Swastik, Zodiac signs, National heroes, Dashavtar. [Google] [More]  ⦿

D. Paul Alecsandri
[Every Witch Way]

[More]  ⦿

David Yoon

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Denis Roegel
[LaTeX Navigator]

[More]  ⦿

Elia Barsoum
[Syriac EB Barsoum Fonts]

[More]  ⦿

Emerald City Fontworks
[Steven J. Lundeen]

Run by Steven Lundeen from Seattle, ECF does customized handwriting / signature / company logo fonts, for 39 dollars per font. Shareware and freeware fonts, such as Augie, Codex, Decadence, Intimacy, Intimacy Deux, JD (1997, handwriting font), Movieola, Spanky's Bungalow (1997), Syriac, the beautiful handwriting typeface TallPaul (1997), Teen Spirit, Curtain Call, Stillframes, Birds A, Webster. ECF also makes your handwriting into a font. They offer some clipart fonts of the first quality. There are three mollusk fonts, three musical instrument fonts, three insect fonts, three reptile fonts and four mythology fonts, for example! Some of the clipart fonts are free. Handwriting fonts like j.d., Augie, Skeetch and TallPaul are well worth a try. Display freeware fonts include Crowns and Coronets (dingbats), Decadence, Intimacy, Codex and the Spanky family. Many fonts have both T1 and TT versions for both Mac and Windows. The shareware fonts are of the display type, like Moonpie, Puzzleface, Thump, Sputnyk, KingsCourt, Festus, Daddio, Chester Shag, King's Court, the Pookie family, and a knot font.

Dafont link. Abstract Fonts link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Every Witch Way
[D. Paul Alecsandri]

D. Paul Alecsandri designed the runic fonts Futharc (2001), NewSymbolFont (2000) and Samaritan (2001). We also find the rather complete Unicode truetype font Roman-Unicode (2001), which cover all European, Arabic, Hebrew, Greek, Cyrillic, Thai and Indic languages, and provide kana as well (but not kanji). All parts of unicode covered. See also here.

Samaritan (2001) deals with a pre-Samaritan or pre-Babylonian Hebrew.

Originally designed for linguistics, the free typeface Chrysanthi Unicode (2001) contains all Unicode Latin characters (including Basic Latin, Latin 1 Supplement, Latin Extended A&B, IPA, and Latin Extended Additional) as well as Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, and everal others.

Fontspace link. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Spanish language site for various non-Latin language fonts. A sampling: Afus Deg Wfus 2 (for Berber), AlKatib1 (2001, an Arabic typeface by Naseem Amjad), Albanian, Alice_0 (Lao typeface by by Ngakham Southichack), LAOMAY_5 CHAREUNSILP (Lao typeface by by Soupasith Bouahom), Arial AMU (1999, Armenian typeface by Ruben Tarumian), BaltFrutigerLight, BaltHelveticaMedium, BaltNewCenturySchoolbookMedium, BaltOptimaMedium, BaltTiffanyMedium, BaltUniversityMedium, CarloAtor (1997, Arabic family by Timm Erickson, Summer Institute of Linguistics), Caligraf-W, Ciula (1996, a Romanian typeface by Paul Hodor), Cursiv (Romanian), AnlongvillKhek, GabrialAtor (another Arab family by Timm Erickson), Gin, Greek (1993, by Peter J. Gentry&Andrew M. Fountain), HandSign (1993, Sam Wang), HFMassisShantNUnicode (1990-1994, an Armenian unicode typeface by BYTEC Computers and Massis Graphics), HONGKAD (1994, a family by Dr. Hongkad Souvannavong), IsmarBold, IsmarLight, Lakshmi, X000000A (1994, a lao typeface by Sith Bouahom), LAOMAY_2-CHAREUNSILP, Alice3Medium, Alice0Medium, Langagedessignes (1998, by Philippe and François Blondel), NorKirk (1997, a great Armenian typeface by Ruben Tarumian), NovaTempo (for Esperanto), Pazmaveb (for Armenian), ILPRumanianB100 (1996, by Charles J. Coker), Saysettha-Lao, Saysettha-LaoBold, SenzorgaAnhok, Timok, Tribuno, Turn-W, TimesUnicode, ArialAMU, PoliceTypeAPI (for Armenian), Cieszyn-Regular, PoojaNormal, Shibolet (1995, Hebrew), Shree-Ass-0552 (2000, by Modular InfoTech), Tudor-Semi-Lite, Webdunia, TimesNRCzech, TNRLiboriusVII (2001, a fully accented Times typeface by Libor Sztemon), GreatMoravia (2001 Libor Sztemon, Czechia), Johaansi-ye-Peyravi (2001, a full accent blackletter typeface by Libor Sztemon, Czechia), TimesNREuskaraEuransiEsperanto (2001, Libor Sztemon). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Gary S. Dykes

Gary S. Dykes made 21 free public domain truetype fonts for Roman, Greek, Hebrew, Syriac (2002), Coptic, Ugaritic, Sabaean, Aramaic, including a beautiful Greek Minuscule font: Aram44, BLDGrk.ttf (2000), Coptic44 (2000, for all Sahidic and Bohairic typography), DISP_44 (2002), G100XTRA (2002), Greek44 (1997-2002), GARYS (2002, a blackletter font), GoudyHundred (2001, based on Stephen Moye's version of Goudy's Bertham), Goudy_B (2002), Goudy_IT_BD (2002), Goudy_It (2000), Greek44s (2002, has some Byzantine glyphs), HEB44a (2003), HEB44b, HEB44c, HEB44d, MINU44a (2003), MINU44b (2003), My_XTRA (2002), SABAEN44 (2002), Syriac44 (2001, for Estrangelo), Ugar_44 (2001). Some of the fonts are under the label "Fraktur Fonts". [Google] [More]  ⦿

George Kiraz

Designer with Paul Nelson of the Syriac font EstrangeloEdessa (2000, Syriac Computing Institute). This font was used in the Unicode charts. available for free from Beth Mardutha The Syriac Institute. It is also bundled with various operating systems. Not unexpectedly, Ascender charges 49 dollars for this font. [Google] [More]  ⦿

George Kiraz
[Beth Mardutho: Meltho Fonts]

[More]  ⦿

GNU Freefont (or: Free UCS Outline Fonts)
[Steve White]

The GNU Freefont is continuously being updated to become a large useful Unicode monster. GNU FreeFont is a free family of scalable outline fonts, suitable for general use on computers and for desktop publishing. It is Unicode-encoded for compatability with all modern operating systems. There are serif, Sans and Mono subfamilies. Also called the "Free UCS Outline Fonts", this project is part of the larger Free Software Foundation. Scans: FreeMono, FreeMonoBold, FreeMonoBoldOblique, FreeMonoOblique, FreeSans, FreeSansBold, FreeSansBoldOblique, FreeSansOblique, FreeSerif, FreeSerifBold, FreeSerifBoldItalic, FreeSerifItalic. The original head honcho was Primoz Peterlin, the coordinator at the Institute of Biophysics of the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. In 2008, Steve White took over. Participants and credits, as of the end of 2010, with Unicode range responsibilities:

