TYPE DESIGN INFORMATION PAGE last updated on Sat Jun 22 21:03:00 EDT 2024






Readability & Legibility


[Thomas Huot-Marchand]

256tm is the foundry of Besançon, France-based designer Thomas Huot-Marchand (b. Dole, France, 1977). He studied under Peter Keller at the ANRT in Nancy, and teaches at the École d'Art de Besançon. He has been Director the Atelier national de recherche typographique (ANRT) in Nancy since 2012.

His typefaces are distributed by 205tf (was: 205 Corp, or 256tm):

  • The 72-weight Garaje (from Garaje 55 to Garaje 100; Garaje 53 Unicase Black is free).
  • Minuscule. A ten style family for small print, which won an award at the TDC2 2005 type competition. In Comedia he writes about legibility and the creation of Miniscule, which was optimized to be read at 2 to 6 points. His research for this at the ANRT was based on the theory of "compact typography" put forth by Emile Javal, a French ophtalmologist who explained his ideas in "Physiologie de la lecture et de l'écriture" (1905). For examples, see here and here.
  • The experimental typeface Minerale (2017). Minerale won an award at the Type Directors Club's Type Design Competition 2019.
  • In 2021, he released Album Sans and Album Slab. These fonts were based on designs by Walbaum. He explains: Justus Erich Walbaum (1768-1837), a confectioner by trade, carved his own cake molds. Quite gifted, he became a specialist, developing an activity as a punch-cutter, and eventually bought Ernst Wilhelm Kirschner’s type foundry. Considered to be one of the foremost creators of his time, he engraved gothic letters and Antiqua type, similar to those of Didot and Bodoni. But his romans had a different flavor, and for some, they contain the origins of the Grotesques that followed. In 2010, Thomas Huot-Marchand and SPMillot were asked to develop the typographic identity of the Musée d'Orsay that had been based on Berthold Walbaum since its very beginnings. They proposed adding distant cousins in later typographic styles: a bold grotesque and a thin slab serif, but these typefaces would ultimately remain unused. In 2020, Thomas Huot-Marchand decided to redesign them while developing an extended family. Album is a subtraction of Walbaum: with no serifs for Album Sans and with no contrast for Album Slab. Its silhouette retains some memory of the particular proportions and slightly flattened curves of Walbaum. Album Sans proposes a new reading of grotesques with an extended range of weights: the horizontal terminations of the R and the a, the binocular g, the junction of the k along with the singular design of the numbers, distinguish it from usual forms. The duplexed italics have a reduced slant.

Abstract Fonts link. Home page. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

A Comparison of Popular Online Fonts: Which is Best and When?

A study in 2007 at Wichita State University (Kansas) by Michael Bernard, Melissa Mills, Michelle Peterson and Kelsey Storrer compared these font types: Agency FB (Agency), Arial, Comic Sans, Tahoma, Verdana, Courier New (Courier), Georgia, Goudy Old Style (Goudy), Century Schoolbook (Schoolbook), Times New Roman (Times), Bradley Hand ITC (Bradley), Monotype Corsiva (Corsiva).

They conclude: First, no significant difference in actual legibility between the font types were detected. There were, however, significant differences in reading time, but these differences may not be that meaningful for most online text because these differences were not substantial. It may, on the other hand, be helpful to consider using font types that are perceived as being legible. In this study, the font types that were perceived as being most legible were Courier, Comic, Verdana, Georgia, and Times. Courier and Times were perceived as being the most business-like, whereas Comic was perceived as being the most fun and youthful. [Google] [More]  ⦿

A critique of existing typefaces for HDTV (EIA-708) captioning
[Joe Clark]

Joe Clark (Toronto) takes all the fonts proposed by Agfa/Monotype, Ascender and Bitstream for HDTV screen captioning apart. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Access Font

Led by designer and Emily Carr alumnus Tyler Hawkins (Shumka Centre for Creative Entrepreneurship), the Access Font (formerly Ceramic and Infinite Font) is a flexible font for low vision, using the variable font format as a foundation. A web tool assesses the needs of individual readers, and translates those needs into an individualized font. A browser extension then reads text from the Internet, displaying it on-screen in the user's personalized font. The technology has the potential to improve Internet accessibility and the experience of reading for an estimated one billion people worldwide who are partially sighted. Originally a graduate student project, Access Font was incubated through our Satellite Residency at Emily Carr University of Art + Design in Vancouver, BC. Hawkins will work with a web developer, Quinn Keaveney, and a font engineer, Mirko Velimirovic to develop, test, and release the Access Font software. The project is set for release in 2022. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Alex Poole: Serif or Sans-serif?

In 2005, Alex Poole reviewed over 50 empirical studies in typography and found a definitive answer. It has an extensive literature review. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Anja Meiners

Cofounder, with Ralph du Carrois, of bBox Type. Creator of the free Google Web Font ABeeZee (2012), a sans typeface created to help children. The font was published by Carrois Type Design and extended to include ABeZeh Icons (2016), ABeZeh Slab (2016) and ABeZeh Konfetti (2016). She also designed the rounded sans typeface Gute (2018, with Ralph du Carrois at bBox Type) and the rough handwriting typeface Mamotschka (2017).

In 2015, Fontfont finally published the full family FF Real, in 13 weights each for FF Real Head and FF Real Text. The typeface family is influenced by the German grotesques from ca. 1900 by foundries such as Theinhardt and H. Berthold AG. In 2017-2018, that family was extended to 52 styles in all thanks to a new set of italics. The designers are listed as Erik Spiekermann, Ralph du Carrois and Anja Meiners. They write: The design of FF Real is rooted in early static grotesques from the turn of the century. Several German type foundries---among them the Berlin-based foundries Theinhardt and H. Berthold AG---released such designs between 1898 and 1908. The semi-bold weight of a poster-size typeface that was lighter than most of the according semi-bolds in metal type at the time, gave the impetus to FF Real's regular weight. In the words of Spiekermann, the historical example is "the real, non-fake version, as it were, the royal sans serif face", thus giving his new typeface the name Real (which is also in keeping with his four-letter names, i.e. FF Meta, FF Unit). FF Real is a convincing re-interpretation of the German grotesque style, but with much more warmth and improved legibility. With a hint towards the warmer American grotesques, Spiekermann added those typical Anglo-American features such as a three-story g and an 8 with a more defined loop. To better distinguish characters in small text sizes, FF Real Text comes in old style figures, f and t are wider, the capital I is equipped with serifs, as is the lowercase l. What's more, i-dots and all punctuation are round.

In 2022, Erik Spiekermann, Anja Meiners, and Ralph du Carrois published the neo-grotesque superfamily Case at Fontwerk. It includes Micro and Text subfamilies. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ann Bessemans

Ann Bessemans (b. 1983) obtained her Ph.D. in 2012 from Leiden University (under Gerard Unger) and Hasselt University. She grew up in Sint-Truiden, Belgium.

In 2011, she finished the Expert Type Design Class with Frank Blokland at the Plantin Genootschap in Antwerp, and created the typeface Matilda. Matilda was specially designed to help make kids make the transition from reading simple type forms to more complex ones.

Her PhD in 2012 entitled Type Design for Children with Low Vision was jointly supervised by Gerard Unger at Leiden University, and Bert Willems at Hasselt University. Her research interests include the interrelations between image & word, typography, font design, legibility, reading graphic design, book design and modular systems.

She speaks regularly about legibility. Speaker at ATypI 2013 in Amsterdam and at ATypI 2014 in Barcelona.

In 2014, Ann Bessemans designed a Belgian postage stamp that set a Guinness record of 606 words on one stamp.

Speaker at ATypI 2016 in Warsaw on READSEARCH---A Platform for Reading Research (together with Kevin Bormans and Maarten Renckens). READSEARCH, launched in 2015, is Bessemans's research group that studies reading from a multidisciplinary and scientific perspective, covering both impaired and normal readers.

Speaker at ATypI 2017 Montreal. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Annie Opitz Olsen

Annie Opitz Olsen, a graduate of the University of Nevada, Reno, was previously a Reno printer and calligraphy teacher. She works for Wycliffe Bible Translators and has given type design training workshops in Bangalore and Mexico City. Creator (with Victor Gaultney) at SIL International (Dallas, TX) of the Open Font License package of sans serif fonts called Andika Design Review (2006, weights called A through G). Andika means "to write" in Swahili. Annie writes: Andika is a sans serif, Unicode-compliant font designed especially for literacy use, taking into account the needs of beginning readers. The focus is on clear, easy-to-perceive letterforms that will not be easily confused with one another. Andika was develioped between 2004 and 2015. It contains about 600 glyphs. The early fonts were called Andika DesRev A and Andika DesRev B. The current fonts, Andika, Andika Basic (2008) and Andika New Basic (2015) are here. See also Fontsquirrel and Google Fonts. In 2020, the design of Andika New Basic is attributed to Victor Gaultney, Annie Olsen, Pablo Ugerman in one place and Victor Gaultney, Annie Olsen, Julie Remington, Don Collingsworth and Eric Hays in another.

Codesigner of various other typefaces at SIL, including Gentium Plus (2014; with J. Victor Gaultney, Iska Routamaa and Becca Hirsbrunner).

Speaker at ATypI 2009 in Mexico City, where she updated the type world on the newest features of Andika, which is constantly being expanded. Interview. Google Font Directory link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Antonia Cornelius

German type and communication designer, lecturer and researcher with a special interest in legibility and readability (b. 1989). She obtained a Bachelor's in communication design with Jovica Veljovic at Hamburg University of Applied Science, where her thesis was entitled The Letters in my Head. What Creatives should know about reading processes in order to design joyful reading experiences. She also did a Master's with Veljovic, which led to her Legilux typeface family (a transitional serif with optical sizes as well as a sans serif) and further research on legibility. She graduated in 2017. Antonia joined Dutch Design in 2017 and extended the FF DIN family to FF DIN Slab. Furthermore, she re-engineered the whole FF DIN family itself to make variable fonts; she also added Bulgarian Cyrillic and other characters; finally, she also made FF DIN Stencil into a functional three axis variable font. Since 2018, she teaches type design at Muthesius University of Fine Arts and Design in Kiel.

Her typefaces:

  • Legilux (2016). A transitional serif with optical sizes as well as a sans serif developed during her Masters studies at Hamburg University of Applied Science.
  • FF DIN Slab (2022). With Albert-Jan Pool.
  • FF DIN Slab Variable (2022). With Albert-Jan Pool.
  • FF DIN Stencil (2022). With Albert-Jan Pool and Achaz Reuss.
  • FF DIN Stencil Variable (2022). With Albert-Jan Pool and Achaz Reuss.
  • FF DIN Paneuropean (2022). With Albert-Jan Pool, Achaz Reuss, Aleksei Chekulaev and Panos Haratzopoulos. See also and FF DIN Paneuropean Variable (with Achaz Reuss, Aleksei Chekulaev, Albert-Jan Pool and Panos Haratzopoulos).

