TYPE DESIGN INFORMATION PAGE last updated on Fri Apr 18 19:01:37 EDT 2014
Type scene in Ohio
1919 Type Foundry
1919 Type Foundry presents the typographic work of Scott Sullivan, who is currently a graphic design major at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio, scheduled to graduate in 2009. About the name: The year 1919 was the year that the Bauhaus school opened in Weimar, Germany. It was roughly the year 1919 when Modernism and Constructivism were born in Germany and the U.S.S.R., respectively. All fonts are heavily based in geometry, therefore: Dosim OKT, Geovlad (2009, constructivist, based on the posters of Georgii and Vladimir Stenberg), 44X34X (2009, futuristic, free). The Triflig Paradigm is another project of his. There he is developing some fonts such as Moon Man, and one can download Gnashraw-Spaced (2009) and two of his FontStruct (pixel) fonts, pgdm001 and pgdm002 (2009). Designmoo link. [Google] [More] ⦿
Graphic designer in Cincinnati, OH. FontStructor, who made the octagonal face Ladd Block (2011). MyFonts link. His commercial faces include Cut Block (2012: white-on-black sketched letters), Tape Back (2012), Inked Balterm (2011, a monoline hand-drawn sans with ball terminals added in) and Inked Classic (2011, blackboard bold).
Albert J. Kim
Altered Ego Fonts (was: Sooy Type Foundry, STF)
Altered Ego Fonts is the 2003-born sibling of STF, the Sooy Type Foundry. See also Sooy Co. Brian Sooy is the Elyria, OH-based designer of font families such as Chevron (1994, a condensed font), Eclectics (dingbats: Bundle, Medley, Pixelweb, Web), VerveMM (1999, multiple master font at Adobe), Acolyte, Veritas (1995, multiple master text fonts), Benderhead (Garagefonts; Benderhead AEF followed in 2006), ITC Coventry (1998, grunge font), EclecticWeb (dingbats), American Spirit STF (2001, American symbols), ArkeoBT (2003, Bitstream, a readable bitmap font family), Lil Milton (2006), AE Prosperity (2011, a slightly aged old map style script), and Greenbriar AEF (2005, a 12-style hypnotic and gothic family).
Brian, who also runs Brian Sooy&Co, calls his fonts trendy and neo-humanist. Check Alphabets Inc for EclecticOne, EclecticTwo, EclecticPixel (2004, pixel dingbats), Greenbriar (hexagonal), Temerity, Chevron and Veritas, and the Bitstream Type Odyssey CD (2001) for most of his collection.
Corporate work includes the Lucerna Bible Font for the New Living Translation Bible of Tyndale House Publishers in 1995, which was based on Veritas.
American Greetings Corporation
In 1996, the American Greetings Corporation company issued a number of mostly script and blackletter fonts, whose names all start with CAC. These can now be found on many font archives. A partial list: CACCamelot, CACChampagne, CACFuturaCasual, CACFuturaCasualBold, CACFuturaCasualBoldItalic, CACFuturaCasualMedItalic, CACKrazyLegs, CACKrazyLegsBold, CACLaskoCondensed, CACLaskoEvenWeight, CACLeslie, CACLogoAlternate, CACMoose, CACNormHeavy, CACOneSeventy, CACPinafore, CACSaxonBold, CACShishoniBrush, CACValiant, Care-Bear-Family, ShishoniBrush. Founded in 1906 and based in Cleveland, American Greetings Corporation no longer develops or sells fonts.
Six of the CAC fonts were designed and produced by graphic designer and Vietnam veteran Courtney Kent Rhodes from Westlake, OH, who worked for AGC from 1988-2003.
Irish graduate from the type design program at the University of Reading in 2010, who joined Hoefler&Frere-Jones in New York in 2011 as type designer.
She designed Magnimo while at Reading. Aoife writes: from the Latin Magna, meaning great or large, and the Indic Anima, meaning spirit or soul. Magnimo is a big-hearted typeface with many moods and voices. I am quite impressed by this three-style typeface (Regular, Italic, Upright Italic), which, with its lively angular design, seems just right for green party and energy drink magazines. All the extra features expected of a 2010 typeface are there, including a matching and nicely balanced Greek, and coverage of most European diacritics. Additional scans: i, ii, iii.
Based in Brooklyn, she worked as a full-time typeface designer for the globally acclaimed Hoefler & Frere-Jones Type Foundry in New York City. While at H&FJ, Aoife worked as part of the design team on a number of typeface design projects including the Idlewild family.
She moved to Akron, Ohio, where she continues to work as a freelance typeface designer for H&FJ. She is a part-time teacher at Kent State University, and participates in Crafting Type. [Google] [More] ⦿
Aibrean's Studio (translated as "April Studio") has been owned and operated by April Sadowski since 2003 in Xenia, OH. She created the squarish modular face Modal (2009, FontStruct). Other FontStruct faces include MoxBox (2009, squarish), Dripple (2009, dot matrix), Polaris (2009) and Squirls (2009). [Google] [More] ⦿
Arlyn Eve Simon
Baltimore&Ohio Railroad Historical Society
Jack Aaron Rodriguez made a font called Baltimore&Ohio R.R. Co. Loco.&Pass. Equipt. Cars Lettering (2004) for the Baltimore&Ohio Railroad Historical Society. Jack lives in Riverdale, MD. Kenneth Van Mechelen made B&OStation (2005), B&OLoco (2005), EMD (2006), and B&OX (2005). [Google] [More] ⦿
Type designer, letterer and calligrapher located in Willoughby Hills, OH. Ex-student at the University of Reading (2003) who designed Owyhee (2003). In 2008, he created Cora, a 6-style corporate-look sans with a large x-height.
In 2011, he did Katie's Font.
Susan Derrick's foundry in Dayton, OH. Her fonts can be bought at MyFonts. Alternate URL. The list of creations (2005): Ancestry (caps), Angeline, Angelique (both curly scripts), Banderole, Fred and Ginger (two-line display face), Garden Gate (gate-inspired curly script), Monogram, Oxymoron (simple sans), Relativity, Scrapbook, Beads (dingbats) and Beading. In 2006, some handwriting fonts by Matthew Derrick were added: Funnies, Grimble Castle, Paparazzi, Scratch Pad, Selvin, Love Me and Wavy Gravy. Additions in 2009: Barack, Mrs. Obama, Malia (upright connected script), Violette (female script), Abbatia (ornaments), Frame Ups (frames), Sasha (didactic font with lines). [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
Ohioan Bill Roach (b. 1966) created the script face Goldilocks (2009, +Reprised), Hollow Roachian Futhark (2009, runic), Anfalas (bumpy poster font), and the techno face Glyphstream (2009).