  • URW++ Design&Development GmbH. URW++ donated a set of 35 core PostScript Type 1 fonts to the Ghostscript project.
    • Basic Latin (U+0041-U+007A)
    • Latin-1 Supplement (U+00C0-U+00FF)
    • Latin Extended-A (U+0100-U+017F)
    • Spacing Modifier Letters (U+02B0-U+02FF)
    • Mathematical Operators (U+2200-U+22FF)
    • Block Elements (U+2580-U+259F)
    • Dingbats (U+2700-U+27BF)
  • Yannis Haralambous and John Plaice. Yannis Haralambous and John Plaice are the authors of Omega typesetting system, which is an extension of TeX. Its first release, aims primarily at improving TeX's multilingual abilities. In Omega all characters and pointers into data-structures are 16-bit wide, instead of 8-bit, thereby eliminating many of the trivial limitations of TeX. Omega also allows multiple input and output character sets, and uses programmable filters to translate from one encoding to another, to perform contextual analysis, etc. Internally, Omega uses the universal 16-bit Unicode standard character set, based on ISO-10646. These improvements not only make it a lot easier for TeX users to cope with multiple or complex languages, like Arabic, Indic, Khmer, Chinese, Japanese or Korean, in one document, but will also form the basis for future developments in other areas, such as native color support and hypertext features. ... Fonts for UT1 (omlgc family) and UT2 (omah family) are under development: these fonts are in PostScript format and visually close to Times and Helvetica font families.
    • Latin Extended-B (U+0180-U+024F)
    • IPA Extensions (U+0250-U+02AF)
    • Greek (U+0370-U+03FF)
    • Armenian (U+0530-U+058F)
    • Hebrew (U+0590-U+05FF)
    • Arabic (U+0600-U+06FF)
    • Currency Symbols (U+20A0-U+20CF)
    • Arabic Presentation Forms-A (U+FB50-U+FDFF)
    • Arabic Presentation Forms-B (U+FE70-U+FEFF)
  • Yannis Haralambous and Wellcome Institute. In 1994, The Wellcome Library The Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine 183 Euston Road, London NW1 2BE, England, commissioned Mr. Haralambous to produce a Sinhalese font for them. We have received 03/09 official notice from Robert Kiley, Head of e-Strategy for the Wellcome Library, that Yannis' font could be included in GNU FreeFont under its GNU license: Sinhala (U+0D80-U+0DFF).
  • Young U. Ryu at the University of Texas at Dallas is the author of Txfonts, a set of mathematical symbols designed to accompany text typeset in Times or its variants. In the documentation, Young adresses the design of mathematical symbols: "The Adobe Times fonts are thicker than the CM fonts. Designing math fonts for Times based on the rule thickness of Times =,, +, /, <, etc. would result in too thick math symbols, in my opinion. In the TX fonts, these glyphs are thinner than those of original Times fonts. That is, the rule thickness of these glyphs is around 85% of that of the Times fonts, but still thicker than that of the CM fonts." Ranges: Arrows (U+2190-U+21FF), Mathematical Symbols (U+2200-U+22FF).
  • Valek Filippov added Cyrillic glyphs and composite Latin Extended A to the whole set of the abovementioned URW set of 35 PostScript core fonts, Ranges: Latin Extended-A (U+0100-U+017F), Cyrillic (U+0400-U+04FF).
  • Wadalab Kanji Comittee. Between April 1990 and March 1992, Wadalab Kanji Comittee put together a series of scalable font files with Japanese scripts, in four forms: Sai Micho, Chu Mincho, Cho Kaku and Saimaru. The font files were written in custom file format, while tools for conversion into Metafont and PostScript Type 1 were also supplied. The Wadalab Kanji Comittee has later been dismissed, and the resulting files can be now found on the FTP server of the Depertment of Mathematical Engineering and Information Physics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo: Hiragana (U+3040-U+309F), Katakana (U+30A0-U+30FF). Note that some time around 2009, the hiragana and katakana ranges were deleted.
  • Angelo Haritsis has compiled a set of Greek type 1 fonts. The glyphs from this source has been used to compose Greek glyphs in FreeSans and FreeMono. Greek (U+0370-U+03FF).
  • Yannis Haralambous and Virach Sornlertlamvanich. In 1999, Yannis Haralambous and Virach Sornlertlamvanich made a set of glyphs covering the Thai national standard Nf3, in both upright and slanted shape. Range: Thai (U+0E00-U+0E7F).
  • Shaheed Haque has developed a basic set of basic Bengali glyphs (without ligatures), using ISO10646 encoding. Range: Bengali (U+0980-U+09FF).
  • Sam Stepanyan created a set of Armenian sans serif glyphs visually compatible with Helvetica or Arial. Range: Armenian (U+0530-U+058F).
  • Mohamed Ishan has started a Thaana Unicode Project. Range: Thaana (U+0780-U+07BF).
  • Sushant Kumar Dash has created a font in his mother tongue, Oriya: Oriya (U+0B00-U+0B7F). But Freefont has dropped Oriya because of the absence of font features neccessary for display of text in Oriya.
  • Harsh Kumar has started BharatBhasha for these ranges:
    • Devanagari (U+0900-U+097F)
    • Bengali (U+0980-U+09FF)
    • Gurmukhi (U+0A00-U+0A7F)
    • Gujarati (U+0A80-U+0AFF)
  • Prasad A. Chodavarapu created Tikkana, a Telugu font family: Telugu (U+0C00-U+0C7F). It was originally included in GNU Freefont, but supoort for Telugu was later dropped altogether from the GNU Freefont project.
  • Frans Velthuis and Anshuman Pandey. In 1991, Frans Velthuis from the Groningen University, The Netherlands, released a Devanagari font as Metafont source, available under the terms of GNU GPL. Later, Anshuman Pandey from Washington University in Seattle, took over the maintenance of font. Fonts can be found on CTAN. This font was converted the font to Type 1 format using Peter Szabo's TeXtrace and removed some redundant control points with PfaEdit. Range: Devanagari (U+0900-U+097F).
  • Hardip Singh Pannu. In 1991, Hardip Singh Pannu has created a free Gurmukhi TrueType font, available as regular, bold, oblique and bold oblique form. Range: Gurmukhi (U+0A00-U+0A7F).
  • Jeroen Hellingman (The Netherlands) created a set of Malayalam metafonts in 1994, and a set of Oriya metafonts in 1996. Malayalam fonts were created as uniform stroke only, while Oriya metafonts exist in both uniform and modulated stroke. From private communication: "It is my intention to release the fonts under GPL, but not all copies around have this notice on them." Metafonts can be found here and here. Ranges: Oriya (U+0B00-U+0B7F), Malayalam (U+0D00-U+0D7F). Oriya was subsequently dropped from the Freefont project.
  • Thomas Ridgeway, then at the Humanities And Arts Computing Center, Washington University, Seattle, USA, (now defunct), created a Tamil metafont in 1990. Anshuman Pandey from the same university took over the maintenance of font. Fonts can be found at CTAN and cover Tamil (U+0B80-U+0BFF).
  • Berhanu Beyene, Prof. Dr. Manfred Kudlek, Olaf Kummer, and Jochen Metzinger from the Theoretical Foundations of Computer Science, University of Hamburg, prepared a set of Ethiopic metafonts. They also maintain the home page on the Ethiopic font project. Someone converted the fonts to Type 1 format using TeXtrace, and removed some redundant control points with PfaEdit. Range: Ethiopic (U+1200-U+137F).
  • Maxim Iorsh. In 2002, Maxim Iorsh started the Culmus project, aiming at providing Hebrew-speaking Linux and Unix community with a basic collection of Hebrew fonts for X Windows. The fonts are visually compatible with URW++ Century Schoolbook L, URW++ Nimbus Sans L and URW++ Nimbus Mono L families, respectively. Range: Hebrew (U+0590-U+05FF).
  • Vyacheslav Dikonov made a Braille unicode font that could be merged with the UCS fonts to fill the 2800-28FF range completely (uniform scaling is possible to adapt it to any cell size). He also contributed a free Syriac font, whose glyphs (about half of them) are borrowed from the free Carlo Ator font. Vyacheslav also filled in a few missing spots in the U+2000-U+27FF area, e.g., the box drawing section, sets of subscript and superscript digits and capital Roman numbers. Ranges: Syriac (U+0700-U+074A), Box Drawing (U+2500-U+257F), Braille (U+2800-U+28FF).