Antonia Cornelius won the People's Choice award for Legilux in 2016 at the Morisawa Type Design Competition 2016.

Speaker at ATypI 2018 in Antwerp on the topic of legibility: Typeface designers Antonia Cornelius and Björn Schumacher conducted a preliminary study for their final master's projects. They set up a reading-speed test by reverting to well-tried test material, which they set in their new typefaces Legilux and Text Type as well as the common Walbaum Standard. Focusing on the effect of the optical scaling method, the typefaces were tested in two sizes: 1.5 mm and 1 mm x-height. The results tend to show a positive effect for optical adjustments in type designs. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Applied Design Works

Applied Design Works was founded in 2015, with offices in New York and Los Angeles. In their own words, Applied specializes in design, planning, strategy, and implementation for a broad range of mission-driven organizations. Their team includes Craig Dobie, Founding Creative Director, Brad Scott, Founding Managing Director, and Elliott Scott, Creative Director.

Atkinson Hyperlegible (2019-2020) is a free neo-grotesque typeface created by Applied Design Works for Braille Institute of America, Inc, which is based in Los Angeles. Named after Braille Institute founder, J. Robert Atkinson, it has been developed specifically to increase legibility for readers with low vision, and to improve character recognition. The project was the winner of the Graphic Design category in Fast Company's 2019 Innovation by Design Awards. In this video, Craig Dobie, Brad Scott, and Elliott Scott provide a behind-the-scenes look at the development of Atkinson Hyperlegible. Google Fonts link.

The physical 4-style font family was designed by Elliott Scott, Megan Eiswerth, Linus Boman and Theodore Petrosky.

Atkinson Hyperlegible differentiates common misinterpreted letters and numbers using various design techniques:

  • Recognizable Footprints: Character boundaries clearly defined, ensuring understanding across the visual-ability spectrum.
  • Differentiated letterforms: similar letter pairs are differentiated from each other to dramatically increase legibility.
  • Unambiguous Characters: designed to increase legibility and distinction.
  • Exaggerated forms: shaping of letters is exaggerated to provide better clarity.
  • Opened Counterspace: open areas of certain letters are expanded to provide greater distinction.
  • Angled spurs and differentiated tails: they increase recognition and define distinctive style.

CTAN link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Artur Frankowski
[FontArte (was: Magdart Fonts)]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Bernd Hülsmann

German type designer at URW++, b. 1978, Dülmen. After studies at Fachhochschule Münster in 2009, he set up Designwerk H. In 2016, he completed the simple 4-style sans typeface families Semikolon Classic and Semikolon Plus. URW++ explains: Optimal readability by reduced, distinct letter forms. Appropriate for early readers of any age in schools and other educational institutions. SemikolonPlus minimizes the risk of confusing similar characters and therefore is predestinated for the use in text blocks, work sheets and educational games. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Bonnie Shaver-Troup
[The Lexend Project]

[More]  ⦿


Hrant Papazian (The MicroFoundry) explains how the eye reads, and what the importance is of having good boumas (a bouma is the nebulous shape of a word; as if seen through foggy glasses). Fonts with more distinctive boumas enjoy greater readability. A distinctive bouma depends a lot on ascenders and descenders. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Braille Institute of America

The Braille Institute of America is located in Los Angeles, CA. In 2019, Elliott Scott, Megan Eiswerth, Linus Boman and Theodore Petrosky co-designed the totally free sans typeface family Atkinson Hyperlegible. Named after Braille Institute founder, Robert J. Atkinson, this font is characterized by differentiated letterforms, angled terminals, and a genuflexed lower case q.

Fontsquirrel link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bruno Munari

Italian artist, writer, designer, architect, graphic designer, educator, and philosopher, who proposed one font, Essential, in 1935, consisting of the minimum parts of letters needed for readability. His principles were lucidity, leanness, exactitude and humor. He was part of a team at Nebiolo (with Giancarlo Illiprandi, Franco Grignani, Ilio Negri, Till Neuburg, Luigi Oriani and Pino Tovaglia) that designed the lineale family Forma from 1966-1970 under the direction of Aldo Novarese. Born in 1907 in Milan, he died there in 1998.

Forma was revived by Tankboys as Forma Nova.

The PhD thesis of Alessandro Colizzi at the University of Leiden deals with Bruno Munari's graphic design work. See also Colizzi's talk at ATypI 2013 in Amsterdam on Munari's legacy.

Several typefaces have been made tio honor his work. These include Munari (2013, Dori Novotny).

Dolcevita link. Munart: dedicated web site. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Cambria, Constantia, Times New Roman

A legibility study in 2006 at Wichita State University (Kansas) by Barbara S. Chaparro, A. Dawn Shaikh and Alex Chaparro shows that Cambria is more legible than Constantia, and both are far more legible than Times New Roman. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Crystian Cruz

[More]  ⦿

Cunzhen Lin

Lin obtained an MA in 2002 from Hochschule fuer Grafik und Buchkust Leipzig (Academy of Visual Arts) and a PhD in 2012 from the School of Design, China Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA). He is Associate Professor at CAFA.

Speaker at ATypI 2012 in Hong Kong: Chinese typeface recognition in public space. The talk summarizes the factors that influence legibility of Hanzi characters, and deals with the proportion of black and white using statistical analysis. Using statistical analysis, the author discovers the relationship between major Hanzi typefaces, their strokes, texture and legibility. Based on statistics and calculation, this paper examines mathematical relationships between different parameters, and the threshold of black and white in terms of recognizability, ultimately ways of analyzing and testing the legibility of Hanzi typefaces. This paper tests the accuracy of this theory by experimenting with typefaces used in directional signs on highways. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Daan Jobsis
[Dustbunnies Everywhere]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

David Covington

Author of Legibility: Techniques of Investigation (1998) and Type on the Screen. [Google] [More]  ⦿

David Kindersley's spacings rule

David Kindersley's great rule for spacing: place each letter such that its center is halfway between the centers of the adjacent letters, where center is defined in a least squares sense. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Dawn Shaikh

Dawn Shaikh received her PhD in human factors psychology in 2007 from Wichita State University. Throughout graduate school, she worked on a grant from Microsoft's Advanced Reading Technologies group. Her master's thesis focused on line length in news&narrative articles. She worked on the legibility of ClearType fonts, and on that of onscreen fonts. Her dissertation focused on the perception of typeface personality. After graduation, ironically---despite Microsoft scholarships throughout her life---, she joined arch enemy Google, where she worked on Google Web Fonts, Docs, Ebooks, Android, and Internationalization. Speaker at ATypI 2011 in Reykjavik on the topic of typefaces for Android OS (with Steve Matteson). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Dawn Shaikh
[The Effect of Typeface on the Perception of Email]

[More]  ⦿

Dawn Shaikh
[The Effect of Website Typeface Appropriateness on the Perception of a Company's Ethos]

[More]  ⦿

Dennis Pelli

Creator of the free eye chart font Sloan (1990-1994, Metropia Ltd), which is based on Louise Sloan's design, which in turn has been designated the US standard for acuity testing by the National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Committee on Vision (1980, Adv Ophthalmol, 41, 103-148). The standard specifies only the letters CDHKNORSVZ, whereas the font file provides a complete uppercase alphabet A-Z. This font was developed for the Pelli-Robson Contrast Sensitivity Chart. It is made available at the Pelli Lab in the Psychology Department of New York University. He also created the free font Yung (2006): 26 Chinese characters a-z based on high-resolution scans of Yung Chih-sheng's beautiful calligraphy in a beginning Chinese primer (DeFrancis, J., 1976, Character Text for Beginning Chinese, Second Ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Distributed Proofreaders

Creators of DPCustomMono2 (2003), a monospaced font specially designed so that proofreaders make fewer mistakes. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Dustbunnies Everywhere
[Daan Jobsis]

Dutch designer of the cheerful hand-printed typeface Agrave Pro (2020), which is intended for long text passages. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Easy Reading
[Federico Alfonsetti]

Federico Alfonsetti designed the highly legible font family Easy Reading in 2009. It is used on many web sites, including at the University of Turin, and is recommended by the designer for use by dyslexics. A comparative study was carried out by Dr. Christina Bachmann that showed the value of the font. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Sue Walker]

The Fabula typeface was originally designed as a screen font as part of a project that produced software to enable children and teachers to produce bilingual story books. Since then, changes have been made to its design and it is now, additionally, a font suitable for titling and text setting in large sizes. Fabula was designed by a team led by Sue Walker that included Conrad Taylor, Vincent Connare, Gerry Leonidas and José Scaglione.

Sue writes: It has been used in a series of tests designed to find out what children in year 2 think about typefaces in the books they read. They descibed Fabula as 'clear, so you can see it properly'; 'normal'; 'like an ordinary book'.

Stylistically, Fabula has long ascenders and descenders (to help identify the word shapes), an informal feel, rounded terminals, a rounded e, a clear distinction between characters that might be easily confused, such as the (a, o) pair and the (l, 1) pair.

Fabula 1 has a double storey a. Fabula 2 has a single storey a. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Faruk Ate
[Serif vs sans serif]

[More]  ⦿

Federico Alfonsetti
[Easy Reading]

[More]  ⦿

First and last letter example

A well-known example illustrating how unimportant the order of the letters is in a word, as long as first and last letter are right: "Aoccdring to a rscheearch at an Elingsh uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt is taht frist and lsat ltteer is in hte rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porblem. Tihs is bcuseae we do not raed ervey lterer by it slef but the wrod as a wlohe. That'll mcuk up the splelchekcer. Ceehiro." [Google] [More]  ⦿

Florian Adler

Legibility expert. His research was reported at ATypI 2018 in Antwerp. He writes: During a two-year R&D project, we worked with people affected by the most common eye disorders and with experts from the German Federation of the Blind and Partially Sighted (DBSV) to evaluate typefaces and layouts in terms of legibility and readability. We found that visually impaired people preferred Humanist Sans typefaces i.e., sans serifs which are based on the Old Style/Garalde letterforms. [...] Using the study results and extensive source research, we produced concrete, practical recommendations on typefaces, sizes, spacing, layout, contrasts and surfaces. [Google] [More]  ⦿

FontArte (was: Magdart Fonts)
[Artur Frankowski]

FontArte (est. 2004; ex: Magdart Fonts) is Artur Frankowski's foundry in Warsaw, launched in cooperation with Magdalena Frankowska. Frankowski is a Polish graphic designer, typographer, type designer and lecturer, b. 1965, Zamosciu. He taught typography at the Technical University of Warsaw and is professor of typography and design at the Faculty of Design of the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw. In 2004 he finished his PhD thesis on legibility of type on cartographic maps at the Warsaw University of Technology. In 2013 he presented a habilitation thesis on street lettering as an inspiration for a graphic designer. In 2015 Artur graduated from the Expert Class Type Design (EcTd) at the Plantin Institute in Antwerp. He has published type and visual communication-related articles in design&print magazines. Through FontArte he wants to preserve Polish typographic heritage, specially Polish Avantgarde and introduce new directions in Polish type design culture. Author of Typespotting Warszawa and co-author (with Magdalena Frankowska) of a book about Henryk Berlewi, a pioneer of functional typography.