In 2012, he published a number of medieval style typefaces: Throrian, Mirkwood Chronicle, Gothic Birthday Cake, Elementary Gothic (+Bookhand), EG Dragon Caps, Renny Hybrid, Bruce, East Anglia (Lombardic).
Brian Crick (b. Jamestown, NY, 1976) is working on a very original font, Positronic Effigy. His Ironweaver (2003) is the thinnest of the thin (almost gothic or bewitched) beauties. Check also Oberto (2003). Positronic Toaster (2009) is a very nice modern interpretation of the French upright scripts of the nineteenth century. Brian runs Brian Crick Web Site Design in Cleveland Heights, OH.
Brian Kniceley is a sign artist at the Cedar Point amusement park in Sandusky, Ohio. At Letterhead Fonts, he designed Henderson Roman, Henderson Church Text, Strong Nouveau, Strong Italic, Strong Angle, Equinox (caps and flourishes), Strong Caliope, LHF Strong Tea House (2000). Many of his fonts have a Western influence. [Google] [More] ⦿
During her Visual Communication Design studies at Northern Kentucky University, Briana Arnold (Ft. Mitchell, KY and Cincinnati, OH) created the rounded squarish sans typeface Aero (2012). She also created the sans face Sequent in 2012, which was designed for screens.
Based in Kent, Ohio, Brittany Deighton founded Warehouse Design with Jesse Snyder. At Warehouse, one can buy some icon font sets from them, such as Miniglyph, Parks and Rec, and Snack Time. Together, they designed the slabby wood type typeface Ohio, and Medical Icons in 2013, while Brittany was studying in the Visual Communication Design program at Kent State University. [Google] [More] ⦿
Famous American teacher of penmanship. Author of Lessons in Ornamental Penmanship (1920), Gems of Flourishing (1888), and The New Zanerian Alphabets (1900, Zaner & Bloser, Columbus, OH). This site describes his story: In 1888, Charles Paxton Zaner founded the Zanerian, College of Penmanship, in Columbus, Ohio. The schools curriculum included courses that prepared students for careers as penmen who, at that time, wrote by hand most of the documents used by business and industry. The school also trained students to become teachers of penmanship, illustrators, engravers, and engrossersspecialists in the kind of ornamental writing used for diplomas and certificates. In 1891, Zaner sold a share of the Zanerian to Elmer Ward Bloser, whom he met in 1883 while the two men were students at Michaels Pen Art Hall. Bloser, who had been working as an instructor at the Spencerian Business College in Cleveland, was a superb penman, and he had accumulated the capital necessary to sustain the college in its early days (when its three instructors had only three pupils). By 1895, the Zanerian College of Penmanship had become the Zaner-Bloser Company, an institution that offered courses in penmanship, published professional materials about handwriting and illustration, and sold handwriting supplies. In 1904, Zaner-Bloser published The Zaner Method of Arm Movement, a landmark text that taught the simplified style of writing learned by students at the Zanerian to children in elementary schools all over the United States. This book also applied the findings of psychologists who had discovered that young children completed manual tasks more easily if allowed to use the large arm movements that were natural to them at their early stage of motor skills development.
In 2006, Paul Hunt designed a set of connected calligraphic scripts, called P22 Zaner.
Charles S. Wilkin
Sign designer from Columbus, OH. Creator of Fleur de Wee (2005, Chank's place), a dingbat font of shields and fleur-de-lys interpretations, and Fowl Play (2005, 26 bird silhouettes). [Google] [More] ⦿
Designer in Cincinnati, OH, b. 1982, who has mainly designed tattoo and black metal faces. Portfolio. In 2010, he made Horst Roman Gothic. In 2011, he added Horst Blackletter (2011). [Google] [More] ⦿
Cincinnati-based foundry (est. 1817), also called Oliver&Horace Wells, Horace Wells, Agant, and L.T. Wells, Agent. Among digitizations, we find French Ionic (Dan X. Solo, Solotype: quite ugly--based on an 1870 Clarendon derivative by the Cincinnati Type Foundry).
Free specimen book on the web: Fifteenth book of specimens Compact Edition from the Central Type Foundry (1882, Cincinnati). At the time of that printing, Henry Barth was president, assisted by Charles Wells and William P. Hunt.
Claude Fayette Bragdon (b. Oberlin, OH, 1866-1946) was an American architect, writer, and stage designer based in Rochester, New York, up to World War I, and in New York City after that. He was known for his creative geometric ornaments. At some point, he proposed this modern American italic for architectural plans. Check also his set of modern small letters. This page shows his art nouveau art. [Google] [More] ⦿
Foundry in Cleveland that existed from 1875 until 1892, when it was absorbed by ATF. It was also called H.H. Thorpe Mfg. Co. Its original designs include Koster Initials and Litho (a curly Victorian face digitally revived by Nick Curtis in 2007 as Cleveland Litho NF; Curtis says that it comes from an 1898 specimen book but that contradicts the ATF date). They published Catalogue and Book of Specimens From the Cleveland Type Foundry. The H.H. Thorp Mfg. Co., 147 St. Clair Street, Cleveland, Ohio (176 pages, 1880), Catalogue and Price List of Type and Material (ATF 1893 Specimen) (1893), and Catalogue and book of specimens of type faces and printing material and machinery (1895).
Another Curtis revival, Yum Yum NF (2008) is said to be based on Mikado from an 1893 Cleveland specimen book. And in 2008, Nick Curtis continued with a revival of the geometric display face Morning Glory (1893), and a revival of Oxford called Really Big Shoe NF (2009). One of CTF's most famous typefaces is the faux-Chinese font Chinese (1883, later called Mandarin). In 2010, Nick Curtis redid Geometric, a typewriter style face, and called it Linndale Square NF.
In 2013, the Victorian capitals typeface Oxford No. 2 (from the 1893 catalog) provided the inspiration for the digital typeface MFC Damask (Brian J. Bonislawsky and Jim Lyles, Monogram Fonts Co). MFC Damask Flourish (2013) is a floriated caps typeface from the same source. [Google] [More] ⦿
Coffee Bin Fonts
Navarre, OH-based foundry run by artist/designer Billy Jacobs (b. 1958). His font creations are based on 19th century advertising type found in tradecards, catalogs and periodicals from that era.