  • Panayotis Katsaloulis helped fixing Greek accents in the Greek Extended area: (U+1F00-U+1FFF).
  • M.S. Sridhar. M/S Cyberscape Multimedia Limited, Mumbai, developers of Akruti Software for Indian Languages (http://www.akruti.com/), have released a set of TTF fonts for nine Indian scripts (Devanagari, Gujarati, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Bengali, Oriya, and Gurumukhi) under the GNU General Public License (GPL). You can download the fonts from the Free Software Foundation of India WWW site. Their original contributions to Freefont were
    • Devanagari (U+0900-U+097F)
    • Bengali (U+0980-U+09FF)
    • Gurmukhi (U+0A00-U+0A7F)
    • Gujarati (U+0A80-U+0AFF)
    • Oriya (U+0B00-U+0B7F)
    • Tamil (U+0B80-U+0BFF)
    • Telugu (U+0C00-U+0C7F)
    • Kannada (U+0C80-U+0CFF)
    • Malayalam (U+0D00-U+0D7F)
    Oriya, Kannada and Telugu were dropped from the GNU Freefont project.
  • DMS Electronics, The Sri Lanka Tipitaka Project, and Noah Levitt. Noah Levitt found out that the Sinhalese fonts available on the site metta.lk are released under GNU GPL. These glyphs were later replaced by those from the LKLUG font. Finally the range was completely replaced by glyphs from the sinh TeX font, with much help and advice from Harshula Jayasuriya. Range: Sinhala (U+0D80-U+0DFF).
  • Daniel Shurovich Chirkov. Dan Chirkov updated the FreeSerif font with the missing Cyrillic glyphs needed for conformance to Unicode 3.2. The effort is part of the Slavjanskij package for Mac OS X. range: Cyrillic (U+0400-U+04FF).
  • Abbas Izad. Responsible for Arabic (U+0600-U+06FF), Arabic Presentation Forms-A, (U+FB50-U+FDFF), Arabic Presentation Forms-B (U+FE70-U+FEFF).
  • Denis Jacquerye added new glyphs and corrected existing ones in the Latin Extended-B (U+0180-U+024F) and IPA Extensions (U+0250-U+02AF) ranges.
  • K.H. Hussain and R. Chitrajan. Rachana in Malayalam means to write, to create. Rachana Akshara Vedi, a team of socially committed information technology professionals and philologists, has applied developments in computer technology and desktop publishing to resurrect the Malayalam language from the disorder, fragmentation and degeneration it had suffered since the attempt to adapt the Malayalam script for using with a regular mechanical typewriter, which took place in 1967-69. K.H. Hussein at the Kerala Forest Research Institute has released "Rachana Normal" fonts with approximately 900 glyphs required to typeset traditional Malayalam. R. Chitrajan apparently encoded the glyphs in the OpenType table. In 2008, the Malayalam ranges in FreeSerif were updated under the advise and supervision of Hiran Venugopalan of Swathanthra Malayalam Computing, to reflect the revised edition Rachana_04. Range: Malayalam (U+0D00-U+0D7F).
  • Solaiman Karim filled in Bengali (U+0980-U+09FF). Solaiman Karim has developed several OpenType Bangla fonts and released them under GNU GPL.
  • Sonali Sonania and Monika Shah covered Devanagari (U+0900-U+097F) and Gujarati (U+0A80-U+0AFF). Glyphs were drawn by Cyberscape Multimedia Ltd., #101, Mahalakshmi Mansion 21st Main 22nd "A" Cross Banashankari 2nd stage Banglore 560070, India. Converted to OTF by IndicTrans Team, Powai, Mumbai, lead by Prof. Jitendra Shah. Maintained by Monika Shah and Sonali Sonania of janabhaaratii Team, C-DAC, Mumbai. This font is released under GPL by Dr. Alka Irani and Prof Jitendra Shah, janabhaaratii Team, C-DAC, Mumabi. janabhaaratii is localisation project at C-DAC Mumbai (formerly National Centre for Software Technology); funded by TDIL, Govt. of India.
  • Pravin Satpute, Bageshri Salvi, Rahul Bhalerao and Sandeep Shedmake added these Indic language cranges:
    • Devanagari (U+0900-U+097F)
    • Gujarati (U+0A80-U+0AFF)
    • Oriya (U+0B00-U+0B7F)
    • Malayalam (U+0D00-U+0D7F)
    • Tamil (U+0B80-U+0BFF)
    In December 2005 the team at www.gnowledge.org released a set of two Unicode pan-Indic fonts: "Samyak" and "Samyak Sans". "Samyak" font belongs to serif style and is an original work of the team; "Samyak Sans" font belongs to sans serif style and is actually a compilation of already released Indic fonts (Gargi, Padma, Mukti, Utkal, Akruti and ThendralUni). Both fonts are based on Unicode standard. You can download the font files separately. Note that Oriya was dropped from the Freefont project.
  • Kulbir Singh Thind added Gurmukhi (U+0A00-U+0A7F). Dr. Kulbir Singh Thind designed a set of Gurmukhi Unicode fonts, AnmolUni and AnmolUni-Bold, which are available under the terms of GNU license from the Punjabu Computing Resource Center.
  • Gia Shervashidze added Georgian (U+10A0-U+10FF). Starting in mid-1990s, Gia Shervashidze designed many Unicode-compliant Georgian fonts: Times New Roman Georgian, Arial Georgian, Courier New Georgian.
  • Daniel Johnson. Created by hand a Cherokee range specially for FreeFont to be "in line with the classic Cherokee typefaces used in 19th century printing", but also to fit well with ranges previously in FreeFont. Then he made Unified Canadian Syllabics in Sans, and a Cherokee and Kayah Li in Mono! And never to be outdone by himself, then did UCAS Extended and Osmanya.... What next?
    • Armenian (serif) (U+0530-U+058F)
    • Cherokee (U+13A0-U+13FF)
    • Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics (U+1400-U+167F)
    • UCAS Extended (U+18B0-U+18F5)
    • Kayah Li (U+A900-U+A92F)
    • Tifinagh (U+2D30-U+2D7F)
    • Vai (U+A500-U+A62B)
    • Latin Extended-D (Mayanist letters) (U+A720-U+A7FF)
    • Osmanya (U+10480-U+104a7)
  • George Douros, the creator of several fonts focusing on ancient scripts and symbols. Many of the glyphs are created by making outlines from scanned images of ancient sources.
    • Aegean: Phoenecian (U+10900-U+1091F).
    • Analecta: Gothic (U+10330-U+1034F)
    • Musical: Byzantine (U+1D000-U+1D0FF)&Western (U+1D100-U+1D1DF)
    • Unicode: many miscellaneous symbols, miscellaneous technical, supplemental symbols, and mathematical alphanumeric symbols (U+1D400-U+1D7FF), Mah Jong (U+1F000-U+1F02B), and the outline of the domino (U+1F030-U+1F093).
  • Steve White filled in a lot of missing characters, got some font features working, left fingerprints almost everywhere, and is responsible for these blocks: Glagolitic (U+2C00-U+2C5F), Coptic (U+2C80-U+2CFF).
  • Pavel Skrylev is responsible for Cyrillic Extended-A (U+2DEO-U+2DFF) as well as many of the additions to Cyrillic Extended-B (U+A640-U+A65F).
  • Mark Williamson made the MPH 2 Damase font, from which these ranges were taken:
    • Hanunóo (U+1720-U+173F)
    • Buginese (U+1A00-U+1A1F)
    • Tai Le (U+1950-U+197F)
    • Ugaritic (U+10380-U+1039F)
    • Old Persian (U+103A0-U+103DF)
  • Primoz Peterlin filled in missing glyphs here and there (e.g., Latin Extended-B and IPA Extensions ranges in the FreeMono family), and created the following UCS blocks:
    • Latin Extended-B (U+0180-U+024F)
    • IPA Extensions (U+0250-U+02AF)
    • Arrows (U+2190-U+21FF)
    • Box Drawing (U+2500-U+257F)
    • Block Elements (U+2580-U+259F)
    • Geometrical Shapes (U+25A0-U+25FF)
  • Jacob Poon submitted a very thorough survey of glyph problems and other suggestions.
  • Alexey Kryukov made the TemporaLCGUni fonts, based on the URW++ fonts, from which at one point FreeSerif Cyrillic, and some of the Greek, was drawn. He also provided valuable direction about Cyrillic and Greek typesetting.
  • The Sinhala font project has taken the glyphs from Yannis Haralambous' Sinhala font, to produce a Unicode TrueType font, LKLUG. These glyphs were for a while included in FreeFont: Sinhala (U+0D80-U+0DFF).