He spoke at ATypI 2005 in Helsinki on Type on maps and at ATypI 2007 in Brighton on Designing a regional typeface. Speaker at ATypI 2016 in Warsaw on From Typespotting to Warsaw letters. Designer of several typefaces:

  • From the Magdart era: MF Ala i As, MF Norma 1 i 2, MF Trond, MF Multi Putli, MF Plazma, MF Towarowy, MF FCR, MF Proteza, MF Strzeminski.
  • FA Berlewi (2006): a stencil typeface based on poster lettering from 1924 by Henryk Berlewi. Together with Magdalena Frankowska, he wrote a book called Berlewi (2010). Henryk Berlewi was a Polish pioneer of typography and design.
  • FA Cindy (2002): shoe dingbats by Magdalena Frankowska.
  • FA Desiconz (2005): dingbats by Magdalena Frankowska.
  • FA Dropsy (2000)
  • Grotesk Polski FA (1996-2006): inspired by the first Polish typeface design---Antykwa Poltawskiego. Has sans weights, and one stencil style.
  • FA Domestic Godess (2005): domestic dingbats by Magdalena Frankowska.
  • FA Julian (2003): avant garde ransom face, based on Wladyslaw Strzeminski's lettering in the 1930 publication "Z Ponad".
  • FA Karaker: medieval script based on a scan.
  • FA Komunikat (2004): almost unreadable, an experiment in minimalism, inspired by Wladyslaw Strzeminski (1932).
  • FA Merz.
  • FA Modernista (2004): grungy sans based on Baccarat, an early 20th century typeface by the Polish foundry Jan Id'zkowski.
  • NASZ Stencil.
  • FA Norma (2000): destructionist.
  • Ozdoby Gardowskiego (2004): ornaments based designs by Ludwik Gardowski (1923).
  • FA Praesens (2004): great avant garde display face.
  • FA Prototyp (2007): minimalist unicase.
  • FA Relief (2006): pixelish.
  • Co-creator with Henryk Sakwerda in 2006 of Silesiana 2006 (see also here), a great calligraphic font whose development was supported by the Silesian Government.
  • FA Supersam (2003): dot matrix style.
  • FA Szczuka (2000): avant garde poster display typeface based on pixel type.
  • FA Zero One (2007): experimental pixel style type family.
  • Designer of a character in the September 11 charity font done for FontAid II.
[Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

[Jason Smith]

Jason Smith is the British corporate typeface designer who founded Fontsmith in 1997, where he retailed his own designs from his office in London. He has created a typographic identity for the Post Office in the UK. Phil Garnham was one of the in-house type designers. In January 2020, Fontsmith was acquired by Monotype.

Smith's custom typefaces include Casey, Seat, Tractebel, PPP Healthcare, Powergen, Allied Irish Bank, UUnet, Channel 4, and Saudi Aramco, Champions (2009: for the UEAFA Champions League), Colgate Ready (2014: for Colgate, covering Latin, Cyrillic, Eastern European, Devanagari and Thai), More4 (2005, for the Channel 4 Adult Entertainment channel), ITV (2006, for the ITV network), BBC ONE (2006, for the BBC), Post Office Sans (2003), Severstal (2009), and Moto GP (2020: a custom techno / sports font).

Vernon Adams and Fontsmith got into a quarrel about Vernon's Mako, which was submitted and rejected by Fontsmith, which published its own similar typeface Lurpak a few weeks later.

Most of Jason Smith's typefaces are now at MyFonts, after Monotype's take-over in 2020:

  • FS Albert (2002). A soft-edged sans family by Jason Smith, Mitja Miklavcic and Phil Garnham. Followed by Emanuela Conidi's FS Albert Arabic. In 2007, Jason Smith designed the custom typeface Xerox Sans (+Condensed) as a modification of his FS Albert, to which Greek and Cyrillic alphabets were added as well.
  • FS Aldrin (2016). A rounded sans by Phil Garnham.
  • FS Alvar (2007, Jason Smith and Phil Garnham). A modernist utilitarian headline font family inspired by the work of Alvar Aalto.
  • FS Benjamin (2018). A flared sans serif by Stuart De Rozario.
  • FS Blake (Emanuela Conidi). A sans with some inherent tension.
  • FS Brabo (2015, Fernando Mello). Named after Brabo in Antwerp, FS Brabo was inspired by the Plantin Moretus museum and the garalde styles (Bembo, Garamond, Plantin). FS Brabo won an award at Tipos Latinos 2016.
  • FS Clerkenwell (2004, Jason Smith and Phil Garnham). A slab serif.
  • FS Conrad (2009). A multiline display face by Phil Garnham.
  • FS Dillon. Influenced by the Bauhaus quest for simplicity.
  • FS Elliot (2012). By Nick Job.
  • FS Emeric (2013, Phil Garnham). A large humanist slightly angular sans family. Dedicated web site.
  • FS Hackney. An assertive sans typeface family by Nick Job.
  • FS Industrie (2018). A 70-style techno / mechanical sans family by Fernando Mello and Phil Garnham.
  • FS Ingrid. A humanist sans family by Jason Smith.
  • FS Irwin (2017). An incised typeface inspired by New York, FS Irwin is a sans serif with calligraphic roots.
  • FS Jack (2009, Jason Smith and Fernando Mello). A confident sans family that was awarded at Tipos Latinos 2010.
  • FS Joey (2009, Jason Smith and Fernando Mello). An organic sans typeface family.
  • FS Kim (2018). A joyful display typeface family by Krista Radoeva.
  • FS Kitty (2007, Jason Smith and Phil Garnham). In the Japanese kawaii style.
  • FS Koopman (2018). A sans family designed by Andy Lethbridge and Stuart De Rozario. A hybrid sans workhorse that takes inspiration from Swiss grotesks, American gothics and early British grotesques
  • FS Lola (2006). Originally designed for Wechsler Ross&Portet by Phil Garnham, it is advertised by Fontsmith as a transgender type.
  • Lost + Foundry (2018, Pedro Arilla and Stuart de Rozario). The Lost & Foundry family of seven fonts includes FS Berwick, FS Cattle, FS Century, FS Charity, FS Marlborough, FS Portland and FS St James. The campaign was developed by Fontsmith, M&C Saatchi London and Line Form Colour. The crumbling typefaces of Soho were recovered to be sold online as a collection of display fonts, to fund the House of St Barnabas's work with London's homeless. Fontsmith's designers Stuart de Rozario and Pedro Arilla worked with M&C Saatchi London to develop the fonts.
  • FS Lucas (2016). A geometric sans by Stuart de Rozario.
  • FS Maja. A curvy display typeface.
  • FS Matthew. A sans family.
  • FS Me. Mencap, a British company that works with people with a learning disability, asked Smith to design a font, FS Mencap (also known as FS Me), for the learning disabled---easy to read, yet elegant. Codesigned by Jason Smith, Mitja Miklavcic and Phil Garnham.
  • FS Meridian (by Kristina Jandova). A rhythmic geometric sans family with circular forms.
  • FS Millbank (2015). A wayfinding typeface family by Stuart de Rozario.
  • FS Neruda (2018, by Pedro Arilla). A transitional storytelling text family named after Chilean poet Pablo Neruda.
  • FS Olivia (2012). An angular poetic text typeface family by Eleni Beveratou.
  • FS Ostro (2018, Alessia Mazzarella). A modern typeface family in text and display versions. It brings warmth and fresh air to the cold Italian didones. Its more subdued and less contrasted text version was influenced by Scotch romans. There are also genetic elements of Spanish display types.
  • FS Pele (2007). An ultra fat typeface by Jason Smith and Phil Garnham.
  • FS Pimlico (2011, Fernando Mello). A humanist display sans.
  • FS Rigsby (2005). A sans.
  • FS Rome (Mitja Miklavcic and Emanuela Conidi). An all caps Trajan typeface.
  • FS Rufus (2009). A slab serif by Mitja Miklavcic, Jason Smith and Emanuela Conidi. Described by them as benevolent, quirky, peculiar, offbeat, jelly beans and ice cream, a retro eco warrior.
  • FS Sally (Jason Smith and Phil Garnham). FS Sally Pro won an award at Granshan 2016.
  • FS Sammy (Satwinder Sehmi, Jason Smith). A script typeface.
  • FS Shepton (2015). A calligraphic brush script by Andy Lethbridge.
  • FS Siena (2016). A luxurious fashion mag typeface given a new life in 2016 by Krista Radoeva. Jason Smith had started drawing Siena 25 years earlier. It is delicate, oozes style, and shows touches of Peignot in its contrast.
  • FS Silas Sans (2008, Jason Smith, Bela Frank, Fernando Mello and Phil Garnham).
  • FS Silas Slab (2015, Bela Frank).
  • FS Sinclair (2007-2008). A rounded octagonal typeface by Jason Smith and Phil Garnham.
  • FS Sophie (2004). A feminine sans typeface.
  • FS Split Sans and FS Split Serif (2019, Jason Smith and Fernando Mello). Has a variable type option.
  • FS Truman (2012, Jason Smith and Fernando Mello). A sans family.
  • FS Untitled (2016, Jason Smith and Fernando Mello). Developed for screens.
[Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Forrest L. Norvell

Type commentator and analyzer in San Francisco who has written on Hrant Papazian's bouma theory, Futura, web typography, chirography and readability. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Francisco Kloss

Gerardo Francisco Kloss Fernández del Castillo is a Mexican academic specializing in typography. As director of the graphic design career at UAM Xochimilco, he is developing an integral model to evaluate legibility. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Frederic Goudy

[More]  ⦿

Frere Jones Type
[Tobias Frere-Jones]

After his break-up with Jonathan Hoefler, Tobias Frere-Jones set up shop as Frere Jones Type in Brooklyn, NY, in 2015, and joined Type Network in 2020. His first typeface in his new skin is the sans typeface Mallory (2015: contributions by Graham Bradley, Erin McLaughlin, Aoife Mooney and Tim Ripper). Mallory is an all-purpose font but is motivated by small mobile devices. It is legible on screen and in print. It includes currencies for countries that have released new symbols like the Indian rupee and Turkish lira.

In 2016, he published the sans family for screen, mobile app and desktop, Retina, in seven weights, three widths and two sizes. Retina's MicroPlus styles are engineered to occupy the same space in any weight. To remain legible, deep notches and exaggerated carefully studied ink traps are applied. The Museum of Modern Art has recognized Retina as a milestone in type design, and acquired it for its Architecture and Design Collection. Retina was designed by Tobias Frere-Jones, with contributions by Graham Bradley, Nina Stössinger, Tim Ripper, Dave Foster, Octavio Pardo, Ksenya Samarskaya and Colin Ford.