Courtney Kent Rhodes
Courtney Kent Rhodes
Courtney Rhodes Design
Courtney Rhodes Design is the foundry of graphic designer and Vietnam veteran Courtney Kent Rhodes from Westlake, OH. Six of the CAC fonts of the American Greetings Corporation were designed and produced by Rhodes, who worked for AGC from 1988-2003. Dafont link. Archive of most of the CAC fonts. In 2011, she created the round tip brush face Darby Display, and the comic book face Blunder Display (2011). [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
William Joseph Dard Hunter was born in 1883 in Steubenville, OH, and died in 1966 in Chillicothe, OH. One of the most influential graphic designers to come out of the American Arts and Crafts movement around 1900-1910. The face "Dard Hunter" by James Grieshaber at P22, complete with Arts and Crafts Ornaments, is based on his designs. Bala Cynwyd NF (2008) and Nickley NF (1997, an arts and crafts font) by Nick Curtis are other digital revivals of his lettering.
The Mountain House Press Types were designed and cut by Dard Hunter between 1912 and 1915, and by Dard Hunter Jr. (b. 1917) in 1937-39, for the private use of their Mountain House Press.
A Specimen of Type (Dard Hunter Jr., 1940, Paper Museum Press, Cambridge, MA) is a small booklet shows a roman type started in 1936 by Dard Hunter Jr. under the guidance of Professor Otto F. Ege. Apologies for the poor quality of the digital pics, which were taken under challenging conditions in the dungeon of a gothic library.
Professional photographer in Westerville, OH. During his studies at Columbus College of Art and Design, Darrek created a great typographic poster that celebrates the fifth and sixth symphonies of Beethaven (2013). Behance link. [Google] [More] ⦿
In 1855, David Know started producing wood type in Fredericksburg, OH, together with Edwin and Thomas Ferry, John McNulty, and M.S. Richards. The latter four were on strike at the W.T. and S.D. Day Co., a competing wood type manufacturer in the same city, and left that company to start with Knox. A flood destroys the plant in 1858, and that was it. [Google] [More] ⦿
Born in Dayton, OH, in 1991, Frederick Awich founded the Deleterious Design foundry in North Brunswick, New Jersey, in 2010. His first fonts were Infringe (display sans) and UndercoverLovahh (handprinted face). [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
Graphic designer in Cleveland, OH, who created the Nut and Bolt typeface in 2013.
Cincinnati, OH-based designer of these typefaces in 2011: Frakked (blackletter), Spartan, Octagon, Modern Wood, Wasabi (a free Asian calligraphic simulation face; +Shogun, +Samurai, +Ninja). Behance link. [Google] [More] ⦿
Pennsylvanian penman, 1865-1929. He became penmanship instructor at G.W. Michael's Pen Art Hall in Oberlin, OH. The school and Bloser relocated to Delaware, OH. He worked briefly with Platt Spencer Rogers in 1885. He purchased a third interest in the Zanerian Art College in 1891---the latter was founded in 1888 by C.P. Zaner (who also had a third). The third third belonged to Zaner's cousin, Lloyd M. Kelchner. After Kelchner left, Zaner and Bloser were partners of the Zanerian College and the Zaner and Bloser Company. Zaner died in 1918 or 1919, and Bloser ran it by himself until his own death in 1929. He wasa gentle hard-working and talented penman and a great teacher. Bloser and Zaner were two of America's most influential penmen. Picture of Bloser, Zaner and Kelchner. [Google] [More] ⦿
In 1994, Fantazia published a 2500-font CD (431MB), with fonts in TTF, T1 formats for both Mac and PC. The packages changed names over the years---they were called Fantazia Concepts, and Fantazia Fonts and Sounds at some point. The fonts names are recognized by their prefix, FZ. The mother company, Fantazia Concepts Inc, used to be located at PO Box 5142, Willowick, OH 44095 (1-(216)-951-5666, fax 1-(216)-951-9241). It seems to have disappeared though. [Google] [More] ⦿
Bob Aufuldish is an Affiliate Associate Professor at the California College of Arts and Crafts. Currently, he is Design Director of Sputnik CCAC, a student-staffed design office producing work for the College. Bob has a BFA and MFA in graphic design from Kent State University, Ohio. Fontboy (est. 1995, San Anselmo, CA, principals: Bob Aufuldish and Kathy Warinner, now called Aufuldish&Warinner) made OldMoney (truetype), Baufy (1994), RoarShock, Punctual (a connect-the-dots typeface family), NewClearEra, Viscosity (1996, with Kathy Warinner), Whiplash (1994). Mostly baroque modernism fonts. The Roarshock dingbats remind me of Zapf Dingbats, while Armature (1997) is just a regular semi-grunge font. Armature Neue (1997-2010) and Armature Neue Sans (2014) are monoline typeface families. Panspermia is the king of grunge. RoarType One is a "pixel" font where each pixel has been replaced by two alternating characters from the RoarShock dingbats.
Cincinnati-based foundry, also called Franklin Type Foundry, and Allison&Smith. Publishers of Convenient book of specimens Franklin Type Foundry (1889, Cincinnati).
Examples of the thousands of images in this 457-page book: Aesthetic, Armenian, Art Initials, Bank Not Black Extended, Card Gothic, Chancel, Circular Script, Condensed Title No. 3, French Clarendon, French Clarendon Shaded, Hogarth, Japanesque No. 3, Latin Condensed, Moslem, Queen Bess Script, Radiant, Ringlet, St. Louis, Steel Plate, Teutonic, Title Text, Title Text Open, Trojan, Unique.
Graphic designer in Cincinnati, OH. She writes about her typeface Abe (2012): Abe Regular was designed to give the classic typeface Din a humanist touch. With a focus on subtle contrast, natural curves and a dancing baseline; Abe is the less intense, country version of the rigid classic.
Haik Avanian is probably Armenian, but he lives in Toledo, OH, where he practices graphic design, digital photography and an occasional custom type design. Behance link. He created the condensed upright monoline sans face Autopilot (2009). [Google] [More] ⦿
Hannah is a graduate of the University of Cincinnati's College of Design (Bachelor of Science in Design). She grew up in Cincinnati and currently lives in San Francisco.