Fontspace link. Download link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Graphite Fonts

This site has a number of free truetype fonts, such as SILDoulos PigLatinDemo (2000, Summer Institute of Linguistics), NeoAssyrianRAI (2001, a Sumero-Akkadian Cuneiform font by Karljuergen G. Feuerherm), DoulosSIL (2002, a big Unicode-compliant font), PadaukSuper (2003, Burmese font), Code2000 (2003, James Kass's huge unicode font; the version here is called Code2000 Tamil Graphite) Koli Nko Manden (1999, by the Fakoli Corporation for the West African language N'Ko). [Google] [More]  ⦿

International Systems Consultancy

Creators of Kurdish Web (1998), a font for Kurdish. Also, free ParsNegarII fonts for all platforms, and in Persian, Arabic and Urdu flavors. ISC stands for International Systems Consultancy. Web fonts subpage. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Assyrian font Issa__GilianaClassic at Fred Aprim's site. [Google] [More]  ⦿

J.F. Coakley

J. F. Coakley is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, and on the staff of Houghton Library, at Harvard University. His private press, the Jericho Press, occasionally makes use of Syriac and other exotic types. In 2006, he wrote The Typography of Syriac: a Historical Catalogue of Printing Types, 1537-1958 (Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE). Oak Knoll writes: Syriac, a dialect of the ancient Aramaic language, has a remarkable Christian literature spanning a thousand years from the fourth to the thirteenth century, including important versions of the Bible. It remains the liturgical language of several churches in the Middle East, India, and the West, and 'Modern Syriac' is a vernacular still in use today. It is no wonder that this language has a long and rich printing history. The challenge of conveying the beautiful cursive Syriac script, in one or another of its three varieties, was taken up by many well-known type-designers in the letterpress era, from Robert Granjon in the sixteenth century to the Monotype and Linotype corporations in the twentieth, as well as by many lesser-known ones. This study records and abundantly illustrates no fewer than 129 different Syriac types, using archival documents, type-specimens, and the often scattered evidence of the print itself. The Typography of Syriac will be of interest not only to scholars of Middle Eastern languages and scripts but also to all historians of type and printing. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Jimmy Adair
[Scholars Press]

[More]  ⦿

Jogi Weichware

Berlin and Frankfurt-based company which published these fonts for ancient Middle Eastern scripts between 1990 and 2001: TitusAncientNeareastNormal, TitusArabic-Farsi, TitusArmenianNormal, TitusAsomtavruliMrglovani, TitusAsomtavruliMrglovani, TitusAsomtavruliNuskhuri, TitusBaltic, TitusBibleGothic, TitusBuzuku, TitusChristianEastNormal, TitusCyrillicNormal, TitusECLINGMxedruli-Normal, TitusECLINGTranscription-Bold, TitusECLINGTranscription-Italic, TitusECLINGTranscription, TitusEastEuropeanNormal, TitusGreekNormal, TitusGreekReverseNormal, TitusHebrew-Normal, TitusHebrewNormal, TitusIndoIranianNormal, TitusIndologyNormal, TitusKroatianGlagolicaNormal, TitusManichean, TitusMiddleIranian-Normal, TitusMxedruliNormal, TitusNearEastNormal, TitusNuskhaKhutsuri, TitusOghamNormal, TitusOldGeorgian, TitusOldPersianNormal, TitusOldPersianNormal, TitusOscanInscriptionsNormal, TitusRoundGlagolicaNormal, TitusRunicNormal, TitusSlavonicNormal, TitusSogdianIntNormal, TitusSyriacEstrangelo, TitusSyriacNestorian, TitusSyriacNestorianNormal, TitusSyriacSerto, TitusSyriacSertoNormal, TitusTaanaNormal, TitusUmbrianInscriptionsNormal, TitusWesternNormal. Downloadable here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Johannes Heinecke

Designer in Lannion, France, of Sertofont, a metafont for Syriac created in 2001, and improved in steps until 2013. Serto is a form of the syllabic alphabet used for Aramaic (a Western semitic language) which has been spoken in the Near East since at least 1100 BC. More precisely, Sertois used for Syriac which is the variant of Aramaic spoken since the second century AD. [Google] [More]  ⦿