Exchange (2006-2017) was designed by Tobias Frere-Jones, with contributions by Nina Stössinger, Fred Shallcrass, Tim Ripper and Graham Bradley: Originally designed for newspaper text, Exchange strives for clarity and efficient copyfit across multiple platforms. Its strategy relies on an unorthodox collection of historical references, from nineteenth-century Britain to Depression-era America. The strategy for word shape coherence comes from the early Ionic style of slab serifs, while Bell Gothic offers a lesson in reinforcing the individual identities of letters. Sure-footed sobriety, inherited from Victorian text faces, runs throughout. The deep notches and amplified details make Exchange a kind of cousin to Retina, bringing the same defensive strategy to more traditional text settings. Early inspiration came from the British Ionic style of slab serif, Lynn B. and M.F. Benton's Century Expanded, and C.H. Griffith's Bell Gothic.

In 2018, Tobias Frere-Jones and Nina Stössinger co-designed the modernized roman inscriptional typeface Empirica Headline (with contributions by Fred Shallcrass). It has original lower case letters and italics, and is largely based on Louis Perrin.

Conductor (2018, Tobias Frere-Jones and Nina Stoessinger) is originally based on the delicate, blocky numerals from vintage Bulgarian lottery tickets. It also incorporates elements of vernacular shopfront lettering and mid-century type design. Conductor has power and pizzazz in all of its four widths, from condensed to wide.

Custom typefaces: Sixty Thirty (for Cooper Hewitt), Donors Choose (with Nina Stössinger), TD Ameritrade Sans, Culver (for Hyperakt), Bosca, Essex Market (with Nina Stössinger), ACLU, Tableau (with Tim Ripper; for Tableau Software), AdAge (for OCD), Mallory Condensed (for Academy Sports), Topic (a piano key typeface), MSL Elzevir (for Martha Stewart Weddings).

In 2021, Tobias Frere-Jones, Nina Stössinger and Fred Shallcrass designed Seaford for use in Microsoft's Office. They write: Seaford is a robust, versatile sans serif that evokes the familiarity and comfort of old-style seriffed type. With everyday Office users in mind---professionals typing up reports or correspondence, preparing school handouts or corporate presentations---we designed Seaford to be inviting, engaging, and effortlessly readable. A good font family for a miserable piece of software.

At Frere Jones / Type Network, one can buy Tobias's older typefaces: Armada, Asphalt, Cafeteria, Citadel, Epitaph, Garage Gothic, Grand Central, Griffith Gothic, Hightower, Interstate, Interstate Mono, Interstate Pi, Niagara, Nobel, Pilsner, Reiner Script, Stereo. [Google] [More]  ⦿

G. Kevin Connolly

G. Kevin Connolly's thesis at the University of Calgary on legibility: Legibility and Readability of Small Print: Effects of Font, Observer Age and Spatial Vision (1998). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Gerardo Kloss

Type expert who wrote about legibility. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Hans Rudolf Bosshard

Born in 1929 in Balm/Lotstetten, Germany. He studied typefounding in Schaffhausen from 1944-1948, and worked as typesetter in printing shops in Zürich and Stockholm from 1951-1959. From 1959 until 1994, he taught typographic design in various schools, and from 1993-1998, he was a free-lance book designer associated with Niggli. Author of "Der typografische Raster The Typographic Grid" (Zürich, 2000), and "Typografie Schrift Lesbarkeit" (Verlag Niggli AG, Switzerland, 1996). The latter (highly recommended) book surveys legibility issues in type choices, and closes with a classification of post-1945 typefaces. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Foundry whose fonts are sold via Fontworks UK, who write: The Heinemann fonts were initially developed by the in-house design team at Heinemann educational publishing out of the necessity to find the perfect font for use in early primary reading books and literacy products. Basic Heinemann is defined by longer ascenders and descenders which help children to distinguish between letters; rounded edges on all letterforms help focus the reader on the individual letter shape; and modified characters (e.g., a, g) ensure instant recognition of letterforms. Heinemann Special offers further modified characters and kerning pairs ideal for dyslexic or special needs use (eg a, d, b). The Heinemann fonts were developed in partnership with children, literacy advisors, teachers of special needs/dyslexia and primary school teachers, and are now released in response to hundreds of requests from publishers, designers and teachers to purchase them. They have been trialled in schools and learning institutions over an 8 year period, and are a favourite for use in both print and electronic product. Heinemann is a 12-style sans family. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Henk Gianotten

Dutch type connoisseur after whom Antonio Pace's Linotype Gianotten (1990) is named. Born in 1940, he worked for 40 years in the production and distribution of graphic arts equipment and fonts, at companies such as Tetterode, BT and Buhrmann. As a student of Willem Ovink, he got very interested in legibility of typefaces. On his own contributions to typography, he writes: Since 1964 I was involved on the production of our typefaces for Morisawa. Later on we produced typefaces for photocomposition for Bobst (Autologic), Berthold, Compugraphic, A.M., Harris Composition, Itek, Scangraphic and others. Tetterode owned the rights for typefaces like Nobel, Lasso, Polka, Orator, Promotor, Lectura and Hollandsche Mediaeval. LinotypeLibrary owns the licenses for these fonts since October 1 2000. Gianotten left Tetterode in 2000. News about LinotypeGianotten. Linotype's press release. PDF samples of LinotypeGianotten. Article on Gianotten by Wim Westerveld in 2006. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Horacio Gorodischer

Argentinian typography expert. In 2020, he co-authored Legibilidad y tipografia: la composicion de los textos (Campgrafic, Spain) with José Scaglione. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Hrant Papazian's alphabet reform efforts

Hrant Papazian's alphabet reform efforts are based on his research on readability. This theory was first publically explained at the ATypI 1998 meeting in Boston. Hrant says: The best single place to read it is my 10K-word essay in the book "Graphic Design&Reading". There's also a quarter-length version of that essay in issue #54 of tipoGrafica magazine (in the English original and a superb Spanish translation." To see what he means, check his Mas Lucida project. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Indra Kupferschmid

German type personality (b. 1973, Fulda) who studied visual communication at the Bauhaus University in Weimar. She is involved in type at the Museum für Druckkunst Leipzig and in the DIN committee for type classification. Founder of Kupferschrift, a type expertise firm based in Weimar and Düsseldorf. Alternate URL. She is a professor of Kommunikationsdesign und Typografie and head of the department FB Design at the HBK (Hochschule der Bildenden Künste) Saar. She researches the classification of typefaces, the history of grotesks and legibility.

She is co-author of Helvetica Forever (Lars Müller Publishers) and Buchstaben kommen selten allein, a typographic reference book.

Speaker at ATypI 2011 in Reykjavik. Speaker at ATypI 2013 in Amsterdam. At the latter meeting she introduces Type Record, a data base on typefaces run by her and Nick Sherman. Speaker at ATypI 2016 in Warsaw. Speaker at ATypI 2017 Montreal. [Google] [More]  ⦿

James Alex Rogers

Graphic designer and typographer in Sheffield, UK. In 2013, he created the experimental typeface Mendel by a special blending process, explained by him as follows: The typeface was created by combining four existing web fonts to create the base letterforms, which were then altered and added to to create the three weights. In this way the weights work together as a family and can be used interchangeably. These four typefaces were Georgia, Times New Roman, Lucida Grande and Verdana. The resulting typefaces, Mendel Friendly, Mendel Professional, and Mendel Formal, are quite readable on small screens.

Behance link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

James Montalbano
[Terminal Design]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Jason Smith

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Jennifer Pereira

Lincoln, RI-based student (at SCAD, Savannah, GA) who is interested in legibility issues for her school project. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Joe Clark
[A critique of existing typefaces for HDTV (EIA-708) captioning]

[More]  ⦿

Joe Clark
[Tiresias: Critique by Joe Clark]

[More]  ⦿

Joe Clark

[More]  ⦿

José Scaglione

José Scaglione (b. Rosario, Argentina, 1974) is a graduate of the MA program of the University of Reading, 2005. He was co-founder and art director of Vision Media Design Studio in Argentina and Multiplicity Advertising in USA; and he was a part-time lecturer for four years at the Visual Comunications Institute of Rosario, teaching design for the internet. He lectured on typography at post-graduate level at the National University of Rosario and presently teaches at the at the University of Buenos Aires. He runs his own design studio, specializing in editorial design and branding. In 2006, he started Type Together with Veronika Burian. In 2013, he became President of ATypI.

His books include Cómo crear tipografías. Del boceto a la pantalla, and Introducción al estudio de la tipografía (in collaboration with Jorge de Buen Unna). His fonts:

  • Abril (2010) is a didone font family engineered mainly for newspapers and magazines that features friendly and elegant styles for headlines and robust and economic styles for text. It won an award at Tipos Latinos 2012. Abril Fatface is free at Google Font Directory. Abril Titling was published in 2013.
  • Fabula (2005), about which he writes: Based on a series of drawings by Sue Walker and originally digitized by Vinnie Connaire, Fabula is the new display typeface for the cover of Collins Children Dictionaries. Its basic monolinear structure and stroke economy are the foundation for this typeface.
  • OUP Math&Pi: This Math and Pi font was designed to match the typefaces used by Paul Luna and Nadja Guggi in the new design of the Oxford University Press Dictionaries: Argo and Swift, designed by Gerard Unger.
  • With Veronika Burian, he designed the text typeface TT Carmina (2006). This morphed into Karmina Serif (2007), a complete text family, and later Karmina Sans (released in 2009, 12 styles). Karmina was selected in the text typography category at the Letras Latinas exhibition 2006 and won a merit in the European-wide ED-Awards competition 2007, and at Tipos Latinos 2010. Karmina, Bree and Ronnia were selected as part of the travelling exhibition Tipos Latinos 2008.
  • Athelas (2006), an outgrowth of his studies at Reading. It now ships with Apple's Mavericks OS.
  • Ronnia (2007), designed with Veronika Burian at Type Together: a humanist sans family.
  • Bree (2008, with Veronika Burian): a 5-style display sans with a cursive a and e.
  • Adelle (2009, with Veronika Burian): a 12-style slab serif engineered for intensive editorial use. Adelle Mono was added in 2020.
  • The Google web font Jockey One (2011, with Veronika Burian).
  • Tablet Gothic (2012). A joint design of Veronika Burian and José Scaglione, it is a grotesque meant for titling.
  • In 2015, Veronika Burian and José Scaglione finally published the 18-style editorial sans typeface family Ebony.
  • In 2016, Veronika Burian and José Scaglione co-designed Portada, a sturdy serif typeface family for use on screen and small devices. It comes with an extensive free set of icons. Winner at Tipos Latinos 2018 of a type design award for Portdada.
  • Protipo (2018) is a large information design sans family designed by Veronika Burian and José Scaglione.
  • In 2019, Type Together released Catalpa (Veronkia Burian, Jose Scaglione, Azza Alameddine) and wrote: Primed for headlines, Catalpa is designed to give words bulk and width and gravity itself. The Catalpa font family is José Scaglione and Veronika Burian's wood type inspired design for an overwhelming headline presence.
  • In 2021, Veronika Burian and José Scaglione designed Belarius, a three-axis variable family that shifts from sans to slab serif, from condensed to expanded widths, and includes every possibility in between. Published by Type Together in 2021, it was developed under the guidance of Veronika Burian and José Scaglione, with type design by Azza Alameddine and Pooja Saxena, and additional kerning and engineering help from Radek Sidun, Joancarles Casasin and Irene Vlachou.