In 2012, she created the multined typeface simply called Illumination.
Company in Melbourne, FL, which seems no longer interested in making fonts. This page tells its history: Alfred and Charles G. Harris set up the Harris Automatic Press Company in 1895 in Niles, OH. The Harris Automatic Press Company was responsible for many printing innovations during the early 1900s including the first commercially successful offset lithographic press and the first two-color offset press. In 1957 Harris-Seybold merged with Intertype Corporation (and thus Harris inherited the Harris-Intertype library!), a world leader in typesetting equipment. The resulting Harris-Intertype Corporation would be responsible for many subsequent innovations in the typesetting industry. In 1974 the name of the company was changed to Harris Corporation, and four years later Harris moved its headquarters from Cleveland to Melbourne, FL. Harris sold its printing equipment business in 1983, and today is a large high tech and communications firm. [Google] [More] ⦿
Hucklebuck Design Studio
Andy Hayes (Hucklebuck Design Studio, springfield, OH) created Reverend Italic (2011), an architectural drawing italic as seen on Foundfont. Priest Condensed (2011) is a condensed wood type headline face. It is unclear if they also made the grotesk face Modelfont (2011). Vanity Numbers (2009) is a number font based on old Californian license plates. Model Plane Slab (2009) is a slab serif headline face with wood type influences. In 2010, they made M.C. Gothic Condensed. Grain-O (2011) is another grotesk headline face.
Joshua M. Smith (Centerville, OH) runs Hydro74, which is located in Sanford and/or Orlando, FL. His faces take their themes often from metal rock bands, the goth scene, blackletter, and grunge. They can be bought at MyFonts or here. See also here. More direct access.
His typefaces: Gestapo Dirty, Gestapo Tech, Terra Firma, Rehab, MissionUK, Messiahcom, Kogji, New York Corp, Texan, Grace For The Fallen. Free fonts include Beast, Broken74, Gatecrashertexan, Heresy, MeaniesThick, MegalomaniaItalic, MegalomaniaNormal, MilitarizeConform, MoogwaiItalic, MoogwaiNormal, MoogwaiThinOblique, OmnipotenceBlack, PietyBlack, Platipus, Proclivitydark, Proven, Resurrection, Revolution, Sacrafical, SailorJerry, Spitfire (2010, tattoo face), Submit, SubmitItalic, SubmitThinItalic, TripleXXX, Conform, Meanies, Megalomania, Moogwai, Platipus, Resurection, Revolution, Proven, Gate Crasher, Agnostic, Working Class hero (Western), Blasphemy, Disestarlishmentarianism, Napalm Vertigo, Black Mass (2005, blackletter / tattoo face).
In 2009, he fired up his creative mind, and started working on a new batch of display faces: Muerte Black, West Coast Soul, Iron Fist, Nue Black, Uber Black (+Caps, blackletter), Le Venom (a phenomenal high-contrast art deco face), Avante (art deco, counterless), Nue Goth (blackletter), The Thickness (ultra fat), Script, Razor Black, Martyr Black, Sentry Black, Imperial Black, Thai Black, Dayton Black (racecar lettering), Slash Black (blood and guts font), Burial Black (blackletter), Cadaver Ink (gothic), Czar (hairline sans), Tramp Stamp, Wolfstien Electro (in the spirit of Sinaloa), Viper Black (scary), Catalyst Solid (ulta fat), Calypso (sans), Suture Slab (gothic), Venice Black (gothic), Black Mamba (metal rock band lettering, Cyrillic influences), Tyranny Gothic (blackletter), Blackmail Sect (more blackletter), Sailor Jerry (bilined), Napalm Vertigo (army stencil), Heresy Gothic (blackletter grunge), Working Class Hero (Western grunge), Golden Age, La Santisma Muerte (scary).
Free faces at Legacy of Defeat, as of 2011: H74Cairissian, H74DemonRacer, H74EastZombieHigh, H74Federation, H74GhettoWolves (scary), H74InfectedZombies, H74Pistola, H74SnakeOilEmbossed, H74SnakeOilSolid (2011, constructivist), H74Spitfire, H74TheBlackBureau, H74TheGoldenDawn, H74TheGoldenDawnItalic, H74ThunderScript, H74ZombieAttack, Black Label Whiskey, Armored, Blood Tonic, H74 Cadaver Ink (2011, tattoo face), Cortez, Damn Hippies, H74 False Idols (2011), Heathen, Kremlin Ink, H74 Kustom Style (2011, a tattoo/graffiti font), Moscow Moonshine, San Loscisco (2011), Blood Tonic (2011), Snake Whiskey (2011), Time Is Money (2011), Valkyrie (2011), Viva Los Vatos (2011), Warriors (2011), West Coast Soul (2011), Yo Santos (2011).
Commercial faces done in 2011: H74 Warriors (2011), H74 Viva Los Vatos (2011, cholo graffiti), H74 Snake Whiskey (2011, spurred Western face), H74 Norway Black (2011), H74 Her Majesty (2011, spurred face), H74 Muerte (2011), H74 Hellfire (2011, spurred family), H74 Luckys Flash (2011), H74 Le Venom (2011, art deco), H74 Dishonor, H74 Cobra (tattoo face), H74 Pistola (2011, a tattoo font), H74 San Loscisco, H74 Wizard Nip (brush), H74 Wizard Staff, H74 The Black Bureau (black slab serif headline face), H74 Zombie Allegiance, H74 Monniker, H74 El Librador, H74 Eastern Star, H74 Dead Empire, H74 Black Diamond, H74 Alcazar, H74 Corpse Black, H74 Corpse Paint.
Typefaces from 2013: The Pricks, Ocelot Piss, The Witches, Wizard Tit, Conquest, Wizard Dick, Riverside, Dirty Sanchez, Corpus Delicti, Warlock Ghetto Wolves, Spitfire.
Typefaces from 2014: Thunder Pussy, The Kült, The Clap, Shit Script, Prison Bitch, Hëavy Mëtal, Fucktura Heavy, Fucktura Thin, Go Fuck Yer'Se;lf, Drop Anchor, Camp Cooter, Born to Lose.