John Heise

[More]  ⦿

Journal of Biblical Studies

Alternate URL. Archive: Altrussisch, Altrussisch-Bold, Altrussisch-BoldItalic, Altrussisch-Italic, Web-Hebrew-AD, BSTGreek, BSTHebrew, Coptic-Normal, Web-Hebrew-Monospace, Cyrillic, Cyrillic-Bold-Italic, Cyrillic-Bold, Cyrillic-Normal-Italic, DSS-Scribal-Normal, Elephantine-Aramaic, Etruscan-Epigraphic-Normal, Netextmo, Netextpro, Greek, Hebrew, IluInternet, Koine-Medium, l562-Minuscule-Normal, Lachish-Bold, Latin-Uncial-Normal, Linear-B, Nippur-Sans-Regular, Macedonian-Ancient, Meroitic---Demotic, Meroitic---Hieroglyphics, Nabataean-Aramaic, Nahkt, Paleo-Hebrew-NormalA, Phoinike, Qumran, RD-Akkadian1, RK-Ugaritic-Transscript, Rashi, SPAchmim, SPAtlantis, SPDamascus, SPEdessa, SPEzra, SPIonic, SPTiberian, Schwaben-Alt-Bold, Sinaiticus-Greek-Uncial, Sorawin-Plain, Ugarit. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Juan-José Marcos García

[More]  ⦿

Karel Piska

Karel Piska works at the Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Prague, and specializes in Neo-Assyrian Cuneiform fonts covering also Akkasdian, Ugaritic and Old persian. There, he designed these fonts from 1999-2003 (free downloads): NAOldPersianAcadBFType1, NAOldPersianAcademicType1, NAOldPersianClassicType1, NAUgariticAcadBFType1, NAUgariticAcademicType1, NAUgariticClassicType1, NeoAssyrianAcadBFType1a, NeoAssyrianAcadBFType1b, NeoAssyrianAcadBFType1c, NeoAssyrianAcademicType1a, NeoAssyrianAcademicType1b, NeoAssyrianAcademicType1c, NeoAssyrianClassicType1a, NeoAssyrianClassicType1b, NeoAssyrianClassicType1c. Free metafonts of his include Syllabary A No. 56A (additional cuneiform signs), The page also has a rare metafont triple called "cunmfa", "cunmfb" and "cummfc" by Jo Grant (1992). He wrote "Fonts for Neo-Assysian Cuneiform," Proceedings of the EuroTeX Conference, Heidelberg, Germany, September 20-24, 1999, Günter Partosch andi Gerhard Wilhelms eds, Giessen, Augsburg, 1999, pp. 142-154. At TUG 2005 he spoke on the conversion of Metafont fonts to outline fonts using Metapost. After theoretical conversion, the FontForge font editor is used for removing overlap, simplification, rounding to integer, autohinting, generating outline fonts, and necessary manual modifications. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Karljuergen G. Feuerherm

Designer of NeoAssyrianRAI (2001), a free truetype font, developed as part of CCCP (Cuneiform Computer Code Project). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Kris Alans

Designer of the remarkable free display typeface Alanesiana (2017)C: Alanesiana is a font created in accordance with the idea to read the text in a slightly insecure form, and supports exactly 5650 characters. Each character has its own character, looks different from the rest, but all are made in a similar style and have a similar thickness, so the text still looks consistent, making it perfect for longer texts as opposed to many other decorative fonts that tire the reader. What is important Alanesiana supports not only Latin alphabet but also Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Armenian, Georgian and phonetic and mathematical symbols as well as some emoticons and other symbols, alphabets such as Coptic. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Commercial Syriac word processing and font software for Syriac, by LinguistSoftware. For PC and Mac. [Google] [More]  ⦿

LaTeX Navigator
[Denis Roegel]

General links on typography and fonts, compiled by Denis Roegel (with earlier contributions by Karl Tombre who is no longer involved). Very, very useful. This page contains, among other things:

  • METAFONT for Beginners (Geoffrey Tobin)
  • The METAFONT book (TeX source) (Donald E. Knuth)
  • How to Create Your Own Symbols in METAFONT and for use in LaTeX Documents (Richard Lin)
  • Milieu -- METAFONT and Linux: A Personal Computing Milieu (Thomas Dunbar)
  • Simple drawings with METAFONT (Zdenek Wagner)
  • Some METAFONT Techniques (article from TUGboat, 10 pages) (Yannis Haralambous)
  • List of all available Metafont fonts
  • Liam Quin's Metafont Guide (last version)
  • MetaFog: Converting METAFONT Shapes to Contours (Richard J. Kinch)
  • METAFONT source
  • Design of a new font family (slides) (Gerd Neugebauer) (1996)
  • PERL Module for reading .tfm files (Jan Pazdziora) (1997)
  • fig2mf (UNIX manual) (Anthony Starks)
  • bm2font (Friedhelm Sowa)
  • Essay on math symbols by Paul Taylor
  • drgen genealogical symbol font by Denis Roegel, 1996
  • Chess fonts
  • The Marvosym Font Package (Martin Vogels)
  • Eurosymbol, another font for the euro symbol
  • Lots of stuff on virtual fonts
  • P. Damian Cugley's Malvern (Greek) font
  • Yannis Haralambous's Omega project
  • DC and EC fonts by Joerg Knappen
  • Technical notes on Postscript fonts, and Postscript fonts in TEX
  • Computer Modern type 1 fonts
  • Articles on computer typography by Sebastian Rahtz, Aarno Hohti&Okko Kanerva, Richard J. Kinch, Basil K. Malyshev, Hirotsugu Kakugawa, Karl Berry, Victor Eijkhout, Vincent Zoonekynd, Tom Scavo, David Wright, Erik-Jan Vens, and Nelson H. F. Beebe.
  • Articles on mathematical symbol fonts
  • Links to essential pages for Cyrillic, Japanese, Berber, Khmer, Chinese, Korean, Greek, Indic, Syriac, Hebrew, Hieroglyphic, Tibetan, Mongolian, African fc
At FontStruct, he created Sixer (a pixel face) and Smallish (bold unicase). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Laval Chabon

Québec City-based creator (b. 1952) of the octagonal font Vegesignes (2009, FontStruct). This font also appeared in 2010 at Open Font Library. It consists of almost 7,615 glyphs.As of 2014, 188 languages care covered, inclufing Afrikaans, Arabic, Archaic Greek Letters, Armenian, Baltic, Basic Cyrillic, Basic Greek, Basic Latin, Bengali, Catalan, Central European, Cherokee, Devanagari, Dutch, Euro, Farsi, Georgian, Gujarati, Hanunó'o, Hebrew, Igbo Onwu, IPA, Kannada, Kazakh, Lao, Malayalam, Myanmar, New Tai Lue, N'Ko, Ogham, Oriya, Pashto, Pinyin, Polytonic Greek, Romanian, Runic, Sindhi, Syriac, Tai Le, Tai Tham (Lanna), Telugu, Thaana, Thai, Tibetan, Turkish, Uighur, Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, Urdu, Vietnamese, Western European.

Dafont link. Fontspace link. Aka Leaurend-Lavie-Hyppere (Laval) Chabon and as Joseph Rosaire Laval Frandey Leaurend Lavie Hyper Chabom. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Le Dome

Designer in 1996 of the font "Western Syriac". [Google] [More]  ⦿

Michael Davodian

MD King Khammu Rabi is a font to write Aramaic, Assyrian, Soryoyo, Caldean, Nestorian. Michael Davodian says it's his, but it sure feels like this is Arial Unicode. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Modular Infotech Pvt. Ltd.

