| || |
The Abrams Legacy Collection was established to preserve and promote the legacy of renowned type designer and lettering artist, George Abrams (d. 2001). It is headquartered in New York City. The digital typefaces are managed and executed by Charles Nix. There are two type families, Augereau (a garalde in 13 styles) and Abrams Venetian (a Venetian in 6 styles).
Abrams Venetian was designed in 1989 based on Nicolas Jenson's renaissance letterforms, but was not available until ten years later.
Augereau was designed and released by George Abrams in 1997. [Google]
Graphic designer in Berlin. His typefaces include Asgard Grotesk (2012), Evil Neue (2012, sans), Jjang (2012), Ladro (2012), Schicke (2012, geometric sans), Tano (2012), Sherman Mono (2012), Tsukunft (2012, experimental), Arsene (2012), Decodorant (2012), Kirky (2012), Nordfrost (2012), Sedadda (2012), Sloth (2012, an avant garde sans), Svangard (2012), Yueah Mono (2012), and Kamek (2012, a great feather pen rendering of a Venetian renaissance typeface).
Behance link. [Google]
[SIAS (or: Signographical Institute Andreas Stötzner)]
Designer from the UK who created Spira (1999, Font Bureau), a beautiful Venetian revival font family, and AT Pastor (FontHaus), an elegant high-legged serif face.
FontShop link. [Google]
Antiqua (or: Venetian) typefaces
In the late 1400s, blackletter was replaced by a type style that mimicked handwriting. It was of uniform thickness, and thus appeared quite dark on paper. The humanist writing of Italian scholars of the Renaissance served as a model for what is now known as the Antiqua style.
Several such types came out Nicolas Jenson's printing workshop set up by nicolas Jenson in 1468. That first antiqua typeface was used in De Evangelica Praeparatione in 1470. Jenson died in 1480 at the age of 60, but many would take up that style between 1470 and 1600. The Venice connection led quite naturally to the other name for the type style, Venetian. Occasionally, the name old style is also used but that refers to a later style, the aldine or garalde.
Well-known Venetian typefaces include ITC Berkeley Oldstyle, Brioso Pro, Centaur, (Adobe) Jenson, Hightower, Kennerly, Schneidler, Nicolas Jenson SG, Phinney Jenson, Stempel Schneidler, Verona, Abrams Venetian, Lutetia, Jersey, Lynton, Spira.
It is easy to recognize Venetian types, not just from the uniform thickness and semi-calligraphic look, but also by the small x-height, small counters, tall ascenders, overly wide HMN, sloped cross-bar on the "e", negative axis on the "o", and two roof serifs on the M.
Additional literature: Martin Silvertant's history of type, from which the analytic image is borrowed. [Google]
Famous Parisian printer and publisher (1450-1512 or 1519), who also on occasion illustrated and even wrote texts. The link shows a Venetian wide-feathered alphabet of initial caps made around 1500. [Google]
Randy Jones, who runs AquaToad, is a free lance graphic designer who was in New York, but now lives in Santa Clara, CA, where her is a freelance graphic designer and principal of Aquatoad Design. Creator of Eason (2007, Fountain: a playful revival of Nicolas Jensons 1470 roman), Olduvai (2004, a fun old lettering face available at Umbrella Type; +Small Caps), Phaeton, Saint Nicolaus (2003, his take on Jenson, but not a revival), Chagrin (2003, serif face), AT Tenement (2003, wood type simulation), Neweue Helvetica (2003), Extra Wide Sans (2002) and the organic sans serif Cuillere (2003). New project (2003). An Eurostyle/Gothic project (2003). Working on a Sans Companion (2004). Saint Nicolaus was renamed Eason (2005) and now includes inline and titling versions. Hillbrook and Moped (upright connected fifties diner script: Sans, Script, Retrolux) were created in 2009.
Klingspor link. [Google]
Berkeley Oldstyle versus FB Californian versus LTC Californian
The experts at Typophile compare (ITC) Berkeley Oldstyle and FB Californian in a battle of Venetian typefaces.
Apparently, the University of California's current digital version is drawn by Richard Beatty who has interpreted several other Goudy typefaces, and is supposed to be really really close to the original. In 2006, the Lanston/P22 version, LTC Californian (OpenType), digitized by Paul Hunt, was discussed here. The LTC version seems to be closest to the original.
- Gerald Giampa: "The source for our "California Oldstyle is lead patterns made by Goudy at his studio. They are the only known Goudy patterns to survive. Goudy's other patterns were lost in his fire at Deepdene."
- William Berkson: "Berkeley Old Style is soother and less mannered than Goudy's original and the Font Bureau version, which is closer to the original. (Bringhurst compares the two in his 'Elements'). I think Berkeley Old Style is very well done, and in being less mannered may be of wider usability than the original."
- Jim Rimmer: "Goudy's "Typologia" is a master work worth reading. It was written by him as a kind of magnum opus on his method of cutting type, and at the same time concerned with how he went about designing the face for the University. Goudy went through a lot of discussion with the institution, wherein he wished to name the type simply "University Oldstyle". The director of the Press thought the name to be too generic, so they settled on "University of California Oldstyle. It was a bit of a mouthful, but the school wanted to have their name on it. Lanston Monotype did the production work on the type, making matrices for the use of the University. Some years later the type was licensed to Lanston, and they sold it under the name "Californian". The patterns that Gerald Giampa has in his possession are of the lead "boilerplate" type, devised by Goudy, and were made by Goudy himself at Deepdene. These are the only full suite of patterns to survive the fire at Deepdene, simply because they were in use by Lanston at the time of the fire. The book is well worth having for more than one good reason. It shows Goudy's approach to a design, his method of rendering the design in metal, and his philosophy of type and design."
The factual history: In 1938, Goudy designed California Oldstyle, his most distinguished type, for University of California Press. In 1958, Lanston issued it as Californian. Carol Twombly digitized the roman 30 years later for California; David Berlow revised it for Font Bureau with italic and small caps; Jane Patterson designed the bold. In 1999, assisted by Richard Lipton&Jill Pichotta, Berlow designed the black and the text and display series. [Google]
Or Berne Nadall. This designer (b. 1869, Louisville, KY) studied at the Louisville School of Design, worked briefly for some newspapers in Lousville, and then left for Chicago, where he worked for Barnhart Brothers & Spindler (The Great Western Type Foundry). For BBS he designed borders, ornaments, and some typefaces such as Faust Text (1896), Fifteenth Century (1898), Tell Text (1898) and a typeface now known as Nadall (1895-1896, BBS). The last typeface was digitized by Dan X. Solo as Nadall Regular in 2001.
Creator at BBS of Mazarin (1895), Mazarin Italic (1895). The historians do not mince words about Mazarin. McGrew writes: Mazarin was introduced by BB&S in 1895, redesigned from the Golden Type of William Morris. Mazarin Italic was introduced a year later, but neither face lasted long. See Jenson Oldstyle. Mazarin HTF by Hoefler Type Foundry is a digital version.
Nadall also created Caslon Antique (and Italic) in 1895 (Caslon EF Antique in the Elsner&Flake collection, and Caslon Antique in the Linotype collection), a version unlike any original Caslon. Some say it was developed from 1896-1898. For another digital version of this, see Caslon Antique (1993, Group Type).
Klingspor link. William E. Loy writes about Nadall in The Inland Printer. [Google]
Founded in 1981 by Mike Parker, Matthew Carter, Cheri Cone, and Rob Freedman, Bitstream is the first digital font foundry. Not without controversy, though, as many claim that the original digital collection was an illegal copy of Linotype fonts [Note: I disagree with that statement--take out "illegal"]. In 1999, Bitstream created MyFonts.com, a web site for finding, trying, and buying fonts on line. Bitstream was headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and led dfior some time by CEO Anne Chagnon.
Bitstream sold a nice 500-font CD for 39 USD around 1996, with all the great text families. This was a fantastic buy, as proved by this quote from John Hudson: I have said it before and I will say it again: I think the development of the original Bitstream library was one of the worst instances of piracy in the history of type, and it has set the tone for the disrespect for type shown today. (A bit of background: Bitstream asked Linotype if they could digitize Linotype's library of fonts. Linotype refused, but Bitstream went ahead anyway.) On this issue, read these pages by Ulrich Stiehl and Typophile.
Bitstream was offering a 250-font CD. Type Odyssey Font CD (2001). Bitstream has added Greek, Cyrillic, OldStyle versions to many of its families.
New releases in July 2001: Artane Elongated, Cavalero, Drescher Grotesk, FM Falling Leaves Moon, FM Rustling Branches Moon, Picayune Intelligence (by Nick Curtis), Raven, Richfont, Rina, Sissy Boy, Stingwire, Tannarin. In November 2001, Serious Magic entered into a long-term agreement to license 25 Bitstream outline fonts for its new visual communication products.
Bitstream has been an exemplary corporate citizen, occasionally producing license-free fonts for the masses, such as their Vera collection.
Bitstream's own overstated blurb about itself: Bitstream Inc. (NASDAQ: BITS) is a software development company that makes communications compelling. Bitstream enables customers worldwide to render high-quality text, browse the Web on wireless devices, select from the largest collection of fonts online, and customize documents over the Internet. Its core competencies include fonts and font technology, browsing technology, and publishing technology.
Finally, together with its spin-off, MyFonts, Bitstream was sold to Monotype Imaging in 2011.
Images of some fonts: Engravers Old English, Staccato 222, Brush 738, Century 751, Clrendon, Futura, Gothic 720, Humanist 777, Kis, Swiss 721, Venetian 301, Lucian.
Catalog of typefaces [large web page warning]. [Google]
Swedish designer born in 1924 in Stockholm. He says of himself: Compositor, Linotype operator, teacher of typography. Type designer in a small matrix factory 1950-51. Calligrapher, book designer, author, lecturer and trade mark specialist. Now retired, but does type design as a hobby and to special orders for museums, ad agencies, companies and even to private persons. Prolific typographer who created beauties such as Boberia LL (1994), a fantastic didone text family with an antique bouquet. Most of his work is available from Linotype and/or Agfa/Monotype.
Images of his best-selling typefaces.
His fonts include Boberia LL (1994, a fantastic didone text family with an antique bouquet), the Grafilone LL family (1994, an avant-garde family that is almost illegible), Cartesius (2006, a beautiful 5-style family done at T4 in a mix of garalde and Venetian fashions), Byngve (2004, Linotype, in the style of 15th century Italy), Linotype Dala Text (2002, Fraktur, with ornaments and borders), Ornabo dingbats. Art Gallery, Belltrap (1995), Benedict (uncial), Beowulf (uncial), Boscribe (2005), Bosis, Botobe (2011, an informal script), Brigida, Buccardi (1998, Agfa), Caballero Script (2011, inspired by Spanish handwriting from 15th and 16th century), Carl Beck Script (1992, calligraphic), Esseltube, Euclides, Exlibris (1998), Frisans (2005, Monotype), Gertrud (2006, T4, based on 16th century calligraphy), Geometra (2011, T4), Gianpoggio (1992), Golota (1998, Agfa), Grantofte (1995), Hagalind (2011, a calligraphic connected script), Jerrywi (1994), Johabu (Fraktur), Lebensjoy (1994), Läckö, Linotype Dala Borders, Linotype Dala Pict (2002, beautiful dings!), Linotype Hieroglyphes One and Two (2002), Logoform, Magellan, Maricava, Moorbacka, Naniara (1998), Nordik, Olaus Bandus (medieval script), Olaus Magnus, Palekin (1994), Pelegotic (2006, an art deco inspired but minimalist sans), Pelican, PocketType (1994), Picadyll (2011, art deco), Promemoria, Ringlingje, Sabellicus (1997), Space Kid (runes), Swingbill, Trotzkopf (1998), Unotype (1997, mono), Vadstenakursive (1989, blackletter face with almost Lombardic-looking capitals), Viger Spa (runes).
In 2003, these faces were published in the Linotype Taketype 5 collection: Berndal LT Std Bold, Berndal LT Std BoldItalic, Berndal LT Std Italic, Berndal LT Std Regular, Berndal LT Std SC, Siseriff LT Std Black, Siseriff LT Std Bold, Siseriff LT Std BoldItalic, Siseriff LT Std Italic, Siseriff LT Std Light, Siseriff LT Std LightItalic, Siseriff LT Std Regular, Siseriff LT Std Semibold, Siseriff LT Std SemiboldItalic.
Pelle Anderson interviews Bo Berndal. Bitstream write-up. Agfa/Monotype write-up. Author of Typiskt typografiskt (Fisher and co, 1990). MyFonts page. Linotype page. [Google]
[Bruce Rogers: Itaian Printers in Venice]
Albert Bruce Rogers was a celebrated American type and book designer (b. 1870, Linnwood, IN, d. 1957, New Fairfield, CT). A graduate from Purdue in 1890, he worked in book design. It was not until 1901 that he cut his first typeface, Montaigne, a Venetian style face named for the first book it appeared in, a 1903 limited edition of The Essays of Montaigne. In 1912, Rogers moved to New York City where he worked both as an independent designer and as house designer for the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It was for the Museum's 1915 limited edition of Maurice de Guérin's The Centaur that he designed his most famous type-face, Centaur (1914). Like Montaigne, it was based on the Venetian faces of Nicolas Jenson. Wikipedia: Rogers considered this face to be a substantial improvement on his early Montaigne, both because his design had matured and because, on the advice of Frederic Goudy, he had employed Robert Wiebking as the punch-cutter, and Rogers used Centaur extensively for the rest of his career. The Centaur was produced by Rogers in Dyke Mill at Carl Rollins' Montague Press and is now one of the most collectible books ever printed.
In subsequent years, he designed books for Mount Vernon Press, and Harvard University Press, and served as typographic advisor at Lanston Monotype. To produce the Oxford Lectern Bible for Oxford University Press, an italic complement to Centaur was needed. Wikipedia: As he did not feel capable of designing the sort of chancery face that he thought appropriate, Rogers chose to pair Centaur with Frederic Warde's Arrighi, a pairing retained to this day.
Rogers died in New Fairfield, CT, and donated his books and papers to Purdue University, where they are in the Beinecke Rare Book and manuscript Library.
Biography by Nicholas Fabian. Linotype link. His typefaces, summed up:
- Montaigne (1901, privately cast). punches cut by John Cumming.
- Centaur (original) (1914). Development continued until 1931. Privately cast by Barnhart Brothers&Spindler. Matrices cut by Robert Wiebking of the Western Type Foundry. A modern version of Nicolas Jenson's Centaur, this lives on in digital form as Venetian 301 (Bitstream), Centurion, Centus (URW), Cambridge (SoftMaker) and Arrighi Italic .
- Centaur (Monotype) (1929, Monotype Ltd. and Mackenzie&Harris). Matrices re-cut for machine composition by British Monotype. Further developments based on or related to this typeface: Metropolitan Oldstyle (Lanston; with Frederick Warde), Poster (1918-1919), Goudy Bible (1947, designed with the collaboration of Sol Hess for Lanston Monotype). Discussion of Centaur by Don Hosek. About Centaur Monotype (1929), and its digital version, Dean Allen writes: Like Bembo, released for the Monotype machine the same year, Centaur was an exceptionally beautiful and eminently readable revival of Renaissance type. Unfortunately, the producers of the digital version made a common mistake: the shapes are based on the most basic starting point of Bruce Rogers designs. These designs were intended for metal type that would press into paper, the ink spreading as it absorbed into the fibre. The resulting printed shapes had a good deal more visual force than the original designs. The process was total: design anticipating application. This version of Centaur suffers from the perfection of the process of digital design and offset printing: the original shape is printed coldly intact, and thus its very difficult to set a well-made page in Centaur.