Jack Aaron Rodriguez
Professor of Law, Co-Director, Center for Law, Technology, and the Arts, Associate Director, Frederick K Cox International Law Center, Director, Cyberspace Law and Policy Office, Case Western Reserve University School of Law, Cleveland, OH. She wrote an authoritative article on digita typeface protection entitled To © or Not to ©? Copyright and Innovation in the Digital Typeface Indust (2009). Abstract: Intellectual property rights are often justified by utilitarian theory. However, recent scholarship suggests that creativity thrives in some industries in the absence of intellectual property protection. These industries might be called IP's negative spaces. One such industry that has received little scholarly attention is the typeface industry. This industry has recently digitized. Its adoption of digital processes has altered its market structure in ways that necessitate reconsideration of its IP negative status, with particular emphasis on copyright. This article considers the historical denial of copyright protection for typefaces in the United States, and examines arguments both for and against extending copyright protection to digital typefaces. It compares copyright law with alternative methods of protection for digital typefaces. It also suggests that the digital typeface industry may be a useful lens through which to consider broader claims about the application of intellectual property law to IP's negative spaces in the digital age. The article is meant for the US market, and, while really well-researched, it is a bit vague in its recommendations---it does not take any strong position. It is cautious (most lawyers are), and seems to want more typeface design protection laws (most lawyers do). In her conclusions, Lipton states Because copyright protection can potentially chill innovation, it is necessary to consider relevant market factors in more detail before making a determination about the need to extend copyright to digital typeface designs as such, or to their code. If such an extension is to be made, copyrights granted for digital typefaces should only be thin. Copyrights should also only be available prospectively and not retroactively. This should mitigate concerns about propertization of the public domain. [Google] [More] ⦿
James Martin is from Cincinnati but works as a designer in Atlanta. The computer mouse served as the catalyst for the funky Mousetrap alphabet (2006-2007). Not a font. In 2012, he created the free octagonal font Aluap Sans. [Google] [More] ⦿
Graduate of the Myers School of Art at the University of Akron, OH, who lives in Cleveland, OH. Behance link. Creator of a sketched alphabet called Retro Nouveau (2011). This is not a font yet, I understand. [Google] [More] ⦿
Ex-student from the University of Toledo, b. 1971. Creator of the flamed dingbat and alphading fonts J-Flames (2011), Up In Flames (2008), Up In Flames Too (2008), Up No Flames (2008), Flames VI (2007), Flames V (2007), Gothic Flames (2007), Roman Flames (2009), Flames IV (2007), Flamesiii (2006, blackletter), Flames 2 (2006), Flames (2005), Bensch Gothic (2008), Bensch Gothic Flames (2008). PHuture (2008) breaks with his style and is a high-contrast rounded LED simulation face made in 2008.
Typefaces from 2010-2011: What UP (2011, gridded), Headshot (2011), PHUTUREphlamesPHAST (2011), PHUTUREphlames (2011), Gothferatu (2010, a spiky tattoo parlour blackletter face), Skyline (2010), Hexcellent (2011).
Typefaces from 2012: Fontmageddon.
Typefaces from 2014: Hot Secretary, UpTop, Synced, Small Tall.
Illustrator and album cover artist in the 1940s and 1950s, b. Bellefontaine, OH, 1914, d. Rowayton, CT, 1998. He lived mostly in Rowayton, CT. Irwin Chusid writes: Flora's album covers pulsed with angular hepcats bearing funnel-tapered noses and shark-fin chins who fingered cockeyed pianos and honked lollipop-hued horns. Yet this childlike exuberance was subverted by a tinge of the diabolic. Flora wreaked havoc with the laws of physics, conjuring flying musicians, levitating instruments, and wobbly dimensional perspectives. Taking liberties with human anatomy, he drew bonded bodies and misshapen heads, while inking ghoulish skin tints and grafting mutant appendages. He was not averse to pigmenting jazz legends Benny Goodman and Gene Krupa like bedspread patterns. On some Flora figures, three legs and five arms were standard equipment, with spare eyeballs optional. His rarely seen fine artworks reflect the same comic yet disturbing qualities. "He was a monster," said artist and Floraphile JD King. So were many of his creations.
His headline in a 1953 issue of Park East Magazine inspired Nick Curtis to create the font Cool Cat Jim NF (2005). Another Jim Flora font by Nick Curtis is Flora Dora NF. P22 Type Foundry has released Flora Mambo (2010), a font set based on playful hand-lettering from the 1955 Jim Flora Mambo For Cats RCA Victor album cover. The set includes Flornaments, consisting of 72 miniature figure icons (dingbats) from Flora artworks. Scans of some of his album covers and illustrations: Collaboration, Dog, Kallao set, Solomon's Seal (1942), The Day the Cow Sneezed (1957), Self Portrait. [Google] [More] ⦿
Portland, OR-based creative director where he works at Nike. Before settling at Nike in Portland, he worked at Landor Associates, Stone Yamashita Partners, Chronicle Books, Pentagram, and CKS Partners and was living some of that time in San Francisco. He graduated from the College of DAAP at the University of Cincinnati.
His type designs include the Sgiv1Text family in 1999, at first done as an OEM for Silicon Graphics Inc. This SGI corporate typeface evolved a couple of years later into the retail font Monolein (T-26).
Joshua M. Smith
Jane, aka Lady Timeless, aka GraphXGoneWild created a number of dingbats. Born in 1961, she lives in Ohio. In her own words: These Dingbats were all created by me (Lady Timeless). Some of the files were created from using OutLaw by Designs Poser graphics (with permission) and some were created from The Big Box of Art clipart, but some are my own original designs too. The fonts, all dated 2005-2006: 12HalloweenSignsLT, 7DingbatSlatsLT, CaliKatsPathDrawsLT, CathysArtDecoDings, FreakyCommentBalloonsLT, CatsvsDogsLT, CharmHoldersLT, FencedInLT, JewelryPartsLT, LadyFootwearLT, MakeYourOwnPetsLT, PostItLT, SilhouettesfromPoserLT, WindowsLT. Fontspace link. [Google] [More] ⦿
Nathanael Bonnell studied in Cincinnati, OH, and set up the Looseleaf Fonts commercial foundry in 2012 in Wyoming, OH. Before that, he created Cyril, a Cyrillic typeface. Creator of the retro minimalist geometric beauty Yoshiko (2006)---disregard the typophiles' comments, because this one is going to live a glorious life. His third project, Salamander (2006), a classic roman with a luscious italic to boot, is another winner. However, probably because of pressure from Linotype, which owns the name Linotype Salamander, the latter font was renamed Newt. In 2009, Newt Serif was published by Cabinet Type / Veer.