Company in Pune, which made these freely available Tamil Opentype fonts in 2003: SUNDARAM_0806, SHREE_TAM_OTF_0807, SUNDARAM_0808, SUNDARAM_0810, SUNDARAM_0812, SUNDARAM_0819, SUNDARAM_0820, SUNDARAM_0821, SUNDARAM_0823, SUNDARAM_0824, SUNDARAM_0827, SUNDARAM_0830, SUNDARAM_0831, SUNDARAM_1341, SUNDARAM_1342, SUNDARAM_1351, SUNDARAM_1352, SUNDARAM_2852, SUNDARAM_2865, SUNDARAM_3811. Type catalog with over 2,700 fonts for Devanagari, Gujarati, Punjabi, Bengali, Assamese, Oriya, Tamil, Kannada, Telugu and Malayalam.

Modular Infotech specializes in Indian language fonts since 1982. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Monotype: All languages

Monotype sells fonts for the following languages: Amharic, Aksara Kaganga, Arabic, Armenian, Balinese, Burmese, Cambodian, Chinese, Coptic, Devanagari (Hindi/Marathi/Nepali), Farsi, Georgian, Glagolitic, Gujerathi, Gurmukhi (Punjabi), Hebrew, Japanese, Javanese, Jawi, Kannada, Korean, Laotian, Lontarak, Malayalam, Old Bulgarian, Oriya, Pushto, Sindhi, Sinhalese, Surat Pustaha, Syriac, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Urdu, Vietnamese. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Monotype Syriac Estrangelo

Syriac fonts by Monotype include Monotype Syriac Estrangelo. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Music of the Ancient Near East
[Richard J. Dumbrill]

Richard Dumbrill's page. Find a free font Akkadian-1, and a commercial family, RD-Akkadian (cuneiform signs). Plus RD-Times Scholar (commercial). Furthermore, custom font design for Syriac, Ugaritic, Hittite cuneiforms, South Arabian, Phoenician. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Nicholai Seleznyov

Designer of the Syriac fonts Dinkha Beth (1997) and Nsiven Alap (1997). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Northwest semitic links

Great links page maintained by Reinhard G. Lehmann (Lecturer for Classical Hebrew and Old Aramaic, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz) with links related to Hebrew, old Aramaic, Greek, Coptic, old Syrian, Ugaritic and Phoenician. [Google] [More]  ⦿


A large free font family released under the Apache license at Google Web Fonts, and developed by Monotype's Steve Matteson and a team of type designers. Developed between 2012 and 2016, this typeface covers over 800 languages and 100 writing scripts. URL with details. Noto stands for no tofu, i.e., no white boxes that represent unknown characters. The fonts are property of Monotype, with the exception of Noto Khmer and Noto Lao, which belong to Danh Hong.

Noto Sans and Noto Serif cover Afar, Abkhazian, Afrikaans, Asturian, Avaric, Aymara, Azerbaijani-AZERBAIJAN, Bashkir, Bambara, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Bislama, Bini, Breton, Bosnian, Buriat, Catalan, Chechen, Chamorro, Mari (Russia), Corsican, Czech, Church Slavic, Chuvash, Welsh, Danish, German, Modern Greek (1453-), English, Esperanto, Spanish, Estonian, Basque, Finnish, Fijian, Faroese, French, Fulah, Friulian, Western Frisian, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Galician, Guarani, Manx, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hiri Motu, Croatian, Hungarian, Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association), Igbo, Indonesian, Interlingue, Inupiaq, Ido, Icelandic, Italian, Kara-Kalpak, Kikuyu, Kazakh, Kalaallisut, Kurdish-ARMENIA, Kumyk, Komi, Cornish, Kirghiz, Latin, Luxembourgish, Lezghian, Lingala, Lithuanian, Latvian, Malagasy, Marshallese, Maori, Macedonian, mo, Maltese, Norwegian BokmÃ¥l, Low German, Dutch, Norwegian Nynorsk, Norwegian, South Ndebele, Pedi, Nyanja, Occitan (post 1500), Oromo, Ossetian, Polish, Portuguese, Romansh, Romanian, Russian, Yakut, Scots, Northern Sami, Selkup, sh, Shuswap, Slovak, Slovenian, Samoan, Southern Sami, Lule Sami, Inari Sami, Skolt Sami, Somali, Albanian, Serbian, Swati, Southern Sotho, Swedish, Swahili (macrolanguage), Tajik, Turkmen, Tagalog, Tswana, Tonga (Tonga Islands), Turkish, Tsonga, Tatar, Twi, Tuvinian, Ukrainian, Uzbek, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Walloon, wen, Wolof, Xhosa, Yapese, Yoruba, Zulu, Akan, Aragonese, ber-dz, Crimean Tatar, Kashubian, Ewe, Fanti, Filipino, Upper Sorbian, Haitian, Herero, Javanese, Kabyle, Kuanyama, Kanuri, Kurdish-TURKEY, Kwambi, Ganda, Limburgan, Mongolian-MONGOLIA, Malay (macrolanguage), Nauru, Ndonga, Navajo, pap-an, Papiamento-ARUBA, Quechua, Rundi, Kinyarwanda, Sardinian, Sango, Shona, Sundanese, Tahitian, Zhuang.

Non-Latin scrips include Noto Armenian, Noto Georgian, Noto Carian, Noto Greek, Noto Devanagari, Noto Ethiopic, Noto Glagolitic, Noto Hebrew, Noto Sans Imperial Aramaic, Noto Sans Lisu, Noto Sans Lycian, Noto Sans Lydian, Noto Sans Old South Arabian, Noto Sans Osmanya, Noto Sans Phoenician, Noto Sans Shavian, Noto Sans Tamil, Noto Sans Thai, Noto Serif Thai, Noto Sans Kannada, Noto Sana Telugu, Noto Sans Malayalam, Noto Sans Cherokee, Noto Sans Orya (for Odia), Noto Sans Bengali.

Other typefaces in the package include Arima, Cousine, and Tinos.

At CTAN, one can find Noto with full TeX support.

At Open Font Library, one can download Noto Nastaliq Urdu (2014), which covers Arabic, Farsi, Pashto and Urdu.