There are many digital age descendants of Centaur. Bitstream got that ball rolling with Venetian 301 (Cyrillic version by Dmitry Kirsanov, Paratype, 2006), and SoftMaker has its Cambridge Serial (2010). Type families called Centaur exist at Adobe, Monotype and Linotype. Related faces, but without Centaur's flaring, include Phinney Jenson (Tom Wallace) and Nicolas Jenson SG (Spiece Graphics). [Google]
Bruce Rogers: Itaian Printers in Venice
An essay by Bruce Rogers on Italian printers in Venice in the renaissance period. [Google]
Christian Schwartz was born in 1977 in East Washington, NH, and grew up in a small town in New Hampshire. He attended Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1999 with a degree in Communication Design. After graduation, he spent three months as the in-house type designer at MetaDesign Berlin, under the supervision of Erik Spiekermann. In January 2000, he joined Font Bureau. Near the end of 2000, he founded Orange Italic with Chicago-based designer Dino Sanchez, and left Font Bureau in August 2001 to concentrate full-time on developing this company. Orange Italic published the first issue of their online magazine at the end of 2001 and released their first set of typefaces in the beginning of 2002. Presently, he is an independent type designer in New York City, and has operated foundries like Christian Schwartz Design and Commercial Type (the latter since 2009). He has designed commercial fonts for Emigre, FontShop, House Industries and Font Bureau as well as proprietary designs for corporations and publications. In 2005, Orange Italic joined the type coop Village.
His presentations. At ATypI 2004 in Prague, he spoke about "The accidental text face". At ATypI 2006 in Lisbon, he and Paul Barnes explained the development of a 200-style font family for the Guardian which includes Guardian Egyptian and Guardian Sans. FontShop's page on his work. Bio at Emigre. At ATypI 2007 in Brighton, he was awarded the Prix Charles Peignot. Jan Middendorp's interview in October 2007. Speaker at ATypI 2009 in Mexico City, where he announced his new typefoundry, simply called Commercial.
FontShop link. Font selection at MyFonts.
A partial list of his creations:
Schwartz also made numerous custom fonts:
- FF Bau (2001-2004): Art direction by Erik Spiekermann. Released by FontShop International. He says: Bau is based on Grotesk, a typeface released by the Schelter&Giesecke typefoundry in Leipzig, Germany at the end of the 19th century and used prominently by the designers at the Bauhaus. Each weight was drawn separately, to give the family the irregularity of the original, and the Super is new.
- Neutraface (2002, House Industries) and Neutraface Condensed (2004). Art directed by Ken Barber and Andy Cruz. Schwartz states: Neutraface was an ambitious project to design the most typographically complete geometric sans serif family ever. We didn't have many actual samples of the lettering that the Neutras used on their buildings, so it ended up taking a lot of interpretation. There was no reference for the lowercase, so it's drawn from scratch, looking at Futura, Nobel, and Tempo for reference. Stephen Coles reports: Reminiscent of the recent FB Relay and HTF Gotham, Neutraface is an exaggerated Nobel with nods to Bauhaus and architectural lettering. Yes, and maybe Futura? Maggie Winters and Michelle Regna made great Neutraface posters.
- Neutraface No. 2 (2007), discussed by Stephen Coles: By simply raising Neutrafaces low waist, most of that quaintness is removed in No. 2, moving the whole family (which is completely mixable) toward more versatile, workhorse territory. This release is surely Houses response to seeing so many examples of Neutraface standardized by its users. Also new is an inline version. Who doesn't love inline type? It so vividly recalls WPA posters and other pre-war hand lettering. There are other heavy, inlined sans serifs like Phosphate, but one with a full family of weights and text cuts to back it up is very appealing. A typophile states: Designed by Christian Schwartz for House Industries, Neutraface captures the 1950s stylings of architect Richard Neutra in a beautiful typeface meant for application on the screen, in print, and in metalwork. If you are ever in need of a classy retro face, they don't get any more polished than this.
- Farnham (2004, Font Bureau) and Farnham Headline (2006, Schwartzco). Commissioned by Esterson Associates and de Luxe Associates. Winner of an award at TDC2 2004. Based on work by Johannes Fleischman, a German punchcutter who worked for the Enschedé Foundry in Haarlem in the mid-to-late 1700s. Schwartz: Truly part of the transistion from oldstyle (i.e. Garamond) to modern (i.e. Bodoni) Fleischman's romans are remarkable for their energy and "sparkle" on the page, as he took advantage of better tools and harder steel to push the limits of how thin strokes could get. In the 1800s, Fleischman's work fell into obscurity as tastes changed, but interest was renewed in the 1990s as digital revivals were designed by Matthew Carter, the Hoefler Type Foundry, and the Dutch Type Library, each focusing on a different aspect of the source material. I think the DTL version is the most faithful to the source, leaving the bumps and quirks inherent to metal type untouched. I've taken the opposite approach, using the source material as a starting point and trying to design a very contemporary text face that uses the basic structure and character of Fleischman without duplicating features that I found outdated, distracting, or unttatractive (i.e., the extra "spikes" on the capital E and F, or the form of the y).
- FF Unit (2003-2004, Fontshop, designed with Erik Spiekermann). A clean and blocky evolution of FF Meta intended as a corporate face for the Deutsche Bahn (but subsequently not used).
- Amplitude (2001-2003, Font Bureau), Amplitude Classified and Amplitude Headline. A newspaper-style ink-trapped sans family, unfortunately given the same name as a 2001 font by Aenigma. Winner of an award at TDC2 2004. The face selected by the St Louis Post Dispatch in 2005. One of many agates (type for small text) successfully developed by him. This page explains that they've dumped Dutch 811 and Bodoni and Helvetica and Franklin Gothic and News Gothic (whew!) for various weights of Amplitude, Poynter Old Style Display and Poynter Old Style Text. AmplitudeAubi was designed in 2002-2003 by Schwartz and Font Bureau for the German mag AutoBild.
- Simian (2001, House Industries): SimianDisplay-Chimpanzee, SimianDisplay-Gorilla, SimianDisplay-Orangutan, SimianText-Chimpanzee, SimianText-Gorilla, SimianText-Orangutan. Designed at Font Bureau. Art Direction by Ken Barber and Andy Cruz. Schwartz: "Although Simian's roots are in Ed Benguiat's logos for the Planet of the Apes movies, Simian wound up veering off in its own direction. The display styles look very techno, and we really went nuts with the ligatures, since this was one of House's first Opentype releases."
- Publico (2007): A predecessor of Guradian Egyptian. Schwartz writes: During the two year process of designing the typeface that would eventually become Guardian Egyptian, Paul Barnes and I ended up discarding many ideas along the way. Some of them were decent, just not right for the Guardian, including a serif family first called Stockholm, then renamed Hacienda after the legendary club in the Guardian's original home city of Manchester. Everyone involved liked the family well enough, but it didn't fit the paper as the design evolved, and several rounds of reworking left us more and more unsure of what it was supposed to look like. In the summer of 2006, Mark Porter and Esterson Associates were hired to redesign Publico, a major Portuguese daily newspaper, for an early 2007 launch. He asked us to take another look at Hacienda, to see if we might be able to untangle our many rounds of changes, figure out what it was supposed to look like in the first place, and finish it in a very short amount of time. Spending some time away from the typeface did our eyes a world of good. When we looked at it again, it was obvious that it really needed its "sparkle" played up, so we increased the sharpness of the serifs, to play against softer ball terminals, and kept the contrast high as the weight increased, ending up with an elegant and serious family with some humor at its extreme weights. As a Spanish name is not suitable for a typeface for a Portuguese newspaper, Hacienda was renamed once more, finally ending up as Publico. Production and design assistance by Kai Bernau. Commissioned by Mark Porter and Esterson Associates for Publico
- Austin (2003): Designed by Paul Barnes at Schwartzco. Commissioned by Sheila Jack at Harper's&Queen.
- Giorgio (2007): Commissioned by Chris Martinez at T, the New York Times Sunday style magazine. Small size versions produced with Kris Sowersby. Not available for relicensing. A high contrast condensed "modern" display face related to Imre Reiner's Corvinus. Ben Kiel raves: Giorgio, like the fashion models that it shares space with in T, the New York Times fashion magazine, is brutal in its demands. It is a shockingly beautiful typeface, one so arresting that I stopped turning the page when I first saw it a Sunday morning about a year ago. [...] Giorgio exudes pure sex and competes with the photographs beside it. The designers at T were clearly unafraid of what it demands from the typographer and, over the past year, kept on finding ways to push Giorgio to its limit. Extremely well drawn in its details, full of tension between contrast and grace, it is a typeface that demands to be given space, to be used with wit and courage, and for the typographer to be unafraid in making it the page.
- Empire State Building (2007): An art deco titling face designed with Paul Barnes for Laura Varacchi at Two Twelve Associates. Icons designed by Kevin Dresser at Dresser Johnson. Exclusive to the Empire State Building.
- Guardian (2004-2005): Commissioned by Mark Porter at The Guardian. Designed with Paul Barnes. Not available for relicensing until 2008. Based on an Egyptian, this 200-style family consists of Guardian Egyptian (the main text face), Guardian Sans, Guardian Text Egyptian, Guardian Text Sans and Guardian Agate.
- Houston (2003): Commissioned by Roger Black at Danilo Black, Inc., for the Houston Chronicle. Schwartz: As far as I know, this typeface is the first Venetian Oldstyle ever drawn for newspaper text, and only Roger Black could come up with such a brilliant and bizarre idea. The basic structures are based on British Monotype's Italian Old Style, which was based on William Morris's Golden Type. The italic (particularly the alternate italic used in feature sections) also borrows from Nebiolo Jenson Oldstyle, and there is a hint of ATF Jenson Oldstyle in places as well.
- Popular (2004): Commissioned by Robb Rice at Danilo Black, Inc., for Popular Mechanics. An Egyptian on testosterone.
- Stag (2005): Commissioned by David Curcurito and Darhil Crooks at Esquire. Yet another very masculine slab serif family. Schwartz writes I showed them a range of slab serifs produced by French and German foundries around 1900-1940, and synthesized elements from several of them (notably Beton, Peignot's Egyptienne Noir, Georg Trump's Schadow, and Scarab) into a new face with a very large x-height, extremely short ascenders and descenders, and tight spacing. Also, we find Stag Sans (2007, Village) and Stag Dot (2008, Village).
- Fritz (1997, Font Bureau). Schwartz: "Fritz is based on various pieces of handlettering done in the early 20th century by Ozwald Cooper, a type designer and lettering artist best known for the ubiquitous Cooper Black. Galapagos Typefoundry's Maiandra and Robusto are based on the same pieces of lettering."
- Latino-Rumba, Latino-Samba (2000, House Industries). Art Direction by Andy Cruz. Designed with Ken Barber. Jazzy letters based on an earlier design of Schwartz, called Atlas (1993).
- Pennsylvania (2000, FontBureau). A monospaed family inspired by Pennsylvanian license plates. Schwartz: "Thai type designer Anuthin Wongsunkakon's Keystone State is based on the exact same source."
- Luxury (2002, Orange Italic, codesigned with Dino Sanchez). Gold, Platinum and Diamond are the names of the 1930s headline faces made (jokingly) for use with luxury items. The six-weight Luxury family at House Industries in 2006, contains three serif text weights called Luxury Text, as well as three display faces, called Platinum (art deco), Gold, and Diamond (all caps with triangular serifs).
- Los Feliz (2002, Emigre). Based on handlettered signs found in LA.
- Unfinished faces: Masthead, Reform, Bitmaps, Bilbao, Boyband, Addison, Elektro, Sandbox, Vendôme, Bailey.
- Fonts drawn in high school: Flywheel (1992, FontHaus), Atlas (1993, FontHaus, a "a fairly faithful revival of Potomac Latin, designed in the late 1950s for PhotoLettering, Inc"), Elroy (1993, FontHaus), ElroyExtrasOrnaments, Hairspray (1993, "a revival of Steinweiss Scrawl, designed in the mid-1950s by Alex Steinweiss, best known for his handlettered record covers": HairsprayBlonde, HairsprayBrunette, HairsprayPix, HairsprayRedhead), Twist (1994, Precision Type and Agfa), Zombie (1995, Precision Type and Agfa), Morticia (1995, Agfa/Monotype), Gladys (1996, an unreleased revival of ATF's turn-of-the-century Master Script).
- Ant&Bee&Art Fonts (1994-1995): three dingbat fonts, Baby Boom, C'est la vie, and Raining Cats&Dogs, based on drawings by Christian's aunt, Jill Weber. Released by FontHaus.
- Digitizations done between 1993-1995: Dolmen (Letraset), Latino Elongated (Letraset), Regatta Condensed (Letraset), Fashion Compressed (Letraset), Jack Regular (Jack Tom), Tempto Openface (Tintin Timen).
- Hand-tuned bitmap fonts: Syssy, Zimmer's Egyptian, Elizzzabeth, Newt Gothic, Trags X, Tibia, Fibula, Tino, Digest Cyrillic (based on Tal Leming's Digest). Free downloads of the pixel faces Newt Gothic, Tibula and Fibia here.
- At Village and Orange Italic, one can get Local Gothic (2005), now in OpenType, a crazy mix of Helvetica Bold, Futura Extra Bold, Franklin Gothic Condensed and Alternate Gothic No. 2.
- FF Oxide (2005), a Bank Gothic style stencil family. FF Oxide Light is free!
- Graphik (2008), a sans between geometric and grotesk made for thew Wallpaper mag. Kris sSwersby writes: In a sweltering typographic climate that favours organic look-at-me typefaces bursting with a thousand OpenType tricks, Graphik is a refreshing splash of cool rationality. Its serious, pared-back forms reference classic sans serifs but remain thoroughly modern and never get frigid. Any designer worth their salt needs to turn away from the screen&pick up the latest copy of Wallpaper* magazine. There you will find one of the most beautiful, restrained sans serifs designed in a very long time.
- In 2011, he created a 22-style revival of Helvetica called Neue Haas Grotesk (Linotype), which offers alternates such as a straigt-legged R and a differently-seriffed a. It is based on the original drawings of Miedinger in 1957.
- Houston (2003). Winner of an award at TDC2 2004, a type family done with Roger Black for the Houston Chronicle. Schwartz: This typeface is the first Venetian Oldstyle ever drawn for newspaper text, and only Roger Black could come up with such a brilliant and bizarre idea. The basic structures are based on British Monotype's Italian Old Style, which was based on William Morris's Golden Type.).
- Popular (2004). A thick-slabbed face drawn for Popular Mechanics, commissioned by Robb Rice at Danilo Black, Inc.
- FF Meta 3 (2003, hairline versions of type drawn by Richard Lipton and Erik Spiekermann).
- Eero (2003). Based on an unnamed typeface drawn by Eero Saarinen for the Dulles International Airport. Art Directed by Ken Barber and Andy Cruz. Commissioned by House Industries for the Dulles International Airport.
- ITC Officina Display (2003). The Regular, Bold and Black weights of this face were originally developed by Ole Schäfer for Erik Spiekermann's redesign of The Economist in 2000 or 2001. The ITC conglomerate decided to release it in 2003. I revised parts of Ole's fonts, and worked with Richard Lipton to adapt the Light from a version of Officina Light that Cyrus Highsmith had drawn several years earlier for a custom client. I also added more arrows and bullets than anyone could possibly need, but they were fun to draw. Released by Agfa.
- Symantec (2003). Designed with Conor Mangat based on News Gothic by Morris Fuller Benton (Sans) and Boehringer Serif by Ole Schäfer, based on Concorde Nova by Günter Gerhard Lange (Serif). Advised by Erik Spiekermann. Commissioned by MetaDesign for Symantec Corporation.
- Harrison (2002). Based on the hand of George Harrison, was commissioned in 2002 by radical.media.
- Chalet Cyrillic (2002, House Industries).
- Benton Modern (2001). Based on Globe Century by Tobias Frere-Jones and Richard Lipton. Commissioned by Font Bureau for the Readability Series. Designed at Font Bureau.