Karmina, Bree and Ronnia, all co-designed with Veronika Burian, won awards for extensive text families at Tipos Latinos 2008. Karmina won an ED Award in 2007 and Athelas won a first prize in the Gransham competition 2008. Bree won a bronze award in the 2009 edition of the ED Awards competition. Bree Serif (2009) won an award at Tipos Latinos 2014. Abril wan gold at the ED Awards.

Coauthor of these books:

Speaker at ATypi 2006 in Lisbon, the Third International Conference on Typography and Graphic Communication in Thessaloniki 2007, 3CIT in Valencia, and ATypI 2008 in St. Petersburg, where his talk was entitled From laser printer to offset press. Speaker at ATypI 2009 in Mexico City, where his talk (with Andreu Balius) is entitled A sign to convey sound. Speaker at ATypI 2017 Montreal.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Juan Pablo de Gregorio

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Kamil Kamysz

Polish graphic designer and assistant professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow, Poland. Behance link.

Creator of Hoptype (2012) about which he says: Hoptype is a screen font I designed during Ala ma font(a) workshop in Katowice. The workshop was led by Martin Majoor, Filip Blazek, Marian Misiak, Eben Sorkin and Ann Bessemans and curated by Ewa Satalecka. The typeface is designed especially for iPad applications for children who are not yet fluent readers. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Karin von Ompteda

Karin von Ompteda is an MPhil research student at the Royal College of Art investigating typeface legibility for people with low vision. With a background in the sciences (MSc, Biology, University of Toronto) and design (BDes, Graphic Design, Ontario College of Art&Design), her research takes an interdisciplinary approach to the study of typography. At ATypI 2008 in St. Petersburg, she spoke about the role of typeface design within the scientific study of legibility. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Kevin Larson

Kevin Larson received his PhD in cognitive psychology in 2000 from the University of Texas at Austin. His academic research was on word recognition and reading acquisition. He currently works for Microsoft's Advanced Reading Technology team in Redmond, WA, and is working on the scientific understanding of ClearType and other reading technologies.

At ATypI 2003, he spoke about the recognition of words. He provided evidence to support the following theory: "The reader recognizes each of the letters at the same time (in parallel) and assembles a word." (As opposed to sequential recognition and assembly, or word shape recognition.) Speaker at ATypI 2007 in Brighton. At ATypI 2009 in Mexico City, his talk was entitled Don't we have enough fonts? A summary: Few can distinguish differences between typefaces beyond a serif / sans-serif difference, particularly with text typefaces. If readers can't detect these differences, then we are wasting a lot of time and effort. Many researchers now believe that that people have two evaluative systems - one that involves slow, effortful, deliberative thinking - and one that is automatic, fast, and pre-attentive. The second, called rapid cognition, allows people to make rapid judgments with relatively little information. For example, it only takes 50ms (1/20th of a second) to make a judgment about the aesthetics of a website that is similar to a judgment made after a long exposure. Our studies demonstrate that the personality of a typeface is identified with rapid cognition and that it impacts our recognition of the words written with the typeface.

At ATypI 2013 in Amsterdam, he speaks about Designing with Science (jointly with Matthew Carter). An excerpt: Matthew Carter and Kevin Larson have developed a type design process where they iteratively conduct scientific letter recognition tests and use the results from the tests to inform design decisions. Speaker at ATypI 2017 Montreal: Typography for Children. Speaker at ATypI 2018 in Antwerp. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Legibilidad y comprensión en la Web

Argentinian tutorial on cascading style sheets, web typography, the main families of web fonts (included in the main operating systems), and legibility. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Legible versus readable

John Hudson explained in 2002 at textmatters.com (link died): I would equate legibility with decipherability, i.e., a typeface is legible if one can easily identify and distinguish the different letters. Pretty much any text typeface worth the name can claim this basic legibility. Readability is considerably more complex, because the act of reading is not based on the decipherment of the shape of individual letters but recognition of their combination in wordshapes. This introduces elements of type design that go beyond the creation of umabiguous letter shapes: spacing, for example, and issues of horizontal and vertical stress and the rhythm they create in text, which may either work with or against the natural movement of the eye during reading. Steve Hoselitz gives these definitions:

  • Readability is concerned with ease and comfort in reading in a sustained fashion with our eyes moving in a series of short jerks as we traverse the lines left to right and back again; it is the test of text.
  • egibility is concerned with the speed with which we recognise individual letters or short compact groups of words when our eyes are wide open and not moving; it is the test of display.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Leticia Rumjanek

Leticia Gouvea Rumjanek wrote a Masters thesis at ESDI (Univ. of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) on readability entitled Tipografia para crianças: um estudo de legibilidade (2009). [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Juan Pablo de Gregorio]

Juan Pablo De Gregorio Concha lived in Santiago, Chile, where he founded Letritas in 2006. He is presently based in Barcelona. Home page of Sabia Usted. Blog with entries on themes such as legibility. Designer of these typefaces:

  • Chucara Serif (2003) and Chucara Text (2003): free at Dafont. Followed by Chucara Next (2021), a 16-style text typeface with inward serifs.
  • Los Niches (2007). A playful hairline sans, about which Anna Malsberger writes: The lowercase f puffs out its chest with exaggerated aplomb, and t splits into a script stem reminiscent of a table grab a cocktail and pull up a chair to watch the show.
  • Comalle (2008, Umbrella type). An organic roman with a comic book mind.
  • Romeral (2004, slab serif), a custom typeface for the University of Chile (2007).
  • Curico (2004).
  • Beauchef (2011, Cabinet Type). Beauchef is an organic monoline sans serif typeface, originally created to meet the needs of the Center for Mathematical Modeling, University of Chile. The design is cold as steel and rather abstract and lifeless, which reflects the ideas most people have about advanced mathematics. However, true mathematicians like warm, curvy and passionate letters and symbols. Beauchef was republished by Latinotype in 2015.
  • Los Niches (2011). A clean monoline sans family with some swashes. Published by Latinotype in 2012.
  • Pret-a-porter (2016). A calligraphic script typeface family accompanied by Pret-a-porter Slab.
  • Isabel (2016). Designed together with Eleonora Lana, Isabel is a very Latin text typeface family, feminine and didone-inspired. It has a unicase style. In 2017, Juan Pablo de Gregorio and Eleonora Lana added Isabel Condensed and Isabel SemiCondensed.
  • Condell Bio Poster (2016). A fat rounded sans. The larger Condell Bio family (published in 2017) was started in 2006.
  • Molde (2017). A neo-grotesque inspired by the extreme sobriety of famous post-Bauhaus Swiss Movement of the mid-twentieth Century.
  • The great layered vintage typeface Biscotti (2018).
  • Squalo (2018). A sans family.
  • Liliana (2018). A geometric sans with mischievous and frivolous alternates.
  • Vicky (2019). A slab serif.
  • Duddy (2019). A rounded sans.
  • Copihue (2020). A humanist sans family.
  • Stadtmitte (2020). An information design typeface family.

Letritas home page. Creative Market link. Dafont link. Klingspor link. Kernest link. Behance link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Linda Kudrnovská

[More]  ⦿


Ghent, Belgium-based creator of Mawe (2012), a font used for readability experiments. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Luciano Perondi

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Margaret S. Ratz
[Unifon (or: Unifon Press)]

[More]  ⦿

Marieke Crabbé

Graduate of Sint-Lukas Academy in Brussels in 2011. For her Masters project in 2011, she created Minimal, a type family in which parts of glyphs are omitted without jeopardizing legibility too much.

Behance link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Masayuki Yamamoto

Masayuki Yamamoto graduated in visual communication design from University of Tsukuba before he studied typography at University of Reading. He taught graphic design at the Department of Fine Arts&Music, Hyogo University of Teacher Education, and is now professor at Tama Art University. He spoke at ATypI 2005 in Helsinki on Harmony of type mixture in Japanese typography, and at ATypI 2007 in Brighton on Measuring harmony of type mixture. These statistical studies concern the Latin/Japanese type mixture focusing on four recent fonts: Heisei-Mincho W3 (1991), Hiragino-Mincho W3 (1993), Kozuka-Mincho R (1997), Yu-Mincho R (2002), and various sans (gothic) fonts for Japanese. At ATypI 2009 in Mexico City, she spoke on legibility research of Japanese typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Michael Anderson

During his studies, brighton, UK-based Michael Anderson designed the sans typeface Anderson (2017) for legibility on small screens. Behance link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Mike Parker
[Poynter Fonts]

[More]  ⦿

Milda Kuraityte

Milda Kuraityte is a graphic designer and PhD student at the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Lisbon. She is a member of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) projects European Literacy Network (ELN) and E-Read, which focus on reading processes on screen. In her research on kinetic typography, Kuraityte combines the fields of typography and psycholinguistics. For her experimental work, in collaboration with the Psycholinguistics Laboratory at the Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa (FLUL), she uses an eye-tracking system to analyze kinetic typography. Kuraityte lives in Amsterdam.

Speaker at ATypI 2019 in Tokyo. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Mitt Romney

American ex-presidential candidate who said that anything you write in 85pt Garamond is far more likely to be believed. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Luciano Perondi]

Molotro is Luciano Perondi's type foundry, which he runs with Stefano Minelli and Valentina Montagna. This Italian type designer (b. Busto Arsizio, 1976) lives in Busto Arsizio (Varese). At ATypI in Rome in 2002, he spoke about the logo-grammatic approach to type design: "Carattere senza un nome importante". His ATypI 2002 report is here. In this enlightening piece, you can read about his opinions on type. In 2000 and the following few years, he lectured at the Basic Design Lab of the Politecnico di Milano. In 2003 he founded the Research Team EXP. The research team, formed by type designers and psychologists, studies the reading process, the influences of the irregularity of typefaces on reading and the non linear script. EXP is now starting to work on the effects of presbiopia on reading and on how an adequate design of types could help presbiopian readers.

He was appointed associate professor of Design at the IUAV Venice in 2018 and he is also a member of the Alpaca cooperative of designers. From 2003 until 2007 he ran the Molotro studio. From 2005 until 2013 he was on the editorial board of the Italian design magazine Progetto Grafico. He has lectured in many Italian universities. From 2013 until 2016, he was the Director of the ISIA Urbino. In 2012 Stampa Alternativa published his book on non-linear writing, Sinsemie: scritture nello spazio.

In 2013, he became a member of the cooperative foundry CAST, and is now its chief designer.