The fonts, as of October 2016: Noto Sans, Noto Serif, Noto Color Emoji, Noto Emoji, Noto Kufi Arabic, Noto Mono, Noto Naskh Arabic, Noto Nastaliq Urdu, Noto Sans Armenian, Noto Sans Avestan, Noto Sans Balinese, Noto Sans Bamum, Noto Sans Batak, Noto Sans Bengali, Noto Sans Brahmi, Noto Sans Buginese, Noto Sans Buhid, Noto Sans CJK JP, Noto Sans CJK KR, Noto Sans CJK SC, Noto Sans CJK TC, Noto Sans Canadian Aboriginal, Noto Sans Carian, Noto Sans Cham, Noto Sans Cherokee, Noto Sans Coptic, Noto Sans Cuneiform, Noto Sans Cypriot, Noto Sans Deseret, Noto Sans Devanagari, Noto Sans Egyptian Hieroglyphs, Noto Sans Ethiopic, Noto Sans Georgian, Noto Sans Glagolitic, Noto Sans Gothic, Noto Sans Gujarati, Noto Sans Gurmukhi, Noto Sans Hanunoo, Noto Sans Hebrew, Noto Sans Imperial Aramaic, Noto Sans Inscriptional Pahlavi, Noto Sans Inscriptional Parthian, Noto Sans Javanese, Noto Sans Kaithi, Noto Sans Kannada, Noto Sans Kayah Li, Noto Sans Kharoshthi, Noto Sans Khmer, Noto Sans Lao, Noto Sans Lepcha, Noto Sans Limbu, Noto Sans Linear B, Noto Sans Lisu, Noto Sans Lycian, Noto Sans Lydian, Noto Sans Malayalam, Noto Sans Mandaic, Noto Sans Meetei Mayek, Noto Sans Mongolian, Noto Sans Myanmar, Noto Sans NKo, Noto Sans New Tai Lue, Noto Sans Ogham, Noto Sans Ol Chiki, Noto Sans Old Italic, Noto Sans Old Persian, Noto Sans Old South Arabian, Noto Sans Old Turkic, Noto Sans Oriya, Noto Sans Osmanya, Noto Sans Phags Pa, Noto Sans Phoenician, Noto Sans Rejang, Noto Sans Runic, Noto Sans Samaritan, Noto Sans Saurashtra, Noto Sans Shavian, Noto Sans Sinhala, Noto Sans Sundanese, Noto Sans Syloti Nagri, Noto Sans Symbols, Noto Sans Syriac Eastern, Noto Sans Syriac Estrangela, Noto Sans Syriac Western, Noto Sans Tagalog, Noto Sans Tagbanwa, Noto Sans Tai Le, Noto Sans Tai Tham, Noto Sans Tai Viet, Noto Sans Tamil, Noto Sans Telugu, Noto Sans Thaana, Noto Sans Thai, Noto Sans Tibetan, Noto Sans Tifinagh, Noto Sans Ugaritic, Noto Sans Vai, Noto Sans Yi, Noto Serif Armenian, Noto Serif Bengali, Noto Serif Devanagari, Noto Serif Georgian, Noto Serif Gujarati, Noto Serif Kannada, Noto Serif Khmer, Noto Serif Lao, Noto Serif Malayalam, Noto Serif Tamil, Noto Serif Telugu, Noto Serif Thai.

Github repositories. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Online bible resources

Some Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic and Coptic font links. Has BSTGreek, BSTHebrew. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Paleofonts V. 2
[Vasil Gligorov]

Vasil Gligorov from Skopje, Macedonia, has a 16MB file with almost 300 truetype fonts that represent 30 ancient scripts: Luwian, Ugaritic, Aramaic, Runic, Syriac, Glagolitic, OCS Cyrillic, Persian Cuneiform, Egyptian Hieroglyphs, Demotic, Linear A (Complex signs), Linear B, Proto-Greek, Ancient and Medieval Greek, Ancient and Medieval Latin, Gothic, Etruscan, Oscan, Phoenician, Galilean, Celto-Iberian, Coptic, Meroitic, Cypriot, Vina, Ancient Hebrew, Samaritan, Sanskrit, Ugaritic, Manichean, Ogham, Umbrian, Asomtavruli Mrglovani, Siloam type-Inscription. Alternate URL. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Palmyrenian alphabet

From Encyclopaedia Britannica: Semitic script used in Palmyra, a city on the trade routes between Syria and Mesopotamia, from the 3rd to the 2nd century BC until shortly after the conquest of the city by the Romans in AD 272. Developed from the Aramaic alphabet, Palmyric had 22 letters and was written from right to left. It occurred in two forms: a rounded, cursive form derived from Aramaic about 250 BC and a decorative monumental form. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Paul Nelson

Developer at Microsoft who specializes in Arabic and other complex scripts. Designer with George Kiraz of the Syriac font EstrangeloEdessa (2000, Syriac Computing Institute). This font was used in the Unicode charts. Winner with Mamoun Sakkal and John Hudson at the TDC2 2003 competition for Arabictype. See also here.

OFL link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Peshitta Institute Leiden

The Peshitta Institute is part of the Faculty of Theology of the University of Leiden. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Peter R. Wilson

[More]  ⦿

Phoenician alphabet

From Encyclopaedia Britannica: Writing system that developed out of the North Semitic alphabet and was spread over the Mediterranean area by Phoenician traders. It is the probable ancestor of the Greek alphabet and, hence, of all Western alphabets. The earliest Phoenician inscription that has survived is the Ahiram epitaph at Byblos in Phoenicia dates from the 11th century BC. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Richard J. Dumbrill
[Music of the Ancient Near East]

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SAAiS is the association of the Syriac Assyrian Academics in Sweden. At its site, we find the Assyrian font Assyria's Letters (West). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Sabean Script

Marib Outline&Marib Solid are Mac fonts for writing Sabean, a Southern Semitic monumental alphabetic script with inscriptions dating back to the first millenium b.c., to the famous kingdom of "Queen of Saba". [Google] [More]  ⦿


Article by Yannis Haralambous on his Sabra package for using Syriac in TeX. The package covers Serto (or: Jacobite; the Peshito variant, however, is not covered), Estrangelo (but Melchitic and Mandean, variants, are not covered) and East Syriac (or: Nestorian). It also offers Garshuni (Syriac writing of Arabic). Ligatures and stretching connections (keshideh) are automatically performed. The fonts are in METAFONT format. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Scholars Press
[Jimmy Adair]

The Scholars Press Fonts are public domain fonts that are designed to work on both Windows computers and Macs. Fonts for Hebrew, Greek, Syriac, Coptic, and Semitic-language transliteration. (Mac and Windows): SPEzra (fixed width Hebrew/Aramaic, 1998) and SPTiberian (Hebrew/Aramaic), SPIonic (Greek, see also here), SPEdessa (Syriac), SPDoric (1999, uncial Greek), SPAchmim (Coptic), SPDamascus (Hebrew, 1998), SPCaesarea (dingbats, 1998), and SPAtlantis (transliteration). All fonts by Jimmy Adair. He states: "Patrick Durusau, formerly my colleague in crime at Scholars Press and now with the Society of Biblical Literature, was instrumental in the design and disseminatation of the SP fonts." FTP access. Truetype archive. See also here. fontspace link. [Google] [More]  ⦿


I quote: "The Sogdian language belongs to the eastern group of the middle iranian languages, along with Sacian, or Saka (spoken in Khotan, China), Bactrian (spoken in present-day Afghanistan) and Chorasmian (spoken in present-day Northern Uzbekistan). It was originally spoken in Sogdiana, a historical region situated around Samarkand. Other languages of this group are Avestan in the old times and Pashto and Ossetian in the modern times. In the first millennium A.D. it has served as a lingua franca of Central Asia, and it was used both as a means of oral communication and for written purposes, in fact since the beginning of the XX century many excavations have brought to light numberless documents composed in this language, that testify its outmost importance and diffusion in that area. It was a literary language for Buddhism in Central Asia, but also for Nestorian Christianism and Manichaeism. This language has not died out after its decadence, but it has evolved into the Yaghnobi language, spoken in Tajikistan by a few thousand people, and it has been replaced as a cultural language by Persian, a western iranian language." See also here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Sources chrétiennes