- Caslon's Egyptian (2001). Commissioned by Red Herring. Designed at Font Bureau. Around 1816, William Caslon IV printed the first know specimen of a sans serif typeface: W CASLON JUNR LETTERFOUNDER. A complete set of matrices for captials exists in the archives of Stephenson Blake, and Miko McGinty revived these as a project in Tobias Frere-Jones's type design class at Yale. In 1998, Cyrus Highsmith refined Miko's version, giving it a more complete character set for Red Herring magazine. In 2001, they came back for a lowercase and 3 additional weights. I looked at Clarendon and British vernacular lettering (mainly from signs) for inspiration, and came up with a lowercase that does not even pretend to be an accurate or failthful revival.
- David Yurman (2001). Based on a custom typeface by Fabien Baron. Commissioned by Lipman Advertising for David Yurman. Designed at Font Bureau.
- Coop Black lowercase (2001). Based on Coop Black by Ken Barber and Coop. Commissioned by House Industries for Toys R Us. Designed at Font Bureau.
- Interstate Monospaced (2000-2001). Based on Interstate by Tobias Frere-Jones. Commissioned by Citigroup. Designed at Font Bureau.
- Vectora Thin (2000). Based on Vectora by Adrian Frutiger. Commissioned by O Magazine. Not available for licensing. Designed at Font Bureau.
- LaDeeDa (2000). Informal lettering, art directed by Mia Hurley. Commissioned by gURL.com. Designed at Font Bureau.
- Poynter Agate Display (2000). Based on Poynter Agate by David Berlow. Commissioned by the San Jose Mercury News classified section. Designed at Font Bureau.
- FF DIN Condensed (2000). Based on FF DIN by Albert-Jan Pool. Commissioned by Michael Grossman for Harper's Bazaar. Designed at Font Bureau.
- VW Headline Light&VW Heckschrift (1999). Based on Futura by Paul Renner and VW Headline by Lucas de Groot. Art directed by Erik Spiekermann and Stephanie Kurz. Commissioned by MetaDesign Berlin for Volkswagen AG.
- 5608 (1999). Stencil face for Double A Clothing.
- Bureau Grotesque (1996-2002). Designed with FB Staff including David Berlow, Tobias Frere-Jones, Jill Pichotta, Richard Lipton, and others. Mostly unreleased. Some styles commissioned by Entertainment Weekly. Designed at Font Bureau.
- Guardian Egyptian (2005). A 200-font family by Schwartz and Paul Barnes for The Guardian.
- In 2007, Schwartz and Spiekermann received a gold medal from the German Design Council for a type system developed fo the Deutsche Bahn (German Railway).
- Zizou (2011). A reworking (from memory) of Antique Olive (1960, Roger Excoffon).
British type designer and art director, born in 1940 (MyFonts.com says 1945, Warwickshire), who was type director at Letraset for some time. In 1995 Brignall moved to ITC. With the closure of ITC's New York office in November 1999, Brignall was re-appointed Type Director for Esselte Letraset. The latest major project in which Brignall was involved was the ITC Johnston series launched in 1999. He received the Type Directors Club Medal at TDC2 in 2001. The Letraset and ITC collections are now owned (via Linotype) by Monotype.
Bio. Bio at Linotype. His fonts include
- Aachen Bold (1969), Aachen Medium (1977, with Alan Meeks). The Scangraphic version is Aachen SH. In 2012, Jim Wasco (Monotype) extended Aachen to 18 fonts including an italic, called Neue Aachen.
- Revue (1969), an unsuccessful display face.
- Countdown (1965, LED simulation face), cyrillicized in 1993 by A. Kustov at TypeMarket.
- Superstar (1970, an athletic lettering face now owned by ITC and sold by MyFonts).
- Italia (1974; see Istria on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD, 2002), Italia Book (1977).
- Premier Lightline (1969), an elegant art deco hairline face.
- Premier Shaded (1970), caps only shaded art deco face.
- Romic Light (1979-1980). See R790 Roman on Softmaker's XXL CD (2002).
- Corinthian (1981).
- Epokha (1992), a 1910 poster style slab serif.
- Edwardian (1983). The digital version is at Elsner&Flake, for example.
- Harlow (1977-1979), a fifties style display script. The Scangraphic versions are Harlow SB and Harlow SH.
- Octopuss (1970), similar to Harlow.
- Tango (1974) [a freefont inspired by Tango can be found in Julius B. Thyssen's Kylie 1996-J], yet another face in the spirit of Harlow.
- Jenson Old Style (1982, with Freda Sack), a Venetian face.
- Victorian (1976, with Freda Sack).
- Type Embellishments One, Two and Three (1994): handsome ornaments developed in the Letraset Type Studio by Michael Gills and Colin Brignall to complement the Fontek Typeface Library.
- Retro Bold (1992, a slab serif done with Andrew Smith).
- ITC Werkstatt (1999, ITC: a hookish Preissig-style face developed with Satwinder Sehmi).
FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google]
David Thometz's top 10 favorite text faces
- Hightower (Font Bureau: Tobias Frere-Jones, 1994-1996, based on Nicolas Jenson) and Cloister Old Style (Font Company/URW++; Nicolas Jenson; Morris Fuller Benton, 1897): "Nicolas Jenson's model is, in many typophiles' judgement, simply the best roman ever designed. Morris Fuller Benton's Cloister Old Style is by far my favorite of all the attempts to revive Jenson. ITC's Legacy Serif is too sterile, Adobe Jenson lacks the same charm, and Monotype's Centaur is just a bit too spindly. Monotype's Italian Oldstyle and Jim Parkinson's Parkinson are good, but diverged a bit too much from the original form. Cloister Old Style has enough meat on its bones to print well at small sizes, but its forms are intriguing enough to keep it interesting at larger sizes. The Font Company/URW++ cut is the best that I've found, although its outlines are on the klunky side. Tobias Frere-Jones' Hightower is another font based on the same form. I haven't had it long enough to judge it completely fairly, but so far it has satisfied my expectations. It is slightly more sterile than Cloister, but not such that it completely loses its charm, and its outlines are better that any cutting of Cloister that I've yet come across. "
- Cheltenham Old Style (Bitstream; Hannibal Ingalls Kimball, Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, Morris Fuller Benton, 1896-1911; 1990): "Demand the original design, as Bitstream's version has followed, and burn all copies of ITC's bastardization. Cheltenham Old Style is absolutely not for everyday use. Still, for those occasions when it is appropriate, it's a font you can kick off your shoes by the fire to read."
- Stempel Garamond (Stempel/Linotype AG; Claude Garamond, c.1480-1561; 1924): "This is a truly beautiful text font, and the only "Garamond" in which both the roman and the italic are based on Claude Garamond's work, and not Jean Jannon's."
- Mrs Eaves (Emigre; Zuzana Licko, 1996): "Emigre's version of Baskerville isn't particularly true to Baskerville's design, but Zuzana Licko's alterations result in a fresh, new face that is well-suited to the realities of today's digital printing demands. The italic is especially beautiful, and the range of ligatures is (with a few exceptions) a bonus. "
- FF Scala and FF Scala Sans (FontShop; Martin Majoor, 1990).
- HTF Didot (Hoefler Type Foundry; Firmin Didot, c.1784; Jonathan Hoefler, c.1992?) and Didot LH (Linotype AG; Firmin Didot, c.1784; Adrian Frutiger, 1992): " Didot is currently my favorite of the didone fonts, and both of these versions are good, each having different strengths. Still, Berthold Bodoni Old Face, Berthold Bodoni Antiqua, Bauer Bodoni and Berthold Walbaum slip into my top tier from time to time. "
- Perpetua (Linotype AG; Eric Gill, c. 1925-1930; 1959; 1991): Strangely, Perpetua's flowing grace and stately structure is often too beautiful to be used for certain texts, which is why I don't use it even as often as I'd like.
- Serapion (Storm Type Foundry; Frantisek Storm, 2001): Serapion is klunky and untamed, but filled with a beautiful energy. William Berkson says in 2012: Well, I don't think Serapion is a good text face, because it's color is too uneven. You can get variety by doing uneven color, easily. To get variety while also getting even color to me is the challenge. Storm is a good designer, but to me this one is not a success. Large it's ugly as well, if you ask me. To me it's visually incoherent.
- Plantin (Agfa-Monotype; Frank Hinman Pierpont, ?): The original is much better than its descendant, Times New Roman.
- Bookman/Old Style (Ludlow, 1925; Merganthaler-Linotype, 1936; Agfa-Monotype ?): AGFA-Monotype has the best version that I've found; Bitstream's is okay. Avoid ITC's parody.
Type designer Dmitry Kirsanov (b. Orenburg, Russia, 1965) graduated from the Orenburg Art School in 1987. He worked freelance for Yuzhnyi Ural publishing company in Orenburg. After attending the Moscow State University of Printing (1996), he joined its Department of Print Design in 1997 as an instructor of typographic design and computer graphics. From 1996 on he worked at ParaGraph International, designing typefaces. Since April 1998 Kirsanov works for ParaType. His page has essays on the history of serif and sans serif, and on font matching. Would be great for an introductory course. He designed a Cyrillic version of ITC Bodoni 72 (2000, called PT ITC Bodoni, Paratype) and ITC Bodoni 72 Swash (2001). PT Mas d'Azil (Paratype, 2002) and PT Mas d'Azil Symbols are prehistoric lettering and pictorial fonrs based on images discovered in a prehistoric cave of Mas-d'Azil, France. He created Magistral (1997, based on a clean look sans display typeface of Andrey Kryukov), Venetian 301 (2003, Paratype; a Cyrillic version of Bitstream's Venetian 301, which in turn was based on Bruce Rogers' Centaur, which in turn goes back to the 1470s alphabets of Nicolas Jenson), News Gothic (2005, a Cyrillic family based on the perennial News Gothic sans family), and Mag Mixer (2005, an industrial-look mechanical face based on Magistral).
His talk at ATypI 2008 in St. Petersburg is on the first didones in Russia.
Picture. Paratype page. FontShop link. Klingspor link.
View Dmitry Kirsanov's typefaces. [Google]
[Thomas James Cobden-Sanderson]
Doves Type was from Doves Press, founded in 1900 by Thomas J. Cobden-Sanderson (a disciple of William Morris) and Emery Walker. They had type based on Jenson. Thomas J. Cobden-Sanderson threw the typefaces in the Thames when the press closed in 1916 to prevent anyone from using it again. The Doves Type face was revived by Tjörbjörn Olsson at T-Type. Ben Archer writes: although William Morris's Golden Type predated this design, it is thought that the Doves Type was more faithful to the design of the original Venetian type of the fifteenth century. Punches were cut by Edward Prince on the instructions of Walker and Cobden Sanderson in a single size and weight only, and used for printing the Doves Press edition of the Bible. This celebrated type was used privately for sixteen years and never released to the general trade. It was lost to history forever when Cobden Sanderson threw the entire font into the Thames river, provoking a bitter argument with his business partner, the master printer Emery Walker.
Cobden-Sanderson was born in 1840 in Alnwick, Northumberland, and died in London in 1922. [Google]
Edward Philip Prince
English punchcutter active from 1862 to 1923, associated with seemingly the whole of the blossoming private press movement in England and America, b. 1841, Kennington, d. 1923, North London. His type creations include Tudor Black (1878, Miller&Richard), a face codesigned by Frederick Tarrant. Notable work was for the Kelmscott Press of William Morris, and the Doves Press of Emery Walker&Thomas Cobden-Sanderson. For the Doves Press he cut the revivals of Jenson's type that stimulated an interest in 15th century printing in the wider printing industry. (This Doves type was later thrown into the River Thames by an upset Cobden-Sanderson, over a protracted argument about its authorship). Prince's major design failure is worth noting. He was commissioned by Emery Walker to design type for Count Harry Kessler's Cranach Presse. The roman design was not a problem, for Prince had cut similar designs for the Kelmscott and Doves presses. The italic presented a new challenge though. Based on a type used in a 1525 work of Tagliente, this was the first attempt to recut a chancery italic. Despite help from Edward Johnston, Prince was seemingly unable to do interpret the design, and demanded finished drawings from Johnston, which the Englishman - in accordance with his views on the nature of craftsmanship - was not inclined to provide. It is instructive to note a confession Prince made to Kessler, characterizing himself as "a craftsman carrying out other men's designs". For Kelmscott Press, William Morris (a founder of the Arts and Crafts movement and a forerunner of the influential private press movement in Europe) and Edward Prince (master engraver) designed Golden Type (1890), a robust typeface made after the 1469 roman by Nicolas Jenson [Charles Leonard: The Golden Type was one of the most influential of the 19th century, but doesn't hold a candle to the Venetian revival faces that quickly followed.]. See also ATF Jenson Recut, and the digital Linotype ITC Golden Type. [Google]
Born in London in 1851, Emery Walker died also in London in 1933. He was a printer who worked with William Morris at the Kelmscott Press. In 1900 he co-founded Doves Press with Thomas J. Cobden-Sanderson. Walker drew the revival of Jenson's types, which were later cut by Edward Prince. One of his types there (made with Cobden-Sanderson) is known as Doves Roman (1900). He left the Doves Press in 1909. He was engaged by Harry Kessler to produce type for the Cranach Presse in Weimar. Walker commissioned Percy Tiffin and the highly-regarded Prince. With the accompanying Tagliente-based italic, the project ran into serious difficulties and the mediocre design remained unfinished until after Prince's death. Ben Archer writes: Although William Morris's Golden Type predated this design, it is thought that the Doves Type was more faithful to the design of the original Venetian type of the fifteenth century. Punches were cut by Edward Prince on the instructions of Walker and Cobden Sanderson in a single size and weight only, and used for printing the Doves Press edition of the Bible. This celebrated type was used privately for sixteen years and never released to the general trade. It was lost to history forever when Cobden Sanderson threw the entire font into the Thames river, provoking a bitter argument with his business partner, the master printer Emery Walker.
Eric J. Siry
San Francisco-based designer who modified Tobias Frere-Jones's Hightower (Font Bureau, 1996) for Rolling Stone. That custom font is called Abbey. [Google]
Ernst Frederic Detterer
Born in Lake Mills, Wisconsin, 1888, he died in Chicago in 1947, worked as designer, instructor and calligrapher. Designer of Nicolas Jenson (or Eusebius) (1923), who worked at the Ludlow Typograph Company in Chicago. Note that the name Eusebius was only coined in 1941. Nicolas Jenson was based on the original work of fifteenth century designer Nicolas Jenson.
Jim Spiece's Nicolas Jenson SG is based on Eusebius and on extensions of Eusebius by Detterer's student, Robert Hunter Middleton.
McGrew writes about Eusebius: Eusebius is Ludlow's distinctive adaptation of the types of Nicolas Jenson, which were first used about 1470 and have served as inspiration for many of the best roman typefaces ever since. This face was designed by Ernst Detterer in 1923, and issued as the Nicolas Jenson series. Robert H. Middleton, who had been an art school student of Detterer's, was first hired by Ludlow for the temporary assignment of seeing this face through production. By 1929 he had designed matching bold, italics, and open. Slight modifications were later made to the Nicolas Jenson series by Middleton (who remained at Ludlow for a distinguished career, designing scores of faces over forty-seven years), and it was reintroduced in 1941 under the series name of Eusebius. This name comes from the 1470 book in which Jenson's original type was first used. In the specimen of Eusebius, the J and f shown separately at the end are the original Detterer design of the letters most obviously redesigned; other changes were minor. In addition to the characters shown in the specimens here, with the usual ligatures for all fonts, oldstyle figures were available for Eusebius and Italic and Open, while QU and Qu combinations with long tails and f combinations with overhangs were made for regular, Bold, and Open. Compare Centaur, Cloister, Italian Old Style.
Klingspor link. [Google]
George Abrams (b. 1919 or 1920, Brooklyn, d. 2001, Manhasset, NY) is the designer of the gorgeous font families Augereau, Abrams Caslon and Venetian, at Expert Alphabets in Great Neck, NY. Abrams taught lettering and typeface design at the Parsons School of Design, the New School for Social Research and at the Columbia University Teachers College. He had over 50 years of Madison Avenue experience designing ads, logos, typography and lettering for Fortune 500 companies and more. His early typefaces were photo types published by Headliners in New York City. He died on June 7, 2001 at age 81.