At ATypI 2005 in Helsinki, he spoke about How does the irregularity of letters affect reading? His type designs include

  • Solferino Text (2007), a great transitional understated text typeface for the Corriere della Sera newspaper. Done with Leftloft (Andrea Braccaloni).
  • Minotype (2006, aka Ninzioletto, a stencil face).
  • Zotico/Zotica (2004, a sans family for the Milano Film Festival).
  • Ninzioletto (2004, a stencil typeface designed for the Venice sign system).
  • Tecnotipo (2005, designed for Tecno).
  • Quinta (2006).
  • DeA (2003, for DeAgostini).
  • Ccunami.
  • Csuni (which stands for Carattere Senza Un Nome Importante).
  • Csuni1885 (2003, for Mattioli1885; see also Experience1885).
  • Mattioli1885.
  • DeA, for DeAgostini (2003).
  • Sessantacinque (2003).
  • Eye of Goat: designed in 2005 by Perondi, Valentina Montagna and Federico Zerbinati. It is a medieval ornaments typeface (free for a limited time).
  • Nanoline (hairline sans).
  • Decima (2005), a sans.
  • Lontano (2003). A Caslon-style typeface commissioned for the Matteoli 1885 edition.
  • Brera (2007, a sans family by Leftloft and Molotro).
  • Voland (2010). A commissioned Baskerville typeface for the Italian publishing house Voland.
  • Under the identity design and art direction of FF3300, Molotro created the sans typeface family Divenire, in Regular, Italic and Mono subfamilies, for the Italian Democratic Party in 2012-2013. Since 2014, Divenire can be bought as a reatil font at CAST.
  • Dic Sans (2014). This elliptical sans was inspired by Aldo Novarese's Eurostile. It has its own idiosyncracies, and comes with a gorgeous Dic Sans Extra Bold weight (2014). On the nomenclature---French are allowed to operate Sans Dic, and Americans are permitted to typeset with Extra Bold Dic.
  • Tribasei 16-000 (2006). An experimental typeface.
  • Macho Modular (2015, CAST). Macho was originally designed in 2010 for MAN (Museo d'Arte Provincia di Nuoro) and is based on the idea of modular widths of the 20th-century typesetting systems, as required by the Olivetti Margherita and the hot-metal Linotype machine. It was followed by Macho Moustache (2018, CAST).
Klingspor link. Google Plus link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

MyFonts: Legible typefaces

MyFonts hit list for the tag word "legible". Long list of legible typefaces [large web page warning]. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Really interesting way to show that reading distance matters. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ole Lund

Norwegian professor in the Graphics Engineering Arts Program of Gjøvik College. Type designer who lives in Raufoss. In 1999 at the University of Reading, he wrote a doctoral thesis, entitled Knowledge construction in typography: the case of legibility research and the legibility of sans serif typefaces.

At ATypI 2004 in Prague, he spoke about British traffic signs. In particular, he will talk about Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert's influential traffic signs and accompanying letterforms from the early 1960s for Britain's national roads (first for the new motorways and later for the whole national road network). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Omega Type Foundry
[Toshi Omagari]

Toshi Omagari is a Japanese type designer who grew up in Fukuoka and studied typography and type design at Musashino Art University in Tokyo. After graduating in 2008, Toshi taught graphic design in Fukuoka. He joined the University of Reading in the summer of 2010 and graduated in 2011. He is a type designer at Monotype.

His graduation typeface Marco (<2011), which is named after Marco Polo, covers Latin, Mongolian, Greek, and Cyrillic, and has sans and serif versions. Inspiration for Marco goes back to Italian humanist typography such as those of Nicholas Jenson or Aldus Manutius, and general influences from calligraphy. Marco is a true superfamily, with wide utility and superb legibility---not surprisingly, it won an award at Modern Cyrillic 2014. The text styles were professionally produced in 2015 by Type Together in 2015---each style has over 1900 glyphs.

His chancery hand typeface Tangerine (2010) is part of the Google font directory (for free web fonts).

Typefaces from 2013: Metro Nova (Linotype: a sans family with a strangely circumcised lower case f). Metro Nova won an award at TDC 2014.

Typefaces from 2014: Neue Haas Unica and Neue Haas Unica Pan European. A digital update of the Helvetica alternative Haas Unica, which was originally released in 1980 by the Haas Type Foundry for phototypesetting.

In 2015, he made Cowhand (Monotype: a Western typeface). All words typed in Cowhand are of equal width, whether they contain one character or twenty (the maximum the font allows).

For Monotype, he made the custom typeface Quentin Blake (2016) that emulates the irregular handwriting of Sir Quentin Blake, acclaimed illustrator of Roald Dahl's novels.

In 2017, Toshi Omagari designed the Wolpe Collection for Monotype, all based on Berthold Wolpe's distinctive typefaces: Wolpe Pegasus, Wolpe Tempest, Wolpe Fanfare, Sachsenwald (blackletter: a revival of Berthold Wolpe's Sachsenwald from 1936), Albertus Nova.

In 2018, Linda Hintz and Toshi Omagari published the large geometric sans typeface family Neue Plak that revives and extends Paul Renner's Plak (1928).

Nadine Chahine and Toshi Omagari collaborated with Akira Kobayashi and Monotype Studio on Avenir Next Arabic (2021).

At his own foundry, Omega Type, he released these typefaces in 2021: Klaket (a bold and monolinear Arabic display typeface that was inspired by classic Egyptian film posters in a free form Ruqah style), Platia (a modern revival of the 19th century font Hellenic Wide).

At ATypI 2011 in Reykjavik, he spoke about Mongolian scripts. At ATypI 2015 in Sao Paulo, he revealed his research on the Siddham (post-Brahmian). Speaker at ATypI 2016 in Warsaw on BubbleKern (a new kerning algorithm). Speaker at ATypI 2017 Montreal on Sini: Arabic calligraphic styles from the Far East.

Fontsquirrel link. Dafont link. Klingspor link. I Love Typography link. Google Plus link. Interview by MyFonts in 2022. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Poynter Fonts
[Mike Parker]

The Poynter fonts were published in 1996 as "the readability series" for use in newspapers. Designed to optimize all aspects of text readability, the font series is the result of an ongoing collaboration among Poynter [Institute] faculty, conference participants from newspapers large and small, and the Font Bureau of Boston. The defunct page at poynter.org had questions and answers by Ron Reason of The Poynter Institute and Mike Parker, typographic editor of The Poynter Fonts. The fonts were adopted by the Detroit News and the Ottawa Citizen. They were released by the Font Bureau. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Crystian Cruz]

Promodesign is a Brazilian graphic design company of Crystian Cruz in Sao Paulo. Crystian Cruz and Beto Shibata used to run the Tipos Maléficos foundry. He is also associated with Agencia Africa, where he was type director at Africa Propaganda. Alternate URL. Since 1999 he has been working as art director for a major Brazilian magazines and as type consultant for publishing companies and design studios. Crystian is currently located in Newcastle, Australia. He specializes in commissioned type design.

He obtained an MA in typeface design from The University of Reading (2009), based on his type family Quartzo, a typeface system for magazines. He lectured at IED Sao Paulo and is currently undertaking a PhD and teaching at the University of Newcastle, Australia. His fonts:

  • His award winning vernacular (wall writing or graffiti) font Brasilero (1998). First prize at the Tipografia Brasilis in display typography 2001. Released in 2003 as a free font. In 2009, he was still improving and extending Brasilero to include optional characters with typical mistakes or alternate forms used for graffiti. At ATypI 2009 in Mexico City, he spoke on the Brasilero project.
  • Cruz Sans (2002). Designed during a workshop led by Bruno Maag
  • Rodan QR (2002). A custom typeface for Quatro Rodas magazine.
  • Smoking (2004). A custom design for the headlines of Brazil's VIP magazine to accompany the text typeface Stainless designed by Font Bureau.
  • Quartzo (2009) comes in Display, Text, Pocket and Cyrillic sets. Its outlines are slightly "broken" to enhance readability at small sizes for magazines. Also, his use of Opentype features to make barchart and ratings characters is quite clever. It is a complete typeface system for magazines.
  • In 2014, Crystian Cruz and Marina Chaccur co-designed the sans custom typeface UOL for the Brazilian internet provider.
  • In 2003, Beto Shibata and Crystian Cruz co-designed a beautiful Casa Dings font for the Brazilian home decor monthly magazine Casa Claudia.
  • For Nova, the Brazilian version of Cosmopolitan, he designed Nova Dings (2003).
  • Acremist (2017, by Crystian Cruz and Milton Trajano) is a free cryptographic font based on glyphs created by Bruno Borges, whoch are in turn based Manual do Escoteiro Mirim, a collection of books for childen published in the 1970s.

Behance link. Speaker at ATypI 2016 in Warsaw. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Readability Of Websites With Various Foreground--Background Color Combinations, Font Types And Word Styles

Alyson L. Hill (Department of Psychology, Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX) discusses readability of web sites. Dated 1997. One of her conclusions: In this experiment, Times NR (proportionally spaced) was faster than Courier New (non-proportionally spaced), while Arial (proportionally spaced) was slower than Courier New. [Google] [More]  ⦿

R.L. Pyke

Author of "Report on the legibility of print", Medical Research Council, London, 1926. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Robert Jarzec

Type, lettering, information architecture and user experience designer, who studied at Poznan Fine Arts University and Adam Mickiewicz University. He is currently teaching at Poznan Fine Arts University.

Robert Jarzec designed these typefaces:

  • The bracketed serif typeface Metrum (2013).
  • For his MA diploma at the Type Design Studio, University of Arts in Poznan, under Krzysztof Kochnowicz and Viktoriya Grabowska, he designed the wonderful text typeface for Latin and Cyrillic, Talia (2016).
  • As part of the Warsaw Types project, he designed the partially free wayfinding typeface Rewir (2016).
  • In 2017, he released Data Sans for use in information design, data visulaization and infographics.
  • Site (2017). A 120-style sans designed to be legible iin information design and wayfinding applications, as well as on positive and negative screens.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Rudi Seitz

Font, word and character selection and legibility experiments by Rudi Seitz. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Joe Clark]

Joe Clark (Toronto) is developing special fonts for captioning and subtitling for TV and film. Joe's motto is Watching TV is bad enough. Reading TV shouldn't be worse. Two interesting sub-pages: Here he explains the difference between captioning and subtitling. Captions are basically for the deaf, and are manually turned on. They not only describe what is said or heard but also mention or show things about the intonation, style, language, or nature of the voices or sounds. Subtitling is mostly used to translate. It is generally automatically turned on, and shown at the bottom of the screen. On this page, Joe lists the main issues with captioning and subtitling and lists the many problems with popular subtitling typefaces such as Bitstream's Tiresias or Monotype's Arial. Speaker at ATypI 2007 in Brighton. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Serif vs sans serif
[Faruk Ate]

Faruk Ate discusses this old dilemma. Serif is more legible in print, but less so on screen. Serif is better for dyslexics though, as there is less confusion. At small screen size, sans serif is recommended. He concludes: Personally, I still prefer sans-serif for large chunks of text with a lovely serif heading. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Shelley Winter

British type designer, born in 1959, who runs Type Design, an independent consultancy which she founded in 1981. From 1977 on, she worked in the type department of Linotype, where she and Walter Tracy developed Arabic and Cyrillic typefaces. She created Telegraph Newface Bold (1989, with Walter Treacy, for The Daily Telegraph), Telegraph Newface Roman (1990), Pegasus Bold (1980, with Matthew Carter for Berthold Wolpe), Mitsubishi Arabic (1987, with Tim Holloway), New Johnston Signage Light (1988), Sun Life Engraved (1988), and helped Matthew Carter with the creation of foreign glyphs to extend his Galliard family. BAA Bembo, used at BAA airports, was drawn by her (and possibly Freda Sack as well). Typographers laud it for its legibility compared to Vialog and Frutiger. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Soffi Beier

Sofie "Soffi" Beier graduated from Danmarks Designskole (The Danish School of Design) in 2000, and has since been working as a graphic designer, designing several Danish magazines, websites, books and CD covers along with a number of typefaces. She has a PhD from the Royal College of Art in the UK, with a thesis entitled Legibility and Visual Compensation of Typefaces. Sofie works in London and Copenhagen. She teaches at Danmarks Designskole.