The Looseleaf Foundry published the serifed typeface Walleye (2013), which covers Latin, Cyrillic and Greek.
Graphic designer in Cincinnati, OH. Behance link.
Born in Columbus, OH, in 1970. Catalog of Marcus Burlile's typefaces:
A graduate of the University of Cincinnati, Ohio and of the Atelier national de Recherche typographique (Paris). She is a professor of applied typography at the Ecole Estienne in Paris since 1994. Her work is centered around the use of writing within an architectural context, as a vehicule of information, or an element of architectural identity. [Google] [More] ⦿
Born in Cleveland, Matt Roth studied at Ohio University, and lives in Athens, OH. Fiji (2012) is a serifed typeface developed in Don Adleta's Letterform Design class at Ohio University. [Google] [More] ⦿
Ohio-based graphic designer (b. 1991) who created the rounded futuristic faces Veracity (2008) and Evolution (2008). See also here, where Evolution is credited to Schoch and Paul Willocks. [Google] [More] ⦿
Climate activist and lead designer for 350.org. His abridged CV in his own words: Born in Columbus, Ohio. Played with Legos. Loved to draw. Played drums in a high school band. Started messing around in Photoshop. Became a vegetarian. Studied green architecture at Western. Discovered that making posters and websites was more fun than building models. Moved to Washington DC to intern at Free Range. Moved to San Francisco to work for 350. Made some good friends. Ate too many burritos. Moved to Brooklyn for the hell of it.
In 2014, Matthew created the free sans typeface family Klima for the climate movement: Klima is my version of a more relaxed DIN: slightly wider, with a similar geometric foundation but more plainspoken. In three weights with obliques, free for non-commercial, non-climate denial use. It is exquisite and quite good, except perhaps that the italics are just obliques (slanted romans). [Google] [More] ⦿
Cincinnati, OH-based and/or San José, Costa Rica-based designer of the techno ornamental caps typeface Alex Young (2013), named after a DC-area producer and DJ for whom the typeface was created.
In 2014, he made the squarish typefaces Elite and This Way To Costa Rica.
Mike graduated from Ohio State University with a degree in philosophy. Prolific Columbus, OH-based designer (b. Columbus, OH) whose fonts are mainly available through Scriptorium. Many of his fonts were influenced by roman inscriptional or Trajan types. these include Caesario (1993, a Trajan column font based on Goudy's drawings from 1936), Minerva (1993), Falconis and Vespasiano. Other typefaces with ancient origins include DeBellis, Pomponianus, Praitor, Jerash (1993, with Nalle), Macteris Uncial (1993), Antioch (1993), and Corbei Uncial.
He prepared a set of fonts based on a medieval Latin British manuscript (Pontifica, 1999) and another one called Orlock, based on the lettering in a poster for the German German expressionist silent film Nosferatu. Pontifica was redesigned in 2009 based on the source manuscripts from the Papal Archive. He writes: Pontifica is an example of protogothic calligraphy, a style developed at the monestery of St. Gall in the 12th century to replace Carolingian minuscule with a more efficient and compact system of lettering. Ultimately it became the progenitor of the gothic lettering styles of the late Medieval period.
GD&T font is a safety symbol truetype font for 49USD: "Professionally designed Windows TrueType font that contains the complete QS-9000 critical characteristics and safety symbol set, as well as the entire set of ASME GD&T symbols." From MMST Inc in Willoughby, OH, 49USD. MMST stands for Metrology e URL listed for MMST, Inc. Metrology Methods Support Technology. The founder and owner is Wayne Knazek. [Google] [More] ⦿
Based in Galion, OH, Nathan Eady (b. 1974) used the free tools Inkscape and FontForge to make the free architectural lettering font family Blooming Grove (2009, Open Font Library). Blog. [Google] [More] ⦿
New York-based foundry run by Charles Nix (b. 1967, Ohio). Fonts: Melaka, Batak, Nani, Tuk Tuk, Christmas (a softened blackletter with Christmas ornaments), Nix Rift (serif), Huta Bulon, Samosir, Island Special. Batak became ITC Batak (2002). MyFonts write-up. Charles Nix digitized the Augereau family for George Abrams in 1997 and manages the Abrams Legacy Collection, which also offers Abrams Venetian.
The company consists of Charles Nix (font design), Stefano Arcella (ornament design), and Wong Chee Yee (digitizing).
Typefaces in the New Fonts collection are derived from a rich variety of sources - from 15th century Spain to 21st century Sumatra. The Sumatran Series of fonts is inspired by hand-painted letterforms from commercial signage in the tiny village of Tuk Tuk on the island of Samosir in Northern Sumatra. The series consists of six faces: Batak, Nani, Tuk Tuk, Samosir, Melaka, and Huta Bolon.
Designer in Cincinnati, OH, who created some custom faces in 2010, such as Heinz Schenker. He is a student at the University of Cincinnati's College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning. [Google] [More] ⦿
This college in Oberlin, Ohio, was well-known in the 19th century for its penmanship studies. C.A. Barnett, J.T. Henderson and J.N. Yocom published the Oberlin Business College Compendium of Penmanship (1901). [Google] [More] ⦿
Influential designer and type designer, motivated by beautiful advertising type (b. Mountgilead, Ohio, 1879, d. Chicago, 1940). Picture. He was angry at Goudy for his Goudy Heavyface (1925), which resembles Cooper Black a bit too much (check this 2002 video). MyFonts link. Cooper died of cancer. His faces include:
From Ashtabula, OH, Patricia Lillie (b. 1958) is the respected designer of the wonderful (shareware) Poptics dingbat fonts series (I, II and III) in 1993. See also here or here. Please read her remarks about rip-off font sellers. She sold many wonderful wonderful wonderful dingbat fonts via Eyewire: Gargoil, Fidelma, Lil Creatures (great!), Lil Ancients, Lil Critters, Lil Dings, Lil Fishies, Lil Stuff, Lil Features, Lil Folks, Lil Faces, Lil Events, Lil Flowers, Mini Pics Doohickies, Lil Edibles and Lil Vehicles. These were marketed by Image Club Graphics as their MiniPics series in 1995. She also had display fonts such as Horsefeathers, WhimsyICG, Whassis, Farrier, Shatterday, Chilada and Chilada Dos (1994), Burweed, Alleycat, Ashtabula, Damosel, and Syllogon. [T-26] designer of Ashtabula, Damosel, DamoselDingbats.