About Augereau: This is the only digitized face by George Abrams [in fact, the digitization is due to Charles Nix, for George Abrams]. Its 28 weights include over 2,000 sorts including expert, OsF,&alts. Augereau is named for Antoine Augereau, who was a typographer who had a few claims to fame - one was that he was Claude Garamonds teacher, and two was that he was sentenced to death for heresy in 1544. Heresy for a typographer in 1544 meant that he printed something that the king or the Pope didn't like and died for it.
I would like to thank Poul Steen Larsen for clarifying the history of Abrams' Venetian: The Abrams Venetian was donated to Mr. Poul Kristensen of Herning (in Jutland), then Printer to the Royal Court (which he has ceased to be in 1995). You are right about the font being today locked to Poul Kristensen' old Linotron, from which not even Linotype experts brought in to unlock it, could get it out for conversion into an up-to-date digital font. So the font will disappear from the type arena when Kristensens Linotron one day breaks down. You can trust me, for I was the one who established the contact between George and Mr. Kristensen back in 1986. The font was first used in 1989 in a book by Martin Lowry, British renaissance historian, with the title Venetian Printing. George Abrams' chalk drawings of the entire alphabet in regular and italic were scanned, more precisely vectorised on-screen and downloaded in Denmark by the Kristensens and therefore, in one sense, could be called the first Danish complete font. A sample of the first use of Abrams' Venetian. A second sample from "Venetian Printing". Abrams Venetian was digitized at some point by Jorgen Kristensen for Poul Kristensen Grafisk Virksomhed Printer.
Apostrophe wrote this about Abrams Caslon: This was actually reviewed by Caflish and, if I remember correctly, Mark vonBronkhorst, so there are at least 3 or 4 copies of it out there, other than the Abrams' estate original data. Sumner Stone once said that this is the best Caslon he has ever seen. At least he has seen it; I haven't.
The typefaces by Abrams (Abrams Venetian and Augereau) are preserved in the New York City-based Abrams Legacy Collection (see also here).
Klingspor link. [Google]
Born in Wells, Minnesota as Arthur Frederick Ward, 1894, d. New York, 1939. He enlisted in the United States Army in 1915 and attended the Army School of Military Aeronautics at the University of California, Berkeley during 1917-1918. On demobilisation he worked as a book editor for Macmillan&Co before undergoing training on the Monotype machine, after which he worked for the printers Edwin Rudge. He had met Beatrice Becker in 1919 and they married in December 1922. Warde was Printer for Princeton University (1922-1924). The couple moved to England in late 1924 for Warde had been offered work by the typographer Stanley Morison, designing for The Fleuron and the Monotype Recorder. The marriage did not last; they separated in 1926, and quickly divorced, though the break-up was an amicable one. Afterward Warde lived in France and Italy, where he became involved in Giovanni Mardersteig's Officina Bodoni. In 1926 Mardersteig printed The Calligraphic Manual of Ludovico Arrighi - complete Facsimile, with an introduction by Stanley Morison, which Warde issued in Paris while working for the Pleiad Press. He had his name changed several times, first his last name to Warde, and then his first name first to Frederique and then to Frederic. Warde returned to America permanently and he worked again for Edwin Rudge from 1927 to 1932, and also designed for private presses such as Crosby Gaige, the Watch Hill Press, Bowling Green Press, the Limited Editions Club and Heritage Press. Warde worked as production manager for the American office of the Oxford University Press from 1937 until his death in 1939. His typographic work: Based on the fifteenth century letters of Nicolas Jenson, Centaur (originally called Arrighi) was first designed by Bruce Rogers in 1914 for the Metropolitan Museum, and parts of the face (like the italic) were done by Warde in 1925. This was called Arrighi Italic (a smooth version of Blado) but became Centaur Italic (Monotype, 1929). Warde was inspired by the italic forms on the Italica of Ludovico Vicentino, a 16th century typeface. However, his capitals are more freely formed (not vertical, for example). Warde designed a revival of the chancery cursive letter forms of Renaissance calligrapher Ludovico degli Arrighi. This italic, titled Arrighi, was designed as a companion to Bruce Roger's roman typeface Centaur. Author of Monotype Ornaments (1928, Lanston Monotype Corp) [this book is freely available on the web thanks to Jacques André]. Many ornaments in this book have been digitized; see, e.g., Arabesque Ornaments (for the 16th century material) and Rococo Ornaments (for the 18th century ornaments). Warde also published the following privately in 1926 with Stanley Morison: The calligraphic models of Ludovico degli Arrighi, surnamed Vicentino - a complete facsimile and introduction by Ludovico degli Arrighi. Digital fonts based on his work include LTC Metropolitan (Lanston), Centaur (Monotype and Linotype versions) and Arrighi BQ (Berthold). Wiki page. [Google]
Frederic William Goudy
One of the great type designers of the twentieth century, 1865-1947. Born in Bloomington, IL, he made over 125 typefaces. He founded the Village Press with Will H. Ransom at Park Ridge, IL, in 1903. From 1904-1906, it was in Hingham, MA, and from 1906-1913 at 225 Fourth Avenue, New York City, where a fire destroyed everything except the matrices on January 10, 1908. From 1913-1923, it was located in Forest Hill Gardens, Long Island, and from 1923 until his death in 1947 at Deepdene, in Marlborough-on-Hudson. He was an art consultant for Lanston Monotype from 1920-1940.
His life's work and his ideas on typography can be found in his great book, Typologia, Studies in Type Design \& Type Making (1940, University of California Press, Berkeley), but his views are already present in Elements of Lettering (1922, The Village Press, Forest Hill Gardens, New York). His own work is summarized, shown and explained in his last book, A Half-Century of Type Design and Typography 1895-1945, Volume One (1946, The Typophiles, New York).
In 1936, Frederic Goudy received a certificate of excellence that was handlettered in blackletter and immediately stated, Anyone who would letterspace blackletter would steal sheep. He also wrote: All the old fellows stole our best ideas, and Someday I'll design a typeface without a K in it, and then let's see the bastards misspell my name.
His 116 fonts include
- Camelot (1896, Dickinson Type Foundry). He sold another design in 1897 to that foundry, but it never appeared.
- De Vinne Roman (1898)
- Copperplate (1901): See Copperplate Gothic Hand (2009, Gerd Wiescher), Copperplate URW, or Copperplate EF (Elsner&Flake).
- Pabst Roman (1902)
- Village (1902): This was digitized by David Berlow (1994, FontBureau) and by Paul D. Hunt (2005).
- Bertham (1936), his 100th typeface, named for his wife, Bertha.
- Copperplate Gothic (ATF, 1905): The Bitstream version was done by Clarence Marder.
- Goudy Old Style (ATF, 1914-1915): A 15% heavier weight was made by Morris Fuller Benton in 1919. Bitstream sells that as Goudy Catalogue. See also Goudy Catalogue EF (Elsner&Flake) and Bitstream's Goudy Old Style.
- ATF Cloister Initials (1917-1918). This was revived digitally by several foundries: Alter Littera did Initials ATF Cloister (2012). Group Type created Cloister Initials (2006).
- Goudy Handtooled (1916): A decorative font. Elsner&Flake have a digital version.
- Goudy Modern (Lanston, 1918): Goudy Modern MT is the Agfa-Monotype version. Adobe's version is confusingly called Monotype Goudy Modern.
- Hadriano (1918): Agfa-Monotype has a digital version, as does Adobe.
- Goudy Heavyface (ATF, 1925-1932): Created as a possible competitor of Cooper Black. Bitstream has a digital version.
- Goudy Newstyle (1921): additional letterforms are provided to distinguish different pronunciations. This legible typeface was cut by Wiebking and recut in 1935. It was sold to Monotype in 1942.
- Italian Oldtyle (+Italic) (ca. 1925): made after Dove, Monotype's president, prompted Goudy to make a Venetian typeface to compete with ATF's Cloister Old Style.
- Venezia Italic (1925), to accompany Venezia. George W. Jones of the English Linotype company had it made by Linotype.
- Aries (1925-1926): a kind of blackletter face in the style of Subiaco done for Spencer Kellogg for his new private press (he never used it).
- Goudy Dutch: based on handwriting on an envelope from Holland. Goudy lost the drawings.
- Companion Old Style and Italic:
- Deepdene (1927). See D690 Roman on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD, 2002. Deepdene became a Berthold font, and at Berthold it was digitized and refreshed by G.G. Lange from 1982-1983. URW also has a Deepdene family. But above all, one could pick up a free two-style revival by Barry Schwartz, Linden Hill (2010, OFL). View various Deepdene implementations.
- Goudy Text (1928). Based on the textura blackletter types of by Johann Gutenberg in the fifteenth century, Goudy Text has a narrow, ordinary lowercase. It can be used in display advertising and on certificates and invitations. Goudy Text is a "blackletter" type first used in 1928 by Goudy in a Christmas card from type cast at his own foundry. Among the digital versions, see LTC Goudy Text (Lanston) and Goudy Text CT (Jason Castle).
- Kaatskill (1929, Lanston Monotype): a beautiful old style figures font originally done for an edition of Rip van Winkle.
- Remington Typewriter (1929)
- Kennerley (1930) (see his book A Novel Type Foundery for specimens). The Berthold foundry, where the types can now be bought in digital form, mentions the dates 1911-1924.
- Ornate Titling (1931). See LTC Goudy Ornate (Lanston) and Goudy Ornate (2002, Ascender).
- Kennerley Bold and Bold Italic, and Kennerley Open Caps, to accompany Kennerley Old Style.
- Goudy Heavy Face (+Italic), made to please Harvey Best, the successor of Dove at Lanston Monotype.
- Marlborough (1930s): a face whose design was sold in 1942 to Monotype, but nothing came of it.
- Tory Text (1935)
- University (of California) Old Style (1938). Also called Californian (1938). A commercial version of this is ITC Berkeley Oldstyle by Tony Stan (1983). Font Bureau published FB Californian (1994, Carol Twombly, David Berlow, Jane Patterson).
- Bulmer (1939)
- Goudy Sans: ITC Goudy Sans (1986), LTC Goudy Sans (2006, Colin Kahn), Goudy Elegant (SoftMaker), Moon Cresta (Ray and Chikako Larabie, 2010) and Goudy Sans EF (now gone?) are digital revivals of Goudy's Goudy Sans family from 1929. GoudySorts MT, an Agfa Monotype font consisting of beautiful ornaments.
- Goudy Thirty. Mac McGrew: When Monotype suggested that Goudy design a type that that company might bring out after his death, to be called Goudy Thirty (from the newspaper term for the end of a story), he thought of a design he had started for a western college. That commission had fallen through, so the design was unfinished. Then, as Goudy relates, "This design struck me as particularly adapted to the purpose. As I worked on it I had determined to make it, as far as I was able, my last word in type design, a type in which would give my imagination full rein, and a type by which as a designer would be willing to stand or fall." Completed in 1942, it was kept under cover by Monotype and not released until 1953-long after his death in 1947. But he designed several types after this one, so it was not the last one from his hands. Goudy Thirty is a fine recreation of a fifteenth-century round gothic, excellent for period pieces. For digital versions, see LTC Goudy Thirty (Lanston, now P22 Lanston) and Goudy Thirty (a free font by Dieter Steffmann).
- Nabisco (1921).
- Garamont (1921).
- Goudy Initials. These are floriated caps.
Several foundries specialize in Goudy's types. These include P22/Lanston, which has an almost complete digital collection, Castle Type, which offers Goudy Trajan (2003), Goudy Text, Goudy Stout and Goudy Lombardy. WTC Goudy digitization around 1s digitized ca. 1986 by WTC.
Links: Graphion's site. Bio by Nicolas Fabian. Alternate URL. Andrew R. Boone's article on Goudy in Popular Science, 1942. Goudy's typefaces listed by Paulo W. Obituary, May 13, 1947, New York Times, Time Magazine, November 6. 1933, Amy Duncan's thesis entitled "Howdy Goudy: Frederic W. Goudy and the Private Press in the Midwest" [dead], A 2009 lecture on Goudy by Steve Matteson (TypeCon 2009, Atlanta), Melbert B. Cary Jr. collection of Goudyana. Wikipedia: List of typefaces designed by Frederic Goudy. Linotype link. FontShop link. [Google]
Friedrich Hermann Ernst Schneidler
Type designer, teacher, publisher and calligrapher, b. Berlin (1882), d. Gundelfingen (1956). He worked initially with J.G. Schelter&Giesecke in Leipzig and C.E. Weber in Stuttgart. In the 1930s, he published his type designs with Bauer. From 1920-1948, he was head of the graphics division of the Akademie der bildenden Künste Stuttgart. His oeuvre resides now in the Klingspor Museum in Offenbach. He is famous for his Zentenar Fraktur, Schneidler Mediaeval and Legende. In general, due to his calligraphic tendencies, his types have great rhythm. In his era, he was at the top of his craft (in my view). A list and samples of his work. His faces, by foundry:
- C.E. Weber: Deutsch Römisch (1923), Kontrast (1930, an art deco collection which was revived in 15 styles in 2007 by Iza W as Schneider (sic) Kontrast), Bayreuth (1932: this blackletter font was remade from a scan by Petra Heidorn in 2003 as Bayreuth-Black; for a variation, see Manfred Klein's Bayreuther-BlaXXL (2005)), Suevia-Fraktur.
- J.G. Schelter&Giesecke: Schneidler Schwabacher (1912-1913; revival in 2004 by Petra Heidorn), Schneidler Schwabach Initials (digitized by Manfred Klein in 2004 as SchneidlerSchwabachInitials), Buchdeutsch (1923), Buchdeutsch halbfett (1926), Schneidler-Deutsch [a blackletter revived in 2009 by Intellecta Design as Schneidler Halb Fette Deutsch], Schneidler Fraktur (1914-1916), Schneidler Kursiv (1921).
- Bauersche Giesserei: Ganz Grobe Gotisch (1930): this was revived by Ralph Unger as FontForum Ganz Grobe Gotisch (2006, URW), by Dieter Steffmann as Ganz Grobe, by Manfred Klein as TypoasisBoldGothic (2003), by Mars Attacks as Grobe Hand (2012, free), and by Petra Heidorn as Bayreuth.
- Bauersche Giesserei: Graphik (aka Herald, 1934).
- Bauersche Giesserei: Schneidler Old Style (or Bauer Text).
- Bauersche Giesserei: Zentenar Fraktur (1937). So called to honor the 100th anniversary of Bauersche, est. 1837: Delbanco (DS Zentenar Fraktur), Ralph M. Unger (Zentenar Fraktur mager and halbfett, 2010) and Dieter Steffmann each have digital versions. See also Z690 Blackletter on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD, 2002. Followed by Zeichen Zentenar Fraktur (1937; see also the 2007 digitization of the caps by AR Types entitled Zentenar Initialen).
- Bauersche Giesserei: Zentenar Buchschrift (1937-1938). Digital version by Delbanco.
- Bauersche Giesserei: Schneidler Mediaeval (1936). See URW Schneidler Mediaeval (2011).
- Bauersche Giesserei: Schmalfette Gotisch. Revived as SchmalfetteGotisch in 2004 by Petra Heidorn and Manfred Klein, and extended by Manfred Klein to SchmaleGotischMK, also in 2004.
- Bauersche Giesserei: Schneidler Initials (1937, a Trajan face). See the 2004 revival by Petra Heidorn as Schneidler Initialen, and Shango (1993, Castle Type), and Shango Gothic (2007, Castle Type), and the 1994 revival by GroupType as Schneidler Initials. Schneidler Initials is in fact originally known as Schneidler-Mediaeval mit Initialen.
- Schneidler Amalthea (1936). See A770 Roman on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD (2002), Amalthea SH by Scangraphic, and URW Schneidler Amalthea, 2011).