Author of Reading Letters: Designing for Legibility (2012) and Type Tricks (2017).

Designer of these typefaces:

  • The 8-style sans family Engel (2005). Followed by Engel New Sans (2010, at Die Gestalten), Engel New Serif, and eventually, Engel New (2017, The Northern Block).
  • Pemba Script (2005, Die Gestalten). A connected 1950s era script.
  • The rounded sans typeface family Ovink (2011). Published in 2017 by The Northern Block. It was loosely inspired by Knud V. Engelhardt's work for the street signage, designed around the years 1926-27 for Gentofte in Denmark. Named after legibility expert Gerrit Willem Ovink, the family was designed for legibility at great distances based on research published by Beier in Beier, S.&Larson, K. (2010): "Design Improvements for Frequently Misrecognized Letters", Information Design Journal, 18(2), 118-137.
  • That same research was used in the calligraphic text typeface Spencer (2011, The Northern Block), which was named after legibility expert Herbert Spencer.
  • Pyke (2011, released by The Northern Block in 2021). A 12-style Bodoni-inspired variation (with optical scaling: Display, Text, Micro) on the didones, named after legibility researcher Richard Lionel Pyke. Spencer and Pyke are two phenomenal contributions to the field, sure to garner her a closetful of awards.
  • The sans / serif / open typeface family Karlo (2015, at Die Gestalten). Karlo is inspired by Edward Johnston's letter forms and calligraphy and has the characteristic Gill Sansian ear of the lower case g. In 2018, it was republished by The Northern Block. She writes: In Denmark, a guy named Karlo would typically be an old fellow with a slick hairstyle that makes an effort with his appearance. He is a handyman who can do a bit of this and that when needed. He is a happy go lucky kind of guy that takes one day at a time. To me, the typeface family has some of the same qualities.

Speaker at ATypI 2011 in Reykjavik. Speaker at ATypI 2013 in Amsterdam on the subject of typeface legibility. Her talk at ATypI 2014 in Barcelona was entitled The voice of a typeface. Speaker at ATypI 2014 in Barcelona. Speaker at ATypI 2016 in Warsaw on The legibility of letters and words and at ATypI 2017 in Montreal on The legibility of numerals. Speaker at ATypI 2018 in Antwerp on the topic of stroke weight and letter width. Speaker at ATypI 2019 in Tokyo on the topic of Age-Related Deficits and Their Effects on Reading. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Software Usability Research Laboratory

At the Department of Psychology, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS, various (mostly Microsoft) fonts were compared for speed of reading, and legibility. Conclusions: "o significant differences in reading efficiency were detected between the font types at any size. There were, however, significant differences in reading time. Generally, Times and Arial were read faster than Courier, Schoolbook, and Georgia. Fonts at the 12-point size were read faster than fonts at the 10-point size. In addition, a font type x size interaction was found for the perception of font legibility. In general, however, Arial, Courier, and Georgia were perceived as the most legible. For font attractiveness, Georgia was perceived as being more attractive than Arial, Courier, and Comic, while Times was perceived as more attractive than Courier. This contrasts with participants' general preference for a particular font type. Overall, Verdana was the most preferred font, while Times was the least preferred. Thus it seems that the Georgia and Times serif fonts are considered more attractive, but they are generally less preferred. Of the fonts studied, Verdana appears to be the best overall font choice. Besides being the most preferred, it was read fairly quickly and was perceived as being legible.". For font legibility, Tahoma 10pt, Courier 12pt and Georgia 10pt came out the winners. Research by Michael Bernard, Bonnie Lida, Shannon Riley, Telia Hackler, and Karen Janzen. Alternate URL [Google] [More]  ⦿

Stuart Gluth

Designer of Roxane, a font designed with legibility in mind. Plus an essay on legibility. Stuart Gluth teaches graphic design, leads the Design Research Group at the University of South Australia, and has a master's degree from the ANCT in Paris. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Sue Walker

[More]  ⦿

Terminal Design
[James Montalbano]

Terminal Design is the company of James Montalbano in Brooklyn, New York, est. 1990. He was the President of the Type Directors Club, 2002-2003. He teaches type design at the School of Visual Arts in New York City. Feature on him by John Berry. In 2019, he declared at Typedrawers: I'm so tired of type design, so we must assume that threw in the towel. James designed these fonts:

    • In an earlier life as part of Fonthaus, ca. 1994-1995, I believe that Montalbano designed fonts like DidotDisplayAntiqueTdi, DidotDisplayRegularTdi, ProgressivePsychoOneTdi (through Six) and SenzaTDI (many weights).
    • 718 (2010). A clean 24-style sans family influenced by as many typefaces as there are immigrants in Brooklyn. Named after the non-Manhattan area code.
    • Alfon (2003). Montalbano calls it a muscular text typeface. It has chamfered corners and cupped serifs.
    • Badinage. A connected retro script.
    • Cappella (2013). It is a direct result of the work done on the Fordham Chapel custom font commission. A one weight, all caps design based on wood carved lettering from a Fordham University chapel honoring fallen alumni.
    • Choice Sans, Choice Sans Compressed, Choice Sans Condensed (2014).
    • ClearviewADA, ClearviewADA Condensed, ClearviewHwy, ClearviewText, ClearviewText Compressed, ClearviewText Condensed. The legible sans serif family ClearviewOne, designed for highway signs, and used for US highway signs starting in 2002. The highway sign font family is called ClearviewHwy), and is further explored here. ClearviewHwy is used for highways in the USA starting in 2004 (see the discussion here). The OpenType version of ClearviewOne is called ClearviewText (2007). ClearviewADA (2007) is a family of Clearview fonts that conform to the letterform specifications for signage outlined in the Americans with Disabilities Act legislation. Free download. Clearview was discontinued in 2016 by the US Federal Highway Administration, in favor of the older Highway Gothic from the 1940s: Report by Citylab.
    • Consul Caption, Consul Deck, Consul Display, Consul Text (2009). A 48-style text family. Optically sized, it emerged from a Gustave Mayeur design done by Montalbano for Mens Vogue. Consul has a hint of didone, but the brackets are rounded and the stems gently flared. In Montalbano's palette, this is one of the beauties.
    • Enclave (2007): A sixteen font slab serif family.
    • Fervent (2013). A sans version of Badinage.
    • Giacomo 2.0. a well-balanced and interesting sans-serif family. Includes Cyrillics.
    • Insouciant (2011). An upright connected script family..
    • At ITC: ITC Orbon 2020, ITC Orbon (1995-1996: a strange experimental typeface), ITC Nora (1997), ITC Freddo (1996, a fat poster typeface).
    • Kaboodle (2018). A wood type with extended Latin, Greek and Cyrillic.
    • Kinney (2011). A type family for tables and information design. James's self-proclaimed attempt at creating a neutral serif.
    • Latin 512, Latin 512 Compressed, Latin 512 Condensed, Latin 512 Expanded. An 80-style didone family with triangular or wedge serifs typical of the Latin style.
    • Moraine (2009). A serif family with a wide generous feel. Stems are flexed and tapered and serifs are cupped.
    • Notary (2017).
    • Now Playing (2007): A digital revival of the naïve plastic lettering that was used on the marquee of the Apollo Theater in Harlem.
    • Quotient (2015). An elegant sans typeface family without italics. Montalbano describes it as trajan Sans because of its classical roman proportions. many details such as the rhombic dots on the i's are inscriptional in nature.
    • Rawlinson 2.0, Rawlinson 2.0 Condensed, Rawlinson Roadway (2003). A serif family, which includes a Condensed sub-family). NPS Rawlinson Roadway is an old style serif typeface currently used for the United States National Park Service's road signs. It was created to replace Clarendon and uses James Montalbano's wife's last name.
    • Shenandoah. A display type based on the wood letters at Shenandoah National park.
    • Social (2012). A rounded sans family for on-line use.
    • Tangent (2007): A geometric sans in sixteen styles.
    • Trilon, Trilon Compressed, Trilon Condensed, Trilon Expanded (2009): A sans typeface family. Montalbano calls it a 21st century gothic.
    • VF Sans, VF Sans Condensed (2011). An avant-garde family with 32 styles. James explains its release: Back in the late 90s I designed a family of sans serif fonts for Vanity Fair magazine. I based them on various sans serif designs from the 1930s with nothing particular in mind. They have been compared to Intertype's Vogue, and I do see the connection, but it wasn't my intention of doing a Vogue revival. They have been kept out of circulation these last many years at Vanity Fair's request, but it appears that during the last few years Vanity Fair has lost interest in them. They no longer grace the front cover of the magazine, and they appear with less and less frequency inside the publication. I've also noticed several pirated uses of them as they have popped up on some book jacket designs. So with Vanity Fair's permission I felt it time to set them free.
    • Yo Andy, Yo Frankie, Yo Lucy, Yo Sophie, Yo Zelda. The Yo series (2010) consists of 200 didone styles. It is subdivided into Yo Andy, Yo Frankie, Yo Lucy, Yo Sophie and Yo Zelda. This didone family has two axes (weight, extension) with 100 regular members finished in 2010 and 100 italics added in 2014. They reach in alphabetical order from condensed (Andy) to extended (Zelda).