Other fonts: Fidelma (at Type Quarry), Samson, Delilah, Benderville, ElegeionScript (2001, formal handwriting), ITC Tickle (2001), ITC Tickle Too, ITC Cinderella (2002), Miss Kitty Deluxe (2009, comic book face), Zarlino (2011, a brand new bastarda blackletter family), Boppa Delux (2011, an elegant bold display family). [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
Oberlin, OH-based foundry of Shane Brandes (b. Lakefield, MN, 1974), who made the historic semi-blackletter revival Augsburger2009 (2009), which was inspired by one of Ernhardt Ratdolt's (1442-1528) many beautiful typefaces. Ratdolt was a printer from Augsburg, hence the name. River Liffey (2009) is based on a typeface used by James Williams an Irish printer active in Dublin during the late 18th century. Rising Sun (2009, blackletter) was inspired by Gering and Remboldt's work during the late 1490s in Paris.
Charlemagne (2010) is an imaginary medieval script. Fleurious (2010) are ornaments. Sweynheym Pannartz (2010) is modeled after an example Conrad Sweynheym and Arnold Pannartz used in their early printing venture in Subiaco, Italy which began around 1465. Ballard (2010) was inspired by a font used by Henrie Ballard, who operated on Fleet Street at the Signe of the Bear in London from ca. 1597-1608. White Now (2010) is a music note font. Enn'agrammaton (2010) is a cryptographic font. Pluton (2010) is a fixed width font with over 1400 glyphs. Old Venexia (2010) simulates an irregular medieval type. Black Tie (2010) is a simple monoline sans family. Azabercna (2010) is based on gothic principles. Alchimistes (2010) is a medieval symbol face, while Florati (2010) provides a set of ornamental caps. Wappenstein (2010) is an angular stone-carved face: The font Wappenstein was inspired by the carving on a memorial stone located in Paderborn, Germany. The stone was a Epitaph of the Brenkener family, and the carver is known as the Meister des Brenkener Familienepitaphs. The carving, dating to 1562, currently is curated by the Erzbischöfliches Diözesanmuseum in the city of Paderborn and was originally in the Brenkener Pfarr Kirche. Boston 1851 (2010) is based on a stereotype used by Wier and White, Printers of Boston, that was created by the New England Stereoype Foundry under the auspices of Hobart and Robbins, also of Boston. Cruxially (2010) is a 500-glyph dingbat font with crosses.
Gaspardo (2011) is an art deco display face. Anguillette (2011) is a quaint grungy face. Ernst (2011) is a very simple but large hand-printed face. The blackletter face Schoeffer (2011) is based on Typ.7:146/148G also known as Gesellschaft für Typenkunde plate no. 258, by Peter the Younger (son of Peter Schoeffer), cut ca. 1509-1520. Printers in Marks is a printer mark dingbat face created in 2011. Cat E Poultry (2011) is a scanbat face of cats. Lucas Brandis (2011) is based on section headings used by printer Lucas Brandis,the first printer to operate in the city of Lübeck around 1473.
Creations in 2012: Vine Street, Nicolaus Kesler (a blackletter type based on one of the typefaces of Basel-based Nicolaus Kessler, 15th century), Modality Antiqua (straight-edged and mechanical), Martin Crantz (2012: Martin Crantz (or sometimes Krantz) of the three, including Ulrich Gering and Michael Friburger, that set up a press at the Sorbonne in 1470 was likely the fellow who had the technical know how how to cast the type itself, hence the name of this new face that is based on his work.). Modality Antiqua and Modality Novus are explorations of the octagonal principle. Zainer is a rough-edges renaissance era typeface named after Augsburg-based printer Günther Zainer who was active from 1468-1478. Swine And Roses is based on a Free Mason script. Ammurapi is a Ugaritic script face.
Typefaces from 2013: Michael Wenssler (an incunabula / blackletter typeface based on Michael wenssler typeface from 1482), Andreae (a Fraktur based on a 16th century font by Hieronymus Andreae, who first worked as woodblock cutter and then became a publisher in the city of Nuremberg until his death in 1565), Dropsomaniacal (Lombardic), Therhoernen (grungy medieval script after a Cologne-based printer Arnold Therhoernen, active from 1470-1483), Rusch (a 1000-glyph revival of a late 15th century antiqua by Adolf Rusch von Ingweiler, who was active in Strasbourg from 1460-1489), Gutknecht (a Schwabacher based on a font used by Jobst Gutknecht, a printer in Nuremburg from 1514-1542). The rough blackletter typeface Kachelofen and Konrad Kachelofen are named after Konrad Kachelhofen, a printer in Leipzig active from 1482 until 1529. Albrecht Pfister (2013) is a textura face based on Biblia Paperum, which was printed by Pfister in Bamberg, ca. 1460. Amerbach 883 (2013) is a rotunda typeface based on a typeface by Basel-based printer and typefounder Johann von Amerbach, who was active from 1477 until 1513.
Typefaces from 2014: Lion of Antwerp (an incunabula typeface: Gerard Leeu met his untimely end in a work-related altercation in 1492. He was a notable printer in both the cities of Gouda and Antwerp. This font face is based on the "Die gesten of gheschienisse van romen" typeface, ca. 1481.)
Prototype Experimental Foundry
Commercial foundry, est. 1994 in Brooklyn by Charles Wilkin (b. Buffalo, NY). Designers selling their fonts through them include
Free fonts by Charles Wilkin: Creep (1995), Cypher (1997), Nude (1995), Pixely (2002).
Benn is an electrical engineering professor at Ohio State. Benn Coifman's site specializes in commercial railroad train and train lettering fonts. Also included (for free) are a crossword font, a population font, a car font, and a cartography font, all designed by Ben. Check RoadSign, a complete collection of US road signs. He also has a 1940s automobile font, the text font Rio Grande (1998) and a WWII plane font. He also made the BankGothic lookalikes Gotthard and Zephyr. Other designers at RailFonts are Clifford J. Vander Yacht and Otto M. Vondrak.
Reference Type Foundry
Small foundry run by Albert J. Kim of Toledo, OH, who made the Adagio sans family in 1994. The fonts Aspire (1994, calligraphic) and HeadlineNews (1993) were shareware. I do not think this outfit is still up. Alternate URL. [Google] [More] ⦿
Creator (at Xavier University in Cincinnati, OH) of the old typewriter font Remington Noiseless (2005), a font made with Fontifier.