- Bauersche Giesserei: Legende (1937). A faux Arabic script font digitized at Profonts/URW++ by Ralph M. Unger in 2002, by Brendel (as Legend) in 1990, and by Ari Rafaeli in 2006. Elsner and Flake published the script font Graphis (1934, revival by Jürgen Brinckmann).
- Bauersche Giesserei: Schneidler (1936) was published in digital form by Bitstream, Adobe, and Elsner&Flake.
For Schneidler, the best source is the book by Max Caflisch, Albert Kapr, Antonia Weiss, and Hans Peter Willberg entitled F.H. Ernst Schneidler Schriftentwerfer Lehrer Kalligraph SchumacherGebler, München, 2002.
FontShop link. Klingspor link.
View F.H. Ernst Schneidler's typefaces. [Google]
Hamburg-based foundry taken over by Linotype in 1963. Their library included faces by these designers:
In addition we find house faces such as Adagio (1939, script face), Leibniz-Fraktur (1912; digital versions exist by Klaus Burkhardt, Petra Heidorn (free) and Ralph M. Unger (a commercial face)), Nero Kursiv (1913), Alster (1926), Elzevir-Antiqua and Kursiv and Elzevir-Versalien (1925), Rex Versalien (1925), Richard Wagner Fraktur (ca. 1920), Glass Antiqua (1912, Franz Paul Glass: remade in 2011 by Nick Curtis as Half Full NF), Halbfette Hansa Fraktur (1912), Hansa Fraktur (ca. 1915), Hansa Gotisch (digital version by Gerhard Helzel), Plantin Antiqua and Kursiv (1913), Ondosa Ornamente (1912), Preziosa Ornamente (1912), Psalterium (1907, blackletter), Serpentin Ornamente (1912), Hamburger Druckschrift (1909), Nordische Antiqua and Cursiv (1907), Renaissance Ornamente (1901), Römische Antiqua (1899). Hauptproben (1910), Negrita, Neugotisch, Neue Pittoresk, Ornamente, Pionier, Renaissance Initialen, Römische Initialen, Römische Kursiv, Venetianische Schreibschrift.
- F. Bauer: Fortuna (1930), Genzsch Antiqua (1906), Genzsch Fraktur (1931), Heyse Antiqua (1921), Senats Fraktur (1907).
- K. Klauß: Arkona (1935), Horizontale (1942).
- H. Beck: Brahms Gotisch (1937).
- C. O. Czeschka: Czeschka Antiqua (1914), Olympia (1929).
- A. Auspurg: Hans Sachs Gotisch (1911), Domina (1929), Souverän (1913).
- O. Hupp: Heraldisch (1910), Neudeutsch (1900), Numismatisch (1900).
- J. Kirn: Oleander (1938).
- H. König: Suberpia (1913).
- Adolf Heimberg: Urdeutsch (1924).
- Helmut Matheis: Verona (1958).
- E. Mollowitz: Anemone (1955).
- E. Ege: Basalt (1926), Ege-Schrift (1921).
- W. Rebhuhn: Fox (1953), Hobby (1955).
- H. Schmidt: Gigant (1926), Monument.
- F. P. Glaß: Glaß Antiqua (1912).
- Eickhoff: Lithograph (1903).
- H. Möhring: Phalanx (1931).
- C. Adam: Rex (1924).
- H. Pauser: Semper Antiqua (1940).
- Eugène Grasset: Römisch Grasset (1913), Grasset Antiqua (1900).
- Albert Anklam: Mönchs-Gotisch (or: Mediaeval-Gotisch) in 1877 (Schnelle says 1881); Neue Schwabacher (normal and halbfett) in 1876.
- J. Göbler: Ballerina (1959, script face).
View the digital legacy of Genzch & Heyse. [Google]
A subpage of Ascender, which is reviving most of Goudy's fonts. They compiled a rather incomplete list of other revivals, conveniently leaving out all free fonts. The main source for commercial Goudy fonts is Lanston, now part of P22. I will provide a better list below. 1896: Camelot 1897: Unnamed 1897: A “Display Roman” 1898: DeVinne Roman 1902: Pabst Roman, Pabst Italic 1903: Powell 1904: Cushing Italic 1904: Boston News Letter 1905: Copperplate Gothics 1905: Caxton Initials 1905: Globe Gothic Bold 1905: Caslon Revised 1908: Monotype No. 38-e, Monotype No. 38-e Italic 1910: Norman Capitals 1911: Kennerley Old Style, Kennerley Open Caps 1911: Forum Title 1912: Sherman 1912: Goudy Lanston 1914: Goudy Roman 1914: Klaxon 1915: Goudy Old Style 1915: Goudy Catalogue 1915: Goudy Old Style Italic 1916: Goudy Cursive 1916: Booklet Old Style 1916: National Old Style 1916: Goudytype 1917: Advertiser’s Roman 1917: An Unnamed Design 1918: Kennerley Italic 1918: Cloister Initials 1918: Hadriano Title 1918: Goudy Open 1918: Goudy Modern 1919: Collier Old Style 1919: Goudy Modern Italic 1919: Goudy Open Italic 1919: Goudy Antique 1921: Nabisco 1921: Lining Gothic 1921: Garamont, Garamont Italic 1921: Goudy Newstyle 1924: Goudy Italic 1924: Italian Old Style, Italian Old Style Italic 1924: Kennerley Bold, Kennerley Bold Italic 1925: Goudy Heavy Face 1925: Goudy Heavy Face Italic 1925: Marlborough 1925: Venezia Italic 1926: Aries 1927: Goudy Dutch 1927: Companion Old Style, Companion Old Style Italic 1927: Deepdene 1927: Record Title 1927: Goudy Uncials 1928: Deepdene Italic 1928: Goudy Text 1929: Strathmore Title 1929: Lombardic Capitals 1929: Sans Serif Heavy 1929: Kaatskill 1929: Remington Typewriter 1930: Inscription Greek 1930: Trajan Title 1930: Sans Serif Light 1930: Mediaeval 1930: Hadriano Lowercase 1930: Advertiser’s Modern 1930: Goudy Stout 1930: Truesdell, Truesdell Italic 1931: Deepdene Open Text 1931: Deepdene Text 1931: Ornate Title 1931: Sans Serif Light Italic 1931: Deepdene Medium 1932: Goethe 1932: Franciscan 1932: Deepdene Bold 1932: Mostert 1932: Village No. 2 1932: Quinan Old Style 1932: Goudy Bold Face 1933: Goudy Book 1933: Goudy Hudson 1933: Goethe Italic 1933: Deepdene Bold Italic 1934: Saks Goudy, Saks Goudy Italic, Saks Goudy Bold 1934: Hadriano Stone Cut 1934: Village Italic 1934: Textbook Old Style 1934: Hasbrouck 1935: Tory Text 1935: Atlantis 1935: Millvale 1936: Bertham 1936: Pax 1936: Mercury 1936: Sketches Unnamed 1937: Friar 1938: University of California---FB Californian , University of California Italic---FB Californian Italic 1938: New Village Text 1938: Murchison 1939: Bulmer 1941: Scripps College Old Style 1942: Goudy Thirty 1943: Spencer Old Style, Spencer Old Style Italic 1944: Hebrew 1944: Scripps College Italic 1944: Marlborough Text Goudy Borders Goudy Fleurons Goudy Sorts Park Ridge ITC Berkeley Old Style , ITC Berkeley Old Style Italic [Google]
Graham David Blakelock
[Graham David Blakelock]
Ilkley, UK-based foundry of Graham David Blakelock (b. 1947, York, England). MyFonts sells his fonts. These include faces used in role playing games, often with a medieval look, all published in 2005: Fifteen36 (Venetian with rough edges), Fourteen64 (Venetian with rough edges), High German (blackletter), ItalicHand (inspired by 11th or 12th century Carolingian hand drawn cursive), Old Russian (fake Cyrillic), Ye-As-Ta (rotated brush style caps), Good Taste (2006), Hieroglyph Informal (2006), Kanjur (2006, Indic simulation face), Mayan (2006, dingbats and Mayan-looking letters), Pepper (2006), Salt (2006). [Google]
HiH (Hand in Hand)
Foundry in (Naugatuck) Woodbridge, CT, est. 2005. The owner/designer is Tom Wallace (b. 1944, USA). His type designs are based on historical letterforms:
- Augsburger Initialen and Augsburger Schrift (2001), an art nouveau pair found in Ludwig Petzendorfer's Treasury of authentic art nouveau alphabets, decorative initials, monograms, frames and ornaments (1984, Dover). Augsburger Schrift is originally due to Peter Schnorr (1901, Berthold). In 2007, Wallace added Augsburger Ornamente.
- Figgins Tuscan (2005) is based on the first metal Tuscan typeface by Figgins in 1817.
- Freak, based on Bamboo (1889, The Great Western Type Foundry). HiH explains: Great Western became Barnhart Brothers & Spindler in 1868. At some point, prior to 1925, Freak was renamed Bamboo by BB&S. It was delisted when BB&S was absorbed by ATF in 1929. Compare with Dan Solo's Bamboo (2004).
- Gradl Initialen (2005): based on caps designed by Max Joseph Gradl ca. 1900 for engraving on his art nouveau jewelry in Germany. Samples are in Petzendorfer.
- Huxley Alt (2005), an alternative to the ultra-condensed Lutherian church font Huxley Vertical (or Aldous Vertical) by Walter Huxley (ATF). Huxley Amore (2006) is a major extension of this, and Huxley Cyrillic (2008) adds Russian characters.
- Künstler Grotesk (2005): a simple blackletter caps face based on a design seen in Petzendorfer's book.
- Page No. 508 (2006): Page No. 508 was designed by William H. Page in 1887 as one of a series of designs for die-cut wood types for the firm of Page & Setchell of Norwich, CT. Page & Setchell was the successor to The William H. Page Wood Type Company and was sold to the Hamilton Manufacturing Company of Two Rivers, Wisconsin in 1891.
- Pekin (2005): first designed by Ernst Lauschke in 1888 at the Great Western Foundry under the name Dormer.
- Schnorr Dekorativ, Demi Bold and Initialen (2007), all due to Peter Schnorr (ca. 1900), as well as Schnorr gestreckt (2006), an art nouveau face from 1898.
- Rundgotisch (2005): based on a design by Schelter and Giesecke, ca. 1900.
- Edison (2005) is based on Edison Swirl SG, a Spiece Graphics digitization of a late 18-th century design of the Bauersche Giesserei.
- Bethlehem Star (2005) is based on the typeface Accent with the permission of URW++: HiH only added stars to the glyphs.
- Secession (2006): a sans family with art nouveau twists.
- French Plug (2007): A sign painters font based upon work of Frank H. Atkinson, a popular Art Nouveau sign painter in Chicago, who worked for Cadillac, and published Sign Painting in 1908.
- T-Hand Monoline (2007): a printed script family.
- Figgins Antique (2007): an all-caps black slab serif headline face based on Figgins, ca. 1815.
- Mulier Moderne (2007): Based on a font designed ca. 1894 by E. Mulier, a French art nouveau era artist.
- Regina Cursiv (2007): an art nouveau design.
- Edelgotisch (2007): a bold Jugendstil design (with caps), based on a design released by Schelter & Giesecke of Leipzig, Germany about 1898 and is very similar to Eckmann-Schrift released by Rudhard'schen Giesserei (later Klingspor) during the same period.
- Teutonia (2007), a revival of Teutonia by Roos & Junge, a squarish art nouveau face. HiH writes: There are many quite similar attempts in the field of topography. In 1883, Baltimore Type Foundry released its Geometric series. In 1910, Geza Farago in Budapest used a similar letter design on a Tungsram light bulb poster. In 1919 Theo van Doesburg, a founder with Mondrian and others of the De Stijl movement, designed an alphabet using rectangles only -- no diagonals. In 1923, Joost Schmidt at Bauhaus in Weimar took the same approach for a Constructivist exhibit poster. The 1996 Agfatype Collection catalog lists a Geometric in light, bold and italic that is very close to the old Baltimore version. And in 2008, HiH itself published Baltimore Geometric.
- Austin Antique, based on Richard Austin's 1827 antique typeface.
- Morris Gothic, Morris Ornaments and Morris Initials One and Two (2007): The gothic that Morris designed was first used by his Kelmscott Press for the publication of the Historyes Of Troye in 1892. It was called Troy Type and was cut at 18 points by Edward Prince. It was also used for The Tale of Beowulf. The typeface was re-cut in at 12 points and called Chaucer Type for use in The Order of Chivalry and The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Morris' objective is designing his gothic was to preserve the color and presence of his sources, but to create letters that were more readable to the English eye. ATF copied Troy and called it Satanick. Not only was the ATF version popular in the United States; but, interestingly, sold very well in Germany. There was great interest in that country in finding a middle ground between blackletter and roman styles -- one that was comfortable for a wider readership. The Morris design was considered one of the more successful solutions.
- Larisch (2007): a hand-lettered design by the Austrian calligrapher and teacher, Rudolf von Larisch. The original was used for the title page of the 1903 edition of Beispiele Kunstlerischer Schrift Examples of Artistic Writing).
- Patent Reclame (2007): an art nouveau face first cast around 1895 by Schriftgeisserei Flinch, and then by Stephenson Blake, ca. 1896.
- Jugendstil Initials (2007): a blackletter designed by Heinrich Vogeler around 1905.
- Wedding (2007): a multi-style English blackletter family, based on a Morris Fuller Benton original called Wedding Text.
- Brass (2007): two blackletter faces from the early 1500s described by Alexander Nesbitt in his Decorative Alphabets And Initials (Mineola, NY, 1959) as initials and stop ornaments from brasses in Westminster Abbey.
- Auchentaller (2007), a monoline art nouveau face inspired by a travel poster by Josef Maria Auchentaller (b. Vienna, 1865, d. Grado, 1949; studied at the Vienna Academy, professor in Munich, member of the secession from 1898, artist) in 1906.
- Phinney Jenson (2007): a Venetian by Nicolas Jenson from the 15th century, about which Wallace writes: In 1890 a leader of the Arts & Crafts movement in England named William Morris founded Kelmscott Press. He was an admirer of Jensons Roman and drew his own somewhat darker version called Golden, which he used for the hand-printing of limited editions on homemade paper, initiating the revival of fine printing in England. Morris' efforts came to the attention of Joseph Warren Phinney, manager of the Dickinson Type Foundry of Boston. Phinney requested permission to issue a commercial version, but Morris was philosophically opposed and flatly refused. So Phinney designed a commercial variation of Golden type and released it in 1893 as Jenson Oldstyle. Phinney Jenson is our version of Phinneys version of Morris' version of Nicolas Jensons Roman.
- Advertisers Gothic (2008): based on Robert Wiebking's tasteless 1917 design for Western Typefoundry. HiH writes: Advertisers Gothic is bold and brash, like the city it comes from, Chicago. It was designed by the accomplished German-American matrix engraver, Robert Wiebking, for the Western Type Foundry in 1917. As its name suggests, it was designed for commercial headliner work, much as Publicity Gothic by Sidney Gaunt for BB&S the year before. See our Publicity Headline.
- Publicity Headline (2006): an allcaps version of Sidney Gaunt's advertising typeface, Publicity Gothic (1916, Barnhart Brothers & Spindler). Its heavy weight and robust strength allows it to be used against complex backgrounds or reversed out on dark backgrounds without getting lost.
- Herold (2008): a revival of Berthold Herold Reklameschrift BQ (Hermann Hoffmann, 1901), an art nouveau advertising typeface.
- Yes Dear (2008) is a funny hyper-curly blackletter face.
- Besley Clarendon (2008) is the HiH version of the Clarendon registered by Robert Besley and the Fann Street Foundry in 1845. This condensed face was very popular in the 19th century, and was copied by most foundries of that era. It was followed by Gutta Percha (2008), a Clarendon in which the upper case letters are dropcaps.
- Waltari (2008): a revival of Walthari (1899, Heinz König for the Rudhardsche Giesserei), a Jugendstil type.