Greek and Syriac jump page. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Southern Software Inc. (SSi)

SSi sells foreign fonts for Arabic, Urdu, Greek, Hebrew, Armenian, Baltic, Burmese, Cherokee, Cyrillic, Cree, Simplified Chinese, Ethiopian, Inuktitut, Gaelic, IPA, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Mayan. Farsi, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Syriac, South Arabian, Tamil, Thai, Tibetan, Turkish, Ugaritic, and Vietnamese. Plus musical dingbats. Of course, they did not make a single of these fonts themselves. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Steve White
[GNU Freefont (or: Free UCS Outline Fonts)]

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Steven J. Lundeen
[Emerald City Fontworks]

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Stig Norin

Stig Norin (Lund, Sweden) offers some HP Deskjet fonts for Syriac. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Syriac Computing Institute

SyrCOM aims at promoting Syriac culture by contributing to the academic field of Syriac studies using computer technology. Their free opentype fonts are here. The font designers at The Syriac Institute / Beth Mardutho are:

    George Kiraz, Christine Kiraz and Paul Nelson: East Syriac Adiabene (2001), East Syriac Ctesiphon (2000), Estrangelo Antioch (2001), Estrangelo Midyat (2001), Estrangelo Nisibin (+ Outline) (2001), Estrangelo Quenneshrin (2001), Estrangelo Talada (2001), Estrangelo TurAbdin (2001), Serto-Batnan, Serto-Batnan-Bold (2001), Serto-Jerusalem, Serto-Jerusalem-Bold, Serto-Jerusalem-Italic, Serto-Jerusalem-Outline (2001), Serto-Kharput (2001).
  • Fr. Joseph Tarzi: Serto-Urhoy, Serto-Urhoy-Bold (2000).
  • George Kiraz and Paul Nelson: Serto-Malankara (2001), Serto-Mardin, Serto-Mardin-Bold (2001), Estrangelo Edessa (2000).
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Syriac EB Barsoum Fonts
[Elia Barsoum]

From Beirut, Elia Barsoum developed Syriac TTF fonts for Windows (Latin and Arabic versions). Names of the fonts: EB SERTO, EB ESTRANGELO, EB MADENHAIA, EB MERABAH (old Assyrian/Hebrew). He also made some utilities and DLLs to assist the user to write from right to left on the Western edition of Windows which usually writes from left to right. Elia holds a masters degree in operations research from Twente Universiteit in the Netherlands. Currently, he works as a GIS expert and application developer in Beirut for Khatib&Alami, an engineering company. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Syriac (Modern Assyrian) Alphabets
[Tony Khoshaba]

Tony Khoshaba and Isa Benyamin (an Assyrian caligraphist) developed a complete set of Eastern Syriac (meta)fonts at the Syriac Computing Institute. The truetype font Ishtar2 (1998) is a modification of an earlier Assyrian font, Nisibus. See also here. See also here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Syriac--Assyrian Aramaic TrueType Font in MS Arabic

100USD for two fonts, Eastern Syriac and Estrangeli Syriac. Page by Michael Davodian. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Syriac-Estrangelo language products

Commercial fonts for Syriac/Estrangelo. Mac and PC, 100USD per package! [Google] [More]  ⦿

Tero Kivinen

Finnish designer of the bitmap font Sshlinedraw (Tero Kivinen and SSH Communications Security Oy, linedrawing characters for VT100 terminal, 1997). He also discussed the Microsoft truetype collection, EstrangeloEdessa (by Paul Nelson and George Kiraz, 2000, Syriac Computing Institute), ITC Franklin Gothic, Gautami (Microsoft, 2001), Latha (Microsoft, 2001), LucidaSansUnicode, MV Boli (Agfa-Monotype, 2001), Mangal (Microsoft, 2001), PalatinoLinotype (1998, a Unicode font), Raavi (Microsoft, 2001), Shruti (Microsoft, 2001), Sylfaen (Microsoft, 1999). All of these fonts are basically Unicode for all European languages, Cyrillic, Armenian, Hebrew, Arabic, basic mathematics, and Greek. But the site disappeared. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Wonders of Assyria Homepage

Free TrueType font, Assyria's letters. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Timm Erickson

In 1997, Timm Erickson designed the Assyrian typefaces Carlo Ator and Gabriel Ator at the Summer Institute of Linguistics. See also here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

TITUS Instrumenta

Free TrueType fonts of old Christian times, Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Christian Oriental, East European, and ancient languages. The TITUS project is run by Jost Gippert in Frankfurt. They intend to develop a special unicode font. TITUS Ogham is an Ogham font. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Tony Khoshaba
[Syriac (Modern Assyrian) Alphabets]

[More]  ⦿

Transkription semitischer Texte
[Ulrich Seeger]

Ulrich Seeger from Karlsruhe explains about the transcription from/to Hebrew. His nice page (in German) includes free Mac type 1 fonts such as HaifaTimes, GalilTimes, Beyrut, Hatra (a rare script). Plus the Galil family by Ulrich Seeger (1998) for Windows. Also, assur (for Akkadian), Bock and Nebe (for Aramaic), Sima (for South-Arabian), Abbas (for Persian). All these are adaptiations of Times for easy transcriptions. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ugaritic (metafont)

From Essex University, Alan M. Stanier's metafont for Ugaritic, a cuneiform alphabet (as opposed to the syllabic cuneiform of Akkadian or Hittite), as found on tablets dated from the Late Bronze Age (ca 1400 - 1200 BC) in Northern Syria and Palestine, notably in the archives at Ugarit. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ulrich Seeger
[Transkription semitischer Texte]

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Vasil Gligorov
[Paleofonts V. 2]

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Vyacheslav Dikonov

Contributor to the GNU Freefont project. He made a Braille unicode font that could be merged with the UCS fonts to fill the 2800-28FF range completely. (uniform scaling is possible to adapt it to any cell size). He also contributed a free Syriac font, whose glyphs (about half of them) are borrowed from the free Carlo Ator font. Vyacheslav also filled in a few missing spots in the U+2000-U+27FF area, e.g., the box drawing section, sets of subscript and superscript digits and capital Roman numbers. The ranges: Syriac (U+0700-U+074A), Box Drawing (U+2500-U+257F), Braille (U+2800-U+28FF). [Google] [More]  ⦿

XenoType Technologies

Commercial outfit with language kits (including fonts) for these languages: Burmese, Cherokee, Inuktitut, Kannada, Lepcha, Limbu, Lontara, Malayalam, Sinhala, Telugu, Tibetan, Bassa, Cambodian, Ethiopic, Laotian, Saurashtra, Sylheti, Tai Le, Tamil, Assyrian (Syriac), Burmese, Georgian, Khmer. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Free font depository with many BDF bitmap files. In addition, Adobe's Utopia, Bitstream's Charter, the Lucida fonts, and IBM Courier. Also, GohaTibebZemen (for Ethiopic) and several Syriac fonts from the Syriac Computing Institute. Japanese mirror. [Google] [More]  ⦿