Cleveland, OH-based type designer actiive in the 1950s and 1960s. He made several photo lettering and metal typefaces. These include Layout Gothic No.1, 2, 3, and Roys Gothic No.2, 3.
Mac McGrew writes: Layout Gothic was an attempt to do in metal some of the things that advertising artists were demanding of photolettering with its new-found 'freedom" of tight spacing. Roy Rothstein, a Cleveland typographer, redesigned several characters for the Alternate Gothics; these were specially cast by ATF about 1959, and other characters were trimmed for very close fitting. Similar heavier gothics had been made about 1951: Roys Gothic No.2 by Rothstein in collaboration with Jack Forman, Roys Gothic No.3 by Rothstein, and Roys Gothic No.4, an adaptation of Helvetica Extra Bold Condensed, imported from Germany. All this was done in the 60-point size; other sizes were furnished photographically. [Google] [More] ⦿
Free truetype font MapBats by Ken Gross, 1998. Ken is a map designer and editor at Rustbelt Cartography in Cleveland, OH. The font is not on the web page. It used to be at Jami's site. [Google] [More] ⦿
Dayton, OH-based designer at Virb. Also, front-end coder, illustrator and typographer. He says about Liberator (2011, Lost Type Coop): This bomber-inspired face provides a masculine punch to any project or design.
This Ryan Smith is from Akron, OH. His site is called Design by Smitty. He is scheduled to graduate from Ohio University's School of Fine Arts in 2012. He created a peppy slab serif typeface called Rubio (2012), which was named after his grandfather James Rubio who ran Rubio's Homemade Italian Spaghetti Sauce from 1958 until 1984. Behance link. [Google] [More] ⦿
Youngster from Ohio who made the primitive handscripted TF2 Professor (2007). I am bit puzzled, because the copyright says that TF2 Professor is due to Andrea Wicklund. In any case, it was made with Fontifier. [Google] [More] ⦿
School of Art, Ohio University, Athens
He created the minimalist high-contrast Qag (2009, Mostar Design Company), Muneris (2010, squarish), some experimental typefaces, the minimalist geometric sans face Monolite (2013), Berque (2010, a minimalist rounded sans face with hints of DIN), Kolg Gothic (2011), Jirue (2011, high-contrast didone), Kajf (2011, piano key face), NERC (2011, avant-garde), ARGN (2011, a rounded monospaced stencil family), and FOSU (2010, hairline avant-garde sans, at HypeForType).
From Encyclopaedia Britannica: Style of cursive script developed by Platt Rogers Spencer (d. 1864) of Geneva, Ohio. Energetically promoted by five sons and a nephew, the Spencerian method became the most widely known system of handwriting instruction in the third quarter of the 19th century. [Google] [More] ⦿
American calligrapher, letterer, and type designer (b. 1953, Indianapolis, IN) located in Lakewood, OH, and/or Kent, OH. As a lettering artist for American Greetings since 2000, he has designed and developed numerous proprietary fonts. He specializes in beautiful script typefaces. Stephen's commercial fonts can be found in both Veer and P22/IHOF collections. Creator of these fonts:
Tobias Brauer is a graphic design professor from Cincinnati, OH. He runs a blog that occasionally discusses type. In 2014, he published the sans typeface Apposite, originally designed in 2012. Tobias writes: In its earliest versions and derivations, the design of Apposite experienced aesthetic influence by trying to engineer a hybrid between Helvetica and FF DIN. However, as Apposite’s design progressed, and became much more refined, it also developed into a visual voice that speaks in a contemporary tone, reflecting Swiss, German, and American characteristics.
Todd Childers (b. 1964) is an Associate Professor at the Bowling Green State University School of Art (Graphic Design, 1995-present), who lives in Toledo, OH. He designed the Usher family (1999) at Garagefonts. Usonian is a concrete block font. Fraktura is a marriage between Futura and Fraktur. And Burnout-2000 (2000, Garagefonts) is a grunge font done when those were popular.
Ultimate Font Download
This is as much an ultimate font download as my uncle's manure pool. $19.95 gets you 10,000 fonts now. The owner, Jason Nolan, claims: I have received the permission from all the font creators to include their work in my download. Hmmmm... right. Jason Nolans is located in Columbus, Ohio, and Dublin, Ireland, which is asking 12 US dollars for a download of 4000 mostly shareware and freeware fonts. Located in 1785 O'Brien Rd, Columbus, OH 43228. [Google] [More] ⦿
The Warehouse is a collaborative effort between Brittany Deighton (Kent, Ohio) and Jesse Snyder, who is located in Ohio. One can buy some icon font sets from them, such as Miniglyph, Parks and Rec, and Snack Time. Together, they designed the slabby wood type typeface Ohio, and Medical Icons in 2013. [Google] [More] ⦿
Martinsville, Ohio-born illustrator, calligrapher, typographer, book designer, author, type designer and puppeteer, 1880-1956 (Hingham, MA). Pic (1955). All his typefaces were designed for the Mergenthaler Linotype Company, where he worked for 27 years. He also was Acting Director of the Harvard University Press, 1917-1918. In 1919, he founded the Society of Calligraphers, Boston, and was in fact an accomplished calligrapher, who drew many ornaments and designed many jackets. Dwiggins studied lettering under Goudy in Chicago while a student at Frank Holme's School of Illustration. When Goudy moved to Hingham, Dwiggins followed and was to work there for the rest of his life. As a puppeteer, he often used the pseudonym Dr. Hermann Puterschein. Bio by Nicholas Fabian. Flickr picture group for Dwiggins. Among his writings, I cite
Matt Desmond created Dwiggins Deco in 2009 and writes: This typeface was originally designed in 1930 by W.A. Dwiggins as the cover for the book "American Alphabets" by Paul Hollister. Only the 26 letters of the alphabet were included on the cover, so the rest of the numbers, punctuation, symbols, and accented characters have been crafted in a matching [art deco] style. A free version called Dwiggins Initials KK was designed in 2012 by John Wollring.
Author of Lettering for Commercial Purposes, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1918. He liked full round ovals, condensed vertical elements and a slightly broken alignment. He was one of the main American designers of commercial lettering during the early part of the 20th century. His students included Ross F. George.
Wood Type Impressions