- Hispania Script (2008): revival of a pirate map script face by Schelter & Giesecke (1890).
- Cloudy Day (2008), an alphading.
- HiH stumbled on a 1902 publication by Bruno Seuchter called Die Fäche, in which he found the art nouveau face that HiH revived in 2008 as Seuchter Experimental.
- Petrarka ML (2006). HiH writes: Petrarka may be described as a Condensed, Sans-Serif, Semi-Fatface Roman. Huh? Bear with me on this. The Fatface is a name given to the popular nineteenth-century romans that where characterized by an extremity of contrast between the thick and thin stroke. The earliest example that is generally familiar is Thorowgood, believed to have been designed by Robert Thorne and released by Thorowgood Foundry in 1820 as "Five-line Pica No. 5." Copied by many foundries, it became one of the more popular advertising types of the day. Later, in the period from about 1890 to 1950, you find a number of typeface designs with the thin stroke beefed up a bit, not quite so extreme. What you might call Semi-Fatfaced Romans begin to replace the extreme Fatfaces. Serifed designs like Bauer's Bernard Roman Extra Bold and ATF's Bold Antique appear. In addition, we see the development of semi-fatface lineals or Sans-Serif Semi-Fatfaces. Examples include Britannic (Stephenson Blake), Chambord Bold (Olive), Koloss (Ludwig & Mayer), Matthews (ATF) and Radiant Heavy (Ludlow). Petrarka has much in common with this latter group, but is distinguished by two salient features: it is condensed and it shows a strong blackletter influence, as seen in the ‘H’ particularly.
- Haunted House (2008), Halloween-themed fonts.
- Gothic Tuscan One (2008) is an all-caps condensed gothic with round terminals and decorative Tuscan center spurs. It was first shown by William H. Page of Norwich, CT, among his wood type specimen pages of 1859.
- HiH Firmin Didot (2008) is a one-style didone based on an 1801 version of Didot. It led to a combined alphabet/stick people alphading called Gens de Baton (2008) after a lower case alphabet that appeared in the Almanach des Enfants pour 1886 (Paris, 1886) under the title Amusing Grammar Lessons.
- Shout (2008), a Compacta-like fat headline sans about which HiH writes: Its lineage includes the Haas Type Foundrys 19th century advertising font, Kompakte Grotesk, which Jan Tschichold (1902-1974) dryly described as extended sans serif and which graphic designer Roland Holst (1868-1938) would have disapprovingly referred to as a shout, as opposed to the quiet presentation of information that he believed was the proper function of advertising. In 1963 Letraset released what appears to be an updated variation in multiple weights designed by Frederick Lambert called Compacta. Shout draws heavily on Compacta, as well as other similar fonts of the 50s and 60s like Eurostile Bold Condensed and Permanent Headline. In weight, it falls about halfway between Compacta Bold and Compacta Black.
- The heavy art deco faces Guthschmidt and Guthschmidt Condensed (2008) are based on a 1924 KLM Royal Dutch Airline poster designed by Anthonius Guthschmidt. The poster draws on the imagery of the legend The Flying Dutchman.
- Cherub and Cherub Caps (2008) are based on Phinney Jenson. Not to be confused with the many fonts that already existed with that name, such as Cherub from House of Lime, Twopeas, Graph Edge Fonts, and Fuelfonts.
- HiH Large (2009) is a poster sans.
- Mira (2009) is an art nouveau / Victorian face patterned after a font by the Roos & Junge Foundry in Offenbach, ca. 1902.
- Thorowgood Sans (2009): A three-dimensional all-cap font for title use, Thorowgood Sans Shaded was released by the Fann Street Foundry of W. Thorowgood & Co. in 1839. Interestingly, it more closely resembles Figgins' Four-Line Emerald Sans-Serif Shaded of 1833 than Fann Street's own Grotesque Shaded of 1834 (with light and shadow reversed).
- Fantastic ML (2009): an art nouveau face originally released as "Modern Style" by Fonderie G. Peignot & Fils, Paris, France some time before 1903.
- Gundrada ML (2010): a medieval style face inspired by the lettering on the tomb of Gundrada de Warenne, who was buried at Southover Church at Lewes, Sussex, in the south of England in 1085.
- Wedge Gothic (2010). HiH writes: Wedge Gothic ML is the original name of this font released by Barnhart Bros. and Spindler of Chicago in 1893. [...] The typeface was dropped for awhile -- it does not appear in the 1907 catalog for example -- but reappeared in 1925 as Japanette. McGrew says that the new name was Japanet. It was recast by ATF in 1954.
- Norwich Aldine ML (2010) is an all caps typeface with enlarged serifs, designed and produced in wood by William H. Page of Norwich, CT in 1872.
- Rodchenko Constructed ML (2010) is constructivist (Latin and Cyrillic).
- Cruickshank ML (2012): a decorative typeface from the late Victorian period. The typeface was designed by William W. Jackson and released by MacKellar, Smiths and Jordan Type Foundry of Samson Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1886.
View Tom Wallace's fonts. View the typefaces designed by Tom Wallace. MyFonts link. [Google]
Histoire de l'imprimerie à Venise
History of printing in Venice. Exemplary web pages. Pieces on Jean and Wendelin de Spira, Nicolas Jenson, Erhard Ratdolt, and Aldus Manutius. [Google]
Jesús E. Barrientos
Talavera Type Workshop is Jesus Barrientos's typefoundry in Puebla, Mexico. He has a Masters in Type Design from Estudio Gestalt in Veracruz.
Barrientos designed Vecchia Romana (2008), a winner in the Tipos Latinos 2008 competition for best text family.
At Tipos Latinos 2012, he won awards in he display type category for Agony, and Ecstasy.
In 2012, these commercial fonts were offered via MyFonts: Vecchia (Venetian), Ochenteros (counterless geometric face), Escuadra (squarish), Signorina, Ecstasy (blackletter), Agony (a script).
Klingspor link. IT FADU link. [Google]
Celebrated American sign painter and type designer (b. Tacoma, WA, 1951), who lives in Iowa City, IA. Brief bio. MyFonts page. FontShop link. Bitstream bio. Klingspor bio. Downer's professional activities include sign painting, lettering, glass gilding, type design, typography, and logo design.
Russian piece by Ilya Ruderman on Downer's lettering. His present company is Voltage. At ATypI 2008 in St. Petersburg, he spoke about revivals, and ran a lettering workshop, something he is famous for at previous ATypI meetings as well. His abstract on font revival reads: To understand the intrinsic differences between plagiarism (normally regarded as a bad thing) and preservation (normally regarded as a good thing), we should look at various means by which newer typefaces are derived from older ones. There are indeed many approaches. Outlining them can be helpful in considering the practices surrounding revivalism in general: revivals, recuttings, reclamations - anthologies, surveys, remixes - knockoffs, clones, counterfeits - "me too", copycat - reconsiderations, reevaluations, reinterpretations - homages, tributes, paeans - encores, sequels, reprises - extensions, spinoffs, variations - caricatures, parodies, burlesques.
- Ironmonger (1991-1992), Roxy (1990), SamSans (1993) at FontBureau.
- Chicago Tribune Mag (1989, Roger Black).
- At Emigre: Triplex Italic (1985), Brothers (1999, an almost octagonal family with wood type influences), Council (1999) and Vendetta (1999). Council was based on lettering found on a candy tin box made in the early 1900s for John G. Woodward&Co. of Council Bluffs, Iowa. It has a wood type look.
- Iowan Old Style (1991, Bitstream--his first font), Iowan Old Style Titling (2002, Bitstream). These are newspaper types. He writes about them: Iowan Old Style is classified as a Venetian old style type design. It is related to earlier, 20th-century American interpretations of Italian Renaissance types cut by Nicolas Jenson and Francesco Griffo, but it is modeled also on classical inscriptional lettering and sign painting seen in certain regions of eastern Iowa.
- Gonick (1992, Larry Gonick).
- Simona (1994-1996, Design Lab, Milan, with Jane Patterson), Simona Swash Italic (1998, Design Lab). Example of its use.
- Airy (1998, Design Lab).
- Panatela (2001, compared by Downer with Jim Parkinson's Modesto).
- Paperback (2005), a family with 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 96 point optical sizes. Its polygonal sections of outlines are applauded by John Berry.
Mug shot. Klingspor link.
Showcase of John Downer's typefaces at MyFonts. [Google]
Jonathan Hoefler's Type Styles 101
Hoefler reviews Lapidary, Inscriptional, Venetian, Aldine, Garalde, French Old style, Dutch Old style, English Old Style, Transitional, Modern, English Vernacular, Fat face, Egyptian, and Clarendon, and muses about reviving types. [Google]
Joop H. Moesman
The Utrecht-based surrealist J.H. Moesman (1909-1988) is known for his quality paintings, drawings and essays on modern art. He also designed the Petronius typeface. As a gifted calligrapher, he gave Petronius a calligraphic look. The name was a tribute to Gaius Petronius Arbiter, a Roman author who lived in the first century AD and to whom Satyricon is attributed. Moesman studied The Golden type of William Morris (1834-1896), who had based Golden Type on a printed Renaissance typeface by the of Italian Nicolas Jenson (ca.1420-1480). For Petronius, Moesman made a roman, an italic, a narrow style and a set of initials. A lead type was never made though. Petronius was digitally revived in 2010 by Autobahn as Petronius (2010). [Google]
Joseph Warren Phinney
American type designer, 1848-1934. He worked in Boston, first at the Dickinson foundry, and later at ATF, where he was vice-president. He designed these faces:
- Aesthetic (1882, Dickinson). Copied by Aridi as Spring.
- Cloister Black (Kinsley/ATF, 1904, available from Bitstream). According to McGrew, Cloister Black (or Cloister Text) was introduced by ATF in 1904. Its design is generally credited to Joseph W. Phinney, of ATF's Boston foundry, but some authorities give some or all of the credit to Morris Benton. It is an adaptation of Priory Text, an 1870s version of Caslon Text (q.v.), modernizing and eliminating the irregularities of that historic face, and making it one of the most popular versions of Old English. Flemish Black (q.v.), introduced at the same time, has the same lowercase and figures but a different set of capitals. Note the alternate V and W, and tied ct. ATF also makes a double lowercase l, while Monotype makes f-ligatures and diphthongs. Compare Goudy Text, Engravers Old English.
- Italian Old Style (1896, cut the punches; note--this is the Stephenson Blake name, who bought the face from ATF; the original name was ATF Jenson, and it in turn was modelled after Morris's Golden Type, according to Eason). Tom Wallace explains the origins of his own Phinney Jenson in 2007: In 1890 a leader of the Arts & Crafts movement in England named William Morris founded Kelmscott Press. He was an admirer of Jenson's Roman and drew his own somewhat darker version called Golden, which he used for the hand-printing of limited editions on homemade paper, initiating the revival of fine printing in England. Morris' efforts came to the attention of Joseph Warren Phinney, manager of the Dickinson Type Foundry of Boston. Phinney requested permission to issue a commercial version, but Morris was philosophically opposed and flatly refused. So Phinney designed a commercial variation of Golden type and released it in 1893 as Jenson Oldstyle. Phinney Jenson is our version of Phinney's version of Morris' version of Nicolas Jenson's Roman.
- Abbott Oldstyle (1901). According to McGrew: Abbott Oldstyle is an eccentric novelty typeface designed in 1901 by Joseph W. Phinney for ATF. Upright stems taper inward slightly near the ends, while most other strokes are curved. Like many other typefaces of the day, each font contains several alternate characters, logotypes, and ornaments as shown. Some early specimens call it Abbot Oldstyle, without the doubled t. It bears ATF's serial number 1 because it headed the alphabetical list when the numbering system was introduced about 1930, rather than being their oldest face. Walter Long, who supplied the specimen, writes: All the fonts (sizes) are the same as to content and every item is shown on the specimen proof. So this may be the first complete font proof published, as the face was obsolete before founders and printers began showing all characters, and advertising typographers were still far in the future. However, a few characters in the specimen are worn or broken. Compare Bizarre Bold. For a digital version, see Abbott Old Style (2010, by SoftMaker). See also Brendel's Monsignore (1994), Opti/Castcraft's Abbess Opti (1990-1993), FontBank/Novel's Abbess (1990), SSI's Mandrita Display (1994), and Nick Curtis's Abbey Road NF.
- Bradley. McGrew's comments: Bradley (or Bradley Text) was designed by Herman Ihlenburg---some sources credit it to Joseph W. Phinney---from lettering by Will H. Bradley for] the Christmas cover of an Inland Printer magazine. It was produced by ATF in 1895, with Italic, Extended, and Outline versions appearing about three] years later. It is a very heavy form of black-letter, based on ancient manuscripts, but with novel forms of many letters. Bradley and Bradley Outline, which were cut to register for two-color work, have the peculiarity of lower alignment for the caps than for the lowercase and figures, as may be seen in the specimens; Italic and Extended align normally. The same face with the addition of German characters (some of which are shown in the specimen of Bradley Extended) was sold as Ihlenburg, regular and Extended. Similar types, based on the same source and issued about the saUte time, were St. John by Inland Type Foundry, and Abbey Text by A. D. Farmer&Son. They were not as enduring as Bradley, which was resurrected fora while in 1954 by ATF. Also compare Washington Text.
- Camelot. McGrew states: Camelot or Camelot Oldstyle was the first typeface designed by Frederic W. Goudy. He offered it to Dickinson Type Foundry (part of ATF) in Boston, which accepted it and sent him $10, twice what he had modestly asked for it. This was in 1896; it was apparently cut and released the following year as drawn, without lowercase. In February 1900 a design patent was issued in the names of Goudy and Joseph W. Phinney, and assigned to ATF. Phinney was a well-known designer for Dickinson-ATF, and apparently it was he who added the lowercase alphabet. Its success encouraged Goudy to make a distinguished career of type designing, and this face was included in ATF specimen books as late as 1941. Compare Canterbury.
- Cheltenham Old Style&Italic. McGrew's historical comments: The design of Cheltenham Oldstyle and Italic is credited to Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, an architect who had previously designed Merrymount, a private press type. For Cheltenham he had the assistance of Ingalls Kimball, director of the Cheltenham Press in New York City, who suggested and supervised the face. Original drawings were made about 14 ' inches high, and were subjected to much experimentation and revision. Further modification of the design was done by the manufacturers. Some historians credit this modification or refinement to Morris F. Benton; another source says it was done at the Boston branch of ATF, which suggests that the work may have been done by Joseph W. Phinney. In fact, Steve Watts says the face was first known as Boston Oldstyle. Mergenthaler Linotype also claims credit for developing the face, but it was first marketed by ATF. Trial cuttings were made as early as 1899, but it was not completed until about 1902, and patented in 1904 by Kimball. It was one of the first scientifically designed faces.
- Engravers Old English (McGrew states: a plain, sturdy rendition of the Blackletter style, commonly known as Old English. It was designed in 1901 by Morris Benton and another person identified by ATF only as Cowan, but has also been ascribed to Joseph W. Phinney.).
- Flemish Black (1902) (McGrew: It has the same lowercase as Cloister Black, which was introduced at the same time, but a distinctly different set of capitals. Cloister Black attained much greater popularity and longer life.).
- Globe Gothic (McGrew: a refinement of Taylor Gothic, designed about 1897 by ATF at the suggestion of Charles H. Taylor of the Boston Globe, and used extensively by that paper).