    Montalbano designed custom corporate fonts for Condé Nast Publications, Warner Music, The American Medical Association, the U.S. National Park Service, Vanity Fair, Brides, Gourmet, Mademoiselle, Sassy, Details, Glamour, Jane, Self and Book. The list of font names, with links:

    • Collins Geometric.
    • DM Marquee. A dot matrix all caps design created for Mother NY for their client, Daily Motion.
    • Early Learning Sans. A family of 12 fonts designed for MeadWestvaco's Early Learning Products division for use in educational products teaching young students the basics of letter construction.
    • Fordham Chapel. Based on wood carved lettering from a Fordham University chapel honoring fallen alumni.
    • Fortune Titling. Based on the Fortune logo.
    • Glamour Display, Glamour Script. The latter is a roundhand script. Both were done for Glamour magazine.
    • JCP News Gothics. Created for DDB Chicago, for use in the It's all in there campaign for JC Penney. Should work with existing Monotype News Gothic fonts.
    • Johan Gothic. A condensed sans serif designed for Conde Nast Sports for Women, which changed its name to Women's Sports, which then changed its name to Women's Sports and Fitness. The type was named for the art director who commissioned it.
    • Lucky Gothic.
    • Mens Vogue-Mayeur. Mayeur Display, an original design created in 2005 for Men's Vogue. Based on 19th Century French text types from the Parisian foundry of Gustave Mayeur.
    • Now Playing. As part of the renovation of The Apollo Theatre, Now Playing was designed to reflect the plastic marquee lettering of the 1940s.
    • NPS Roadway. Montalbano writes: Designed to replace the Clarendon road guide sign typeface that the U.S National Park Service used as part of their identity. NPS Roadway was tested by Pennsylvania Transportation Institute and was found to decrease legend length by 10-15% while increasing readability by 11%. Part of a total redesign of the Park Service identity (that included the Rawlinson series of fonts) the font has been approved by FHWA (Federal Highway Administration) for use on all Federal roads.
    • Skinny Eric. A painfully thin version of Gill Sans, designed for Self Magazine.
    • Social. Two weights of a rounded sans serif design to compliment the Living Social logo design.
    • VF Didot, VF Sans, VF Sans Condensed, VF Script. All done for Vanity Fair. VF Didot is a slightly condensed design based on the many New York didot alphabets drawn during the 1940s and 50s. VF Sans is Vanity Fair's workhorse. VF Script is an original script created for Vanity Fair Magazine in 1999, loosely based on lettering found on a French Automobile Poster from the mid-1920s.
    • Vogue AG, Vogue Didot Extended. Vogue AG is a nine-weight sans serif design mixing elements of Futura and Avant Garde Gothic. The Extra Light weight was designed for Vogue magazine in 2004 while the remaining weights were added in 2007 and updated in 2011.

    Klingspor link. FontShop link. Linotype link. Behance link. View James Montalbano's typefaces done at ITC. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

The Effect of Typeface on the Perception of Email
[Dawn Shaikh]

A study in 2007 at Wichita State University (Kansas) by A. Dawn Shaikh, Doug Fox and Barbara S. Chaparro showed test subjects emails in Calibri, Comic Sans and Gigi. The selection of the three fonts used for the neutral email was based on previous work by Shaikh, Chaparro, and Fox (2006) that examined user perception of how appropriate 20 fonts were for 25 uses (i.e., business documents, web pages, email). The ranking of those 20 fonts: Calibri, Corbel, Candara, Cambria, Verdana, Arial, Times New Roman, Constantia, Georgia, Century Gothic, Comic Sans, Courier New, Consolas, Monotype Corsiva, Kristen ITC, Agency FB, Rage Italic, Gigi, Rockwell Extra Bold, Impact. Interestingly, in questions of ethos, Comic Sans and Colibri are almost equal, well ahead of Gigi. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Effect of Website Typeface Appropriateness on the Perception of a Company's Ethos
[Dawn Shaikh]

A study in 2007 at Wichita State University (Kansas) by A. Dawn Shaikh reveals that among a handful of typefaces, readers of company web sites order them as follows: Calibri, Cambria, Arial, Calisto, Georgia, Courier New (way down), and at the bottom, Monotype Corsiva, Lucida Hand, Informal Roman, Viner Hand and Curlz. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Lexend Project
[Bonnie Shaver-Troup]

Bonnie Shaver-Troup, EdD, the creator of the Lexend project (which is based in Irvine, CA), is focused on making reading easier for everyone. As an educational therapist, Bonnie created the first Lexend typeface in early 2001 aiming to reduce visual stress and to improve reading performance for those with dyslexia and other struggling readers. Today, Bonnie's goal is to make the Lexend fonts accessible to a larger spectrum of users.

Bonnie writes: Lexend is a variable typeface designed by Bonnie Shaver-Troup and Thomas Jockin in 2018. Applying the Shaver-Troup Individually Optimal Text Formation Factors, studies have found readers instantaneously improve their reading fluency. Lexend was expanded to Arabic in January 2020. The Shaver-Troup Formulation was applied to Arabic with advise from Arabic typeface designer, Nadine Chahine. Lexend is based on the Quicksand project from Andrew Paglinawan, initiated in 2008. Quicksand was improved in 2016 by Thomas Jockin for Google Fonts. Thomas modified Quicksand for the specialized task of improving reading fluency in low-proficiency readers (including those with dyslexia. In 2019, Thomas Jockin released the free seven font family Lexend (Deca, Exa, Giga, Mega, Peta, Tera and Zetta) at Google Fonts, together with Bonnie Shaver-Troup. Github link. Dedicated site.

Thomas Jockin writes that Lexend is empirically shown to significantly improve reading-proficiency. As prescription eyeglasses achieve proficiency for persons with short-sightedness, Lexend's families were developed using Shaver-Troup Formulations. We will eventually release all seven families as a single variable font featuring its own custom axis. Lexend is thus an implementation of Bonnie Shaver-Troup's 2000 study, in which she theorized that reading performance would improve through the use of (1) hyper expansion of character spacing [which creates a greater lag time and reduces potential crowding and masking effects], (2) expanded scaling, and (3) a sans-serif font [to reduce noise]. Lexend is indeed hyper-widely spaced. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Thomas Huot-Marchand

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Thomas Jockin

Type designer in Brooklyn and/or Holbrook, NY, b. 1986, who studied at the Parsons School of Design and the inaugural Type@Cooper program. He lived in Portland, OR.

In 2012, he designed the large award-quality copperplate family called Garçon Grotesque.

Typefaces from 2013: Ductus (a five-style broad-nibbed calligraphic / medieval family).

In 2015, he published Azote (a multilined typeface family inspired by the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City).

In 2019, he released the free seven font family Lexend at Google Fonts, together with Bonnie Shaver-Troup. Github link. Dedicated site. Lexend now comes in subfamilies called Deca, Exa, Giga, Mega, Peta, Tera and Zetta. He writes that Lexend is empirically shown to significantly improve reading-proficiency. As prescription eyeglasses achieve proficiency for persons with short-sightedness, Lexend's families were developed using Shaver-Troup Formulations. We will eventually release all seven families as a single variable font featuring its own custom axis. Lexend is thus an implementation of Bonnie Shaver-Troup's 2000 study, in which she theorized that reading performance would improve through the use of (1) hyper expansion of character spacing [which creates a greater lag time and reduces potential crowding and masking effects], (2) expanded scaling, and (3) a sans-serif font [to reduce noise]. Lexend is indeed hyper-widely spaced. Lexend also received support from Santiago Orozco and Hector Gomez.

Additional links: CTAN link with TeX support. Github link by Brain Stone (Yannick Schinko). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Tiresias: Critique by Joe Clark
[Joe Clark]

Joe Clark (Toronto) deflates the balloon blown up by Bitstream regarding John Gill's Tiresias, which was specially developed for screen captioning. His main points:

  • It was tested on only a few dozen people, but is marketed as a font for everyone.
  • Some of the tests for this claimed caption and subtitle font used printouts, not captions or subtitles.
  • It is claimed to be superior to typefaces like Times, even though what were talking about are screenfonts, not print fonts.
  • It costs up to $17,500, but it does not even have an italic.
  • Its researchers admit to little expertise in typography, yet the researchers parent organization receives 40% of the retail price.
  • It is claimed to be a better solution to a specific problem than a generic typeface would be, but it has itself turned into a generic typeface that is misapplied to specific problems.
  • The ingenious, unique typeface has already been partially cloned, via a competing knockoff typeface with a different design and identical widths.
  • It is ugly by design.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Tobias Frere-Jones
[Frere Jones Type]

[More]  ⦿

Toshi Omagari
[Omega Type Foundry]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

[Linda Kudrnovská]

Bi-monthly Czech type and graphic design magazine set up in 2003 by Pavel Zelenka, Filip Blazek, Pavel Kocicka and Jakub Krc. Some issues are free. Linda Kudrnovská is its present editor-in-chief. Issue 13 (2005) deals with readability and legibility, for example. Some of the articles: The Science of World Recognition (Kevin Larson), The Bouma Supremacy (Hrant Papazian), Lateral Interference, Response Bias, Computation Cost and Cue Value (Peter Enneson), and Producting legible text on screen: Where do we look for guidance? (Mary C. Dyson). Issue 14 (2005) has an article by Iva Knobloch on Vojtech Preissig and by Adam Twardoch on FontLab 5. Table of contents. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Frederic Goudy]

The full title of this book is "Typologia, Studies in Type Design \& Type Making" (1940, University of California Press, Berkeley). At the TypeArt Reference Library, you can find 5 chapters of it. This is Frederic Goudy's magnum opus, his life's work, giving his vision on many typographic things. It contains the story of the proprietary typeface University (of California) Old Style. It even has a big section on the history of legibility. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Unifon (or: Unifon Press)
[Margaret S. Ratz]

Unifon is a free font that serves as a proposal for a phonetic alphabet to help people read better and faster. It was proposed by Margaret S. Ratz in 1966. Unifon D 2005 (2005) is OCR-like and Uniforn Ra (2005) is roman. T [Google] [More]  ⦿

Vladimir Levantovsky

Vladimir Levantovsky is a senior technology strategist at Monotype Imaging Inc. and currently serves as a chair of the W3C WebFonts Working Group and a chair of the ISO SC29/WG11 ad-hoc group on font format representation. Born in Ukraine, Vlad moved to the USA in 1995. He has been involved in the work of various industry consortiums and standards organizations since 2002, and is passionate about advancing typographic capabilities on CE and mobile devices and on the Web. He has been an active contributor to the development of various technology platforms, including hardware-accelerated vector graphics (OpenVG), Java ME profiles for mobile devices (JSR-271 and JSR-287), DVB Multimedia Home Platform, OMA Rich Media Environment and core font technology standardization at ISO/IEC.

Speaker at ATypI 2012 in Hong Kong: Evaluating fonts legibility in automotive environment. Excerpts of the abstract: Can typeface design make a difference in minimizing glance times [in vehicles] while maximizing the time that drivers' eyes stay on the road? Monotype Imaging has partnered with the MIT AgeLab to study the impact of typeface design on driver demand. He goes on: Data from two separate experiments, each involving over 40 participants ranging from 36 to 74 years of age was collected in a real-time driving simulation in which participants were asked to respond to a series of address, restaurant identification and content search menus that were implemented using two different typeface designs. The results were collected and analyzed using eye tracking equipment and video recordings. Among participants, a Square Grotesque typeface resulted in a noticeable increase in visual demand as compared to the Humanist typeface. Total glance time and number of glances required to complete a response showed consistent results. He also spoke at ATypI 2015 in Sao Paulo. [Google] [More]  ⦿