- Jenson Oldstyle&Italic, about which McGrew expounds: Jenson Oldstyle, though a comparatively crude face in itself, did, much to start the late nineteenth-century move toward better types and typography. Designed by J. W. Phinney of the Dickinson Type Foundry (ATF) and cut by John F. Cumming in 1893, it was based on the Golden Type of William Morris for the Kelmscott Press in 1890; that in turn was based on the 1470-76 types of Nicolas Jenson. Morris had established standards for fine printing, in spite of the fact that he did not design really fine types. Serifs in particular are clumsy, but the Jenson types quickly became popular. BB&S introduced Mazarin in 1895-96, as a revival of the Golden type, redesigned by our artist. But it was a poor copy, and was replaced by Morris Jensonian. Inland's Kelmscott, shown in 1897, was acquired by BB&S and renamed Morris Jensonian in 1912; Keystone had Ancient Roman (q. v.); Crescent Type Foundry had Morris Old Style. Hansen had Hansen Old Style (q. v.); and other founders had several other faces, all nearly like Jenson. It is hard to realize that Jenson was inspired by the same historic type as the later and more refined Centaur, Cloister, and Eusebius. ATF spelled the name "Jensen" in some early specimens, and added "No. 2" to the series, the latter presumably when it was adapted to standard alignment or when minor changes were made in the design. A 5-style family that includes LTC Jenson Heavyface and LTC Jenson Regular was published in 2006 at P22/Lanston. HiH produced its own typeface in 2007, called Phinney Jenson.
- Jenson Oldstyle Heavyface, introduced at the same time as the roman. McGrew: "ATF advertised Phinney's Jenson Heavyface in 1899 as "new and novel-should have been here long ago." Jenson Condensed and Bold Condensed were introduced in 1901."
- Satanick (McGrew: [..] issued by ATF in 1896, was called "the invention of John F. Cumming of Worcester, Massachusetts." It has also been credited to Joseph W. Phinney of ATF; probably Cumming cut it from Phinney's drawings. However, it was a close copy, though perhaps a little heavier, of the Troy and Chaucer types of William Morris. De Vinne called it "a crude amalgamation of Roman with Blackletter, which is said to have been modeled by Morris upon the style made by Mentel of Strasburg in or near the year 1470." See Morris Romanized Black.).
- Taylor Gothic (McGrew: ATF's Central Type Foundry branch in St. Louis claims to have originated Quentell in 1895 or earlier. The conversion to Taylor Gothic was designed by Joseph W. Phinney, while the redesign as Globe Gothic in about 1900 is credited to Morris Benton).
- Vertical Writing (McGrew: Vertical Script is a simple-almost childish-monotone upright script design, produced by Hansen in 1897. Although letters connect, they are widely spaced. The Boston foundry of ATF introduced a similar Vertical Writing, shown in 1897 and patented in 1898 by Joseph W. Phinney. Both are oversize for the body, with kerned descenders.).
Wiki. FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google]
Great calligrapher and type designer, born in Suvi Do, Yugoslavia, in 1954. He obtained his master's degree in calligraphy and lettering at the Academy of Applied Arts in Belgrade. In 1985, he received the Charles Peignot Award from the Typographique Internationale for excellence in calligraphy and type design. He teaches type design and calligraphy at the Fachhochschule Hamburg. His typefaces:
- Ex Ponto (1994-1995) is his first masterpiece.
- He designed the very readable text faces ITC Veljovic (1984) and ITC Esprit (1985; followed in 2010 by ITC New Esprit), as well as the Times-like ITC Gamma (1986).
- Silentium Pro (2000). This is based on 10th century Carolingian scripts.
- Sava Pro (2003). These are roman-style caps and small caps, with ornaments, Greek and Cyrillic. Named after a popular man, the archbishop of Serbia, who lived around 1300, and partially named after the main river in former Yugoslavia. Winner of an award at TDC2 2004.
- Libelle (2009). Published by Linotype, this is a joyful calligraphic script.
- Agmena (2012). A gorgeous antiqua that won an award at TDC 2013.
- Veljovic Script (Linotype). A handwriting face for Latin and Cyrillic.
At ATypI 2004 in Prague, he spoke about typefaces for Latin and Cyrillic.
Linotype link. FontShop link.
View Jovica Veljovic's typefaces. [Google]
[Rubicon Computer Labs Inc.]
French type designer, b. Paris, 1863, d. Hewood, 1944, who lived most of his life in England. Son of the painter Camille Pissarro. He designed Brook Type (1903) for his private press (Eragny Press), a typeface named after his house in Hammersmith. It is a Venetian face, with, however, slab serifs on the A and the M. Now owned by Cambridge University Press. He designed Disteltype, a calligraphic roman face, which was cut by E.P. Prince for De Zilverdistel (1918) as a private-press type for the printers in Holland. [Google]
Ludwig Übele is a Berlin-based German type designer (b. Memmingen, 1974). In 2007, he established Ludwig Type in Berlin. Ludwig practiced type design and branding in his own studio in Den Haag, The Netherlands. He graduated in 2007 from the KABK in Den Haag, the same year in which he started his foundry Ludwig Uebele (or: Ludwig Type) in Berlin. MyFonts interview. Behance link. His award-winning typefaces:
- The extensive serif family Marat, a winner in the TDC2 2008 competition. Its 9 styles can be bought here.
- In 2008, he published Mokka, a subdued serif family with Zapfian influences (lower case "a"). [Do not confuse it with Mokka, Fidel Peugeot's script font from many years earlier---I wonder how Uebele got the Mokka trademark, quite impressive that oversight by the trademark office].
- Augustin (2004). A renaissance face inspired by the type of Nicolas Jenson made in Venice in 1470.
- Helsinki. A sans based on Finnish traffic signs---has a hairline weight, and a gorgeous Fat weight.
- Mediana. A custom face based on Franklin Gothic.
- NewTaste. Commissioned by McDonald's.
- Walhalla (2008) is a strong and bold uncial family inspired by uncial letters of the Czech type designer Oldrich Menhardt, made in 1948.
- Daisy (2010) is an artsy ultra-fat vogue magazine style display face, best shown in pink. It won an award at TDC2 2011.
- Tundra (2010, FontFont) is a narrow low-contrast small-text type family that was also awarded at TDC2 2011.
View Ludwig Übele's typefaces. A list of Ludwig Übele's typefaces. [Google]
During her graphic design stuies in Moscow, Marina Zakynian created the serifed text face family Hernan/a> (2013) for Latin and Cyrillic. For the development of this low-contrast typeface, she started from a Venetian model. [Google]
Author of Nicholas Jenson and the rise of Venetian publishing in Renaissance Europe [Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Mass., USA : B. Blackwell, 1991].
From Book News Inc: Chronicles the story of how printing came to Venice in the 15th century and transformed the Italian city into the most commercially advanced power in Europe, publishing a fifth of the continent's books only 40 years after Gutenberg developed moveable type. Examines the values and careers of printing's financial backers, and the printers themselves. Focuses on the immigrant French printer, Jenson, his design concerns and business activities, the transition from manuscript to printed page, William Morris' championing of his typefaces in the 19th century, and the significance of those typefaces today. Annotation copyright Book News, Inc. Portland, OR. [Google]
Matthew Carter (born in London in 1937, and son of Harry Carter) is one of today's most influential type designers. He trained as a punchcutter at Enschedé in 1956. In 1963 he was hired by Crosfield, a firm that pioneered the new technology of photo-typesetting, to lead their typographic program. He worked for Mergenthaler Linotype (1965-1981), and co-founded Bitstream Inc. with Mike Parker in 1981, adapting many fonts to digital technology. In January 1992, he founded Carter&Cone with Cherie Cone, and often collaborated with Font Bureau. In 1995, he won the Gold Prize at the annual Tokyo type Directors Club competition for Sophia. In 1997, he received the TDC Medal for significant contributions to the life, art, and craft of typography. In 2010, he received a MacArthur grant. John Berry on Carter's art (2002). Apostrophe comments on Berry's article. Write-up in US News in 2003. Interview. His fonts:
- The Microsoft screen fonts Verdana (1996: [image by Offeibea Adu-Darko]), Georgia (1996), Georgia Greek, Georgia Cyrillic, Nina and Tahoma. Georgia (in roman and italic only) is a screen version of Miller, Carter's Scotch design. Nina was designed to address the requirements on smaller screens such as phones, and was used in Windows Mobile smartphones before Microsoft switched to Segoe. The Greek and Cyrillic versions of Nina were developed by François Villebrod. Georgia Pro (2010, Ascender) was developed from Georgia with the help of Steve Matteson. For Verdana Pro (2010, Ascender), Carter was assisted by David Berlow and David Jonathan Ross.
- Apple's Skia (1993), a sans serif designed with David Berlow for Apple's QuickDraw GX technology, now called AAT. [Carter's Skia and Twombly's Lithos are genetically related.]
- Monticello (2003), based on Linotype's Monticello (1950), which in turn goes back to Binny&Ronaldson's Monticello from 1797, a face commissioned by Princeton University Press for the Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is in the Scotch roman style.
- Miller (1997, Font Bureau), an extremely balanced family co-designed by Carter, Tobias Frere-Jones and Cyrus Highsmith. Carter explains: Miller is a Scotch Roman, a style that had its beginnings in the foundries of Alexander Wilson In Glasgow and William Miller in Edinburgh between about 1810 and 1820. It is considered that the punchcutter Richard Austin was responsible for the types of both Scottish foundries. Miller is a revival of the style, but is not based on any historical model. Now, there is also a 16-weight newspaper version, Miller Daily (2002), and an 8-weight Miller Headline (2002). This was followed by News Miller, a face designed for the Guardian. Note: Georgia (1996) is a screen version of Miller, and Monticello (2002) is a later modification. A comparison of these typefaces.
- Alisal (1995, +Bold).
- ITC Galliard (1978), a recreation of Robert Granjon's garalde letters. Note: Bringhurst recommends a Carter and Cone version of this font, called Galliard CC: it has old style figures and small caps. Further versions include Aldine 701 (Bitstream), Matthew (Softmaker), and Gareth (Softmaker).
- The ITC Charter family (1987 for Bitstream and known as Bitstream Charter; licensed to ITC in 1993; see the Elsner&Flake version of ITC Charter). An upgraded commercial version was released by Bitstream in 2004 under the name Charter BT Pro.
- Vincent (1999), a font commissioned for use in Newsweek. It is named after Vincent Figgins, an English foundry owner and punch cutter who lived in the late 18th century.
- Walker (1994), designed for The Walker Art Center.
- Ionic Number One (1999, Carter&Cone).
- Mantinia (1993, Font Bureau), based on inscriptional forms, both painted and engraved, by the Italian renaissance artist Andrea Mantegna.
- Big Caslon (1994, Font Bureau), a display face based on the largest romans from William Caslon's foundry.
- Big Figgins (1992) and Big Figgins Open (1998, based on types shown in the specimens of Vincent Figgins of 1815 and 1817). Big Figgins was called Elephant and Elephant Italic in Microsoft's Truetype Fontpack 2.
- Sammy Roman (1996), loosely based on the 17th century romans of Jean Jannon. A beautiful face designed to accompany kanji and kana faces produced by Dynalab in Taiwan.
- Sophia (1993, Font Bureau), a mix with Greek, uncial and classical Roman influences.
- Shelley Script (1972), a family of formal scripts, split into Andante, Volante and Allegro. It is based on intricate English scripts of the 18th and 19th centuries attributed to George Shelley.
- Cochin (1977, at Linotype). MyFonts writes: "In 1913 Georges Peignot produced a typeface based on Nicolas Cochin's eighteenth century engravings. In 1977, Matthew Carter expanded this historic form into a three part series."
- Bell Centennial (1978, Bitstream), a legible family designed as a replacement of Bell Gothic at Mergenthaler. There is also a Linotype version.
- Cascade Script (1965-1966, Linotype, now also known as Freehand 471 BT in the Bitstream collection). Paratype's extension of Freehand 471 to Cyrillic is by Oleg Karpinsky (2011).
- New Century Schoolbook was designed from 1979-1981 in the New York Lettering office of Merganthaler Linotype based on Morris Fuller Benton's Century Schoolbook. It was the second face, after New Baskerville, that was digitized and expanded using Ikarus (digital technology). The Bitstream version [Century Schoolbook] is a virtually exact copy, only being moved from a 54 unit to a 2000 or so unit design.
- Auriol (Linotype), an art deco family (including Auriol Flowerts 1 and 2 and Auriol Vignette Sylvie) based on the lettering of the painter and designer Georges Auriol. MyFonts explains: "Auriol and Auriol Flowers were designed by Georges Auriol, born Jean Georges Huyot, in the early 20th century. Auriol was a French graphic artist whose work exemplified the art nouveau style of Paris in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1900, Georges Peignot asked Auriol to design fonts for Peignot&Sons. The resulting Auriol font was the basis for the lettering used by Hector Guimard for the entrance signs to the Paris Metro. It was re-released by Deberny&Peignot in 1979 with a new bold face, designed by Matthew Carter. These decorative fonts with a brush stroke look are well-suited to display settings. The Peignot drawing office insisted on a more normal appearance in the boldface, calling it Robur. Matthew Carter has returned to Auriol's original design for the whole series. "
- Helvetica Greek (Linotype).
- Helvetica Compressed (Linotype, 1974, with Hans-Jörg Hunziker).
- Wilson Greek (1995), compatible with Miller Text, and based on a type cut by Alexander Wilson for the Glasgow Homer of 1756. See here.
- Olympian (1970, Linotype), designed for newspaper use. This is Dutch 811 in the Bitstream collection. The custom face Milne (Carter&Cone) done for the Philadelphia Inquirer is based on Olympian.
- Gando, a French "ronde" face based on the work of Nicholas Gando (mid 1700s), and designed for photo-typesetting at Mergenthaler by Carter and Hans-Jörg Hunziker in 1970. Very similar to Bitsteam's Typo Upright.
- Fenway (1998-1999, Carter&Cone), commissioned by Sports Illustrated to replace Times Roman.
- Snell Roundhand (1965-1966): a connected cursive script based on the 18th-century round hand scripts from English writing masters such as Charles Snell. See Roundhand BT (Bitstream). A Cyrillic version by Isabella Chaeva and Vladimir Yefimov was released by ParaType in 2013.
- Auriga (1970). (Wallis dates this in 1965 at Linotype.)
- CRT Gothic (1974).
- Video (1977).
- V&A Titling (1981).
- Deface (in the FUSE 18 collection).
- Madrid (2001), done for the Spanish newspaper El País.
- Milne, done for the Philadelphia Inquirer (a revised version of Olympian). Not available.
- Durham, a sans serif family for US News&World Report.
- Century 725 (Bitstream, for the Boston Globe: after a design by Heinrich Hoffmeister).
- For Microsoft: Georgia, Verdana, Tahoma, Nina.
- New Baskerville. [Matthew Carter says that this is wrongly attributed to him. It was directed by John Quaranta.]
- Postoni [or Post-Bodoni], for the Washington Post, which is still using it. See .
- Le Bé, a Hebrew face that was used in the Pennyroyal Caxton Bible.
- Rocky (2008, Font Bureau, with Richard Lipton), for the Herald in Scotland.
- Time Caledonia.
- Wiredbaum, for WIRED.
- Wrigley (for Sports Illustrated).
- Benton Bold Condensed (for Time Magazine).
- Foreman Light (for the Philadelphia Inquirer).
- Newsbaum (for the New York Daily News).
- Carter Latin: Matthew was commissioned in 2003 to create a new design to be cut in wood type by the Hamilton Wood Type&Printing Museum in Two Rivers, WI. He came up with an all-caps, chunky, Latin-serif design.
- Times Cheltenham (2003), which replaces in 2003 a series of headline faces including Latin Extra Condensed, News Gothic, and Bookman Antique.
- The Yale Typeface (2004), inspired by the late fifteenth-century Venetian typeface that first appeared in Pietro Bembo's De Aetna, published by Aldus Manutius. This extensive family is freely available to members of Yale University.
- DTL Flamande (2004, Dutch Type Library), based on a textura by Hendrik van den Keere.
- Meiryo (2004, Microsoft, with Eiichi Kono): this font is part of Microsoft's ClearType project, and includes full Latin and kanji glyph sets. Suntory corporate types (2003-2005), developed with the help of Akira Kobayashi and Linotype from Linotype originals: Suntory Syntax, Suntory Sabon, Suntory Gothic, Suntory Mincho.
- Rocky (2008, Font Bureau): A 40-style high contrast roman family that is difficult to classify (and a bit awkward). Developed with Richard Lipton.
- Carter Sans (2010, ITC), based on epigraphic letters used in inscriptions. Created for the identity of the Art Directors Club 2010 class of its Hall of Fame, one the laureates in the 2010 Hall of Fame. Codesigned by Dan Reynolds, this chiseled typeface is loosely based on Albertus.
- In 1997, he designed Postoni for the The Washington Post's headlines, a sturdy Bodoni.
Linotype link. FontShop link. Favorite quote: Watching me work is like watching a refrigerator make ice.
View Matthew Carter's typefaces. Matthew Carter's fonts. The typefaces made by Matthew Carter. See also here. [Google]
[The Yale Typeface]
Morris Fuller Benton
Prolific American type designer (b. 1872, Milwaukee, d. 1948, Morristown, NJ), who published over 200 alphabets at ATF. He managed the ATF type design program from 1892 until 1937. Son of Linn Boyd Benton. MyFonts page on him. Nicholas Fabian's page. Linotype's page. Klingspor page. Unos tipos duros page. His fonts include:
Linotype link. FontShop link. Picture.
- 1897: Cloister Old Style (ATF). [Stephenson Blake purchased this from ATF and called it Kensington Old Style, 1919] [Cloister (2005, P22/Lanston) is based on Jim Rimmer's digitization of Benton's Cloister.]
- 1898: Roycroft. Mac McGrew on Roycroft: Roycroft was one of the most popular of a number of rugged faces used around the turn of the century, when printing with an antique appearance was in vogue. It was inspired by lettering used by the Saturday Evening Post. then a popular weekly magazine, and has been credited to Lewis Buddy, a former Post artist and letterer, but ATF says it was designed "partly" by Morris Benton, about 1898. Gerry Powell, director of typographic design for ATF in the 1940s, says, "Roycroft was first known as Buddy, changed when it was adopted by Elbert Hubbard for the Roycroft Press." Henry L. Bullen, ATF librarian and historian, says, "The first font of type to be made from matrices directly engraved on the Benton machine was 24-point Roycroft. October 4, 1900." While the machine was originally designed in 1884 to cut punches rather than matrices, it is doubtful that no fonts of mats were cut before 1900. Roycroft is also said to be the first face for which the large size of 120-point was engraved in type metal, with matrices made by electrotyping. Many faces of the day had a number of alternate characters. For this face. ATF gave specific instructions for their intended use: "M with the short vertex, in words the letters of which are open; R with the long tail, as a final letter in all-cap words; the wide h, m, and n, as a final letter only; t with the swash tail, as a final letter but not too frequently; u with the descending stroke, in words having no descending letters; ct ligature, wherever possible; the long s and its combinations, in antique work." Roycroft Open was cut in 1902, probably from the same patterns as the parent face. Roycroft Tinted is a very unusual face, in which the face is engraved with the equivalent of a halftone screen of about 25 percent tone value, with a black shadow on the right side; this face was cut by the Dickinson Type Foundry branch of ATF in Boston, and includes the same special characters as Roycroft. Compare Post Oldstyle.
- 1900: Century Expanded: a revival of Century Roman which was designed in 1894 by his father (Linn Boyd Benton) for Theodore Low DeVinne. Digitizations by Elsner&Flake, Bitstream and URW.
- 1901: Linotext (aka WedddingText).
- 1901-1910: Engravers.
- 1901: Wedding Text (some put this in 1907), Old English Text, Engravers' Old English (a blackletter font remade by Bitstream). Wedding Text has been copied so often it is sickening: Wedding Regular and Headline (HiH, 2007), Dan X. Solo's version, Comtesse, Elite Kanzlei (1905, Stempel), Meta, Lipsia, QHS Nadejda (QHS Soft), Blackletter 681, Marriage (Softmaker), Wedding Text TL (by Tomas Liubinas).
- 1902: Typoscript.
- 1902-1912: Franklin Gothic. Digital versions exist by Bitstream, Elsner&Flake (in a version called ATF Franklin Gothic), Red Rooster (called Franklin Gothic Pro, 2011), Linotype, and ITC (ITC Franklin Gothic). Discussion by Harvey Spears. Mac McGrew: Franklin Gothic might well be called the patriarch of modern American gothics. Designed in 1902 by Morris Fuller Benton, it was one of the first important modernizations of traditional nineteenth-century faces by that designer, after he was assigned the task of unifying and improving the varied assortment of designs inherited by ATF from its twenty-three predecessor companies. Franklin Gothic (named for Benjamin Franklin) not only became a family in its own right, but also lent its characteristics to Lightline Gothic. Monotone Gothic, and News Gothic (q.v.). All of these faces bear more resem- blance to each other than do the faces within some other single families. Franklin Gothic is characterized by a slight degree of thick-and-thin contrast; by the double-loop g which has become a typically American design in gothic faces; by the diagonal ends of curved strokes (except in Extra Condensed); and by the oddity of the upper end of C and c being heavier than the lower end. The principal specimen here is Monotype, but the basic font is virtually an exact copy of the ATF face in display sizes, except that Monotype has added f- ligatures and diphthongs. Franklin Gothic Condensed and Extra Condensed were also designed by Benton, in 1906; Italic by the same designer in 1910; and Condensed Shaded in 1912 as part of the "gray typography" series. Although Benton started a wide version along with the others, it was abandoned; the present Franklin Gothic Wide was drawn by Bud (John L.) Renshaw about 1952. Franklin Gothic Condensed Italic was added by Whedon Davis in 1967. Monotype composition sizes of Franklin Gothic have been greatly modi- fied to fit a standard arrangement; 12-point is shown in the specimen-notice the narrow figures and certain other poorly reproportioned characters. The 4- and 5-point sizes have a single-loop g. Gothic No. 16 on Linotype and Inter- type is essentially the same as Franklin Gothic up to 14-point; in larger sizes it is modified and more nearly like Franklin Gothic Condensed. However. some fonts of this face on Lino have Gagtu redrawn similar to Spartan Black. with the usual characters available as alternates; 14-point is shown. Western Type Foundry and later BB&S used the name Gothic No.1 for their copy of Franklin Gothic, while Laclede had another similar Gothic No. 1 (q.v.). On Ludlow, this design was originally known as Square Gothic Heavy with a distinctive R and t as shown separately after the Monotype diphthongs; when the name was changed to Franklin Gothic in 1928, it was redrawn, closer to Franklin Gothic but still a bit top-heavy; the unique R was retained in standard fonts but an alternate version like that of ATF was made available separately; also a U with equal arms, a single-loop g, and a figure 1 without foot serifs. Ludlow Franklin Gothic Italic, partially shown on the third line of the specimen, is slanted much more than other versions, to fit the standard 17 -degree italic matrices of that machine. Modern Gothic Condensed and Italic (q.v.) are often though not properly called Franklin Gothic Condensed and Italic, especially by Monotype users. Also see Streamline Block.
- 1903: Alternate Gothic (ATF). See Alternate Gothic EF (Elsner&Flake), Alternate Gothic No2 (Bitstream), and Alternate Gothic No1, No2 and No3 (see the URW version). Mac McGrew: Alternate Gothic was designed in 1903 by Morris F. Benton for ATF with the thought of providing several alternate widths of one design to fit various layout problems. Otherwise it is a plain, basic American gothic with no unusual features, but represents a more careful drawing of its nineteenth-century predecessors. The Monotype copies in display sizes are essentially the same as the foundry originals, with the addition of f-ligatures. The thirteen alternate round capitals shown in the first line of Alternate Gothic No.1 were designed by Sol Hess in 1927 for Monotype, hence the "Modernized" name; with these letters the design is sometimes referred to as Excelsior Gothic. Monotype keyboard sizes, as adapted by Hess about 1911, are considera- bly modified to fit a standard arrangement; caps are not as condensed as in the original foundry design. In 6-point, series 51 and 77 are both the same width, character for character, but some letters differ a bit in design. Note that these two narrower widths are simply called Alternate Gothic on Monotype, while the wider version is Alternate Gothic Condensed! Alternate Gothic Italic, drawn about 1946 by Sol Hess for Monotype. matches No.2, but may be used with other widths as well. Condensed Gothic on Ludlow, is essentially a match for Alternate Gothic No.1, but has a somewhat different set of variant characters, as shown in the third line. There is also Condensed Gothic Outline on Ludlow, introduced about 1953. essentially an outline version of Alternate Gothic No.2. On Linotype and Intertype there is Gothic Condensed No.2 which is very similar to Alternate Gothic No. 1 in the largest sizes only, but with even narrower lowercase and figures. Also compare Trade Gothic Bold and Trade Gothic Bold Condensed.
- 1904: Bold Antique, Whitin Black [see OPTI Bold Antique for a modern digitization], Cheltenham (digitizations by Bitstream and Font Bureau, 1992), Cloister Black (blackletter font, see the Bitstream version).
- 1905: Linoscript (originally known as Typo Upright). Clearface, about which McGrew writes: Clearface was designed by Morris Benton with his father, Linn B. Benton, as advisor. The bold was designed first, in 1905, and cut the following year. The other weights and italics were produced through 1911. As the name implies, the series was intended to show unusual legibility, which it certainly achieved. The precision of cutting and casting for which ATF is noted produced a very neat and handsome series, which had considerable popularity. Clearface Heavy Italic has less inclination than the lighter weights, and is non-kerning, a detail which helped make it popular for newspaper use; the specimen shown here is from a very worn font. Some of the faces have been copied by the matrix makers. But the face Monotype calls Clearface and Italic is the weight called Bold by other sources. Monotype also includes Clearface Italic No. 289, a copy of the lighter weight. Revival and expansion by Victor Caruso for ITC called ITC Clearface, 1978. Also, American Extra Condensed, an octagonal mechanical face revived in 2011 by Nick Curtis as Uncle Sam Slim NF.
- 1906: Commercial Script (versions exist at Linotype, URW, Bitstream (called English 144), and Elsner&Flake), Miele Gothic, Norwood Roman.
- 1907: Lincoln Gotisch, named after Abraham Lincoln. This found found its way from ATF to Schriftguss, Trennert und Sohn, and Ludwig Wagner. Digital revivals include Delbanco's DS Lincoln-Gotisch. Compare with Comtesses, Lipsia, Elite Kanzlei, Lithographia and Wedding Text.
- 1908: News Gothic, Century Oldstyle (digital versions by Bitstream, Elsner&Flake, and URW), Clearface Gothic (1907-1910: digital revivals include Clear Gothic Serial (ca. 1994, SoftMaker) and Cleargothic Pro (2012, SoftMaker). McGrew: Clearface Gothic was designed by Morris Benton for ATF in 1908, and cut in 1910. It is a neat, clean gothic, somewhat thick and thin, which incorporates some of the mannerisms of the Clearface (roman) series. However, it can hardly be considered a part of that family. There is only one weight, and fonts contain only the minimum number of characters.
- 1909-1911: Rugged Roman.
- 1910: Cloister Open Face, Hobo, ATF Bodoni (Bitstream's version is just called Bodoni, and Adobe's version is called Bodoni Book or Bodoni Poster or Bodoni Bold Condensed, while Elsner&Flake call theirs Bodoni No Two EF Ultra; Font Bureau's version has just two weights called BodoniFB-Bold Condensed and Compressed). McGrew writes about Hobo: Hobo is unusual in two respects---it is drawn with virtually no straight lines, and it has no descenders and thus is very large for the point size. It was designed by Morris F. Benton and issued by ATF in 1910. One story says that it was drawn in the early 1900s and sent to the foundry without a name, which was not unusual, but that further work on it was continually pushed aside, until it became known as "that old hobo" because it hung around so long without results. More time elapsed before it was patented in 1915. The working name was Adface. Hobo was also cut by Intertype in three sizes. Light Hobo was also drawn by Benton, and released by ATF in 1915. It is included in one list of Monotype faces, but its series number is shown elsewhere for another Monotype face, and no other evidence has been found that Monotype actually issued it.
- 1911-1913: Venetian, Cromwell. Cromwell was digitized by Nick Curtis in 2010 as Cromwell NF.
- 1914: Adscript, Souvenir, Garamond (with T.M. Cleveland).
- 1916: Announcement, Light Old Style, Goudy Bold. Digitizations: Announcement Roman was done by Nick Curtis in 2009 and called Society Page NF.
- 1916-1917: Invitation. For a digital revival, see Sil Vous Plait (2009, Nick Curtis).
- 1917: Freehand.
- 1917-1919: Sterling. Digitizations include Howard (2006, Paul D. Hunt) and Argentina NF (2009, Nick Curtis).
- 1918: Century Schoolbook (1918-1921). (See ITC Century (Tony Stan, 1975-1979), or the Century FB-Bold Condensed weight by Greg Thompson at Font Bureau, 1992. For Century Schoolbook specifically, there are versions by Elsner&Flake, Bitstream and URW. Bitstream has a monospaced version.) URW Century Schoolbook L is free, and its major extension, TeXGyre Schola (2007) is also free.
- 1920: Canterbury. Mac McGrew: Canterbury is a novelty face designed by Morris F. Benton for ATF in 1920, when trials were cut, but not completed for production until 1926. It features a very small x-height, with long ascenders and descenders; monotone weight with minute serifs; and a number of swash capitals. It is primarily suitable for personal stationery and announcements. Compare Camelot Oldstyle. Digital versions were done by Nick Curtis in his Londonderry Air NF (2002-2004), and Red Rooster in the series Canterbury, Canterbury OldStyle, and Canterbury Sans.
- 1922: Civilité. Mac McGrew on the ATF Civilité: Civilite in its modern adaptation was designed by Morris Benton in 1922 and cut by ATF in 1923-24. The original version was cut by Robert Granjon in 1557 to imitate the semi-formal writing then in vogue, and is believed to be the first cursive design cut in type. It became popular for the printing of poetry and for books of instruction for children, where the type itself could serve as a perfect model of handwriting. The first of these books was titled La Civilite puerile, printed at Antwerp in 1559. The books were so popular that the design came to be known as "civility" type. Other interpretations of the letter have been made, including Cursive Script, cut in the nineteenth century in 18-point only from French sources by ATF predecessors and by Hansen, but Benton's seems more attractive and legible to modern eyes. The French pronunciation of ci-vil'i-tay is indicated by the accented e, which was used only in ATF's earliest showings. The many alternate characters were included in fonts as originally sold; later they were sold separately and finally discontinued, although the basic font was still listed in recent ATF literature. Also see ZapfCivilite. Compare Freehand, Motto, Verona.
- 1924: Schoolbook Oldstyle.
- 1926-1927: Typo Roman.
- 1927: Chic (American Typefounders; doubly shaded capitals and figures), Gravure, Greeting Monotone, Goudy Extra Bold. The art deco face Chic was revived by Nick Curtis as Odalisque NF (2008) and Odalisque Stencil NF (2010).
- 1928: Parisian, Bulmer (revival of William Martin's face from 1792 for the printer William Bulmer; digital forms by Monotype, Adobe, Linotype, and Bitstream), Broadway (1928-1929, see two styles offered by Elsner&Flake, Linotype, Bitstream, and 11 weights by URW), Goudy Catalogue, Modernique, Novel Gothic (ATF, designed with Charles H. Becker), Dynamic. Novel Gothic has seen many digital revivals, most notably Telenovela NF (2011, Nick Curtis), Naked Power (Chikako Larabie) and Novel Gothic SG (Jim Spiece). Images of Bulmer: i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, vii, viii, ix, x, xi, xii.
- 1929: Louvaine. McGrew: Louvaine series was designed by Morris F. Benton for ATF in 1928. It is an adaptation of Bodoni (the working title was Modern Bodoni), and many of the characters are identical. Only g and y are basically different; otherwise the distinction is in the more abrupt transition from thick to thin strokes in this series. In this respect, Ultra Bodoni has more affinity to Louvaine than to the other Bodoni weights. The three weights of Louvaine correspond to Bodoni Book, Regular, and Bold. This series did not last long enough to appear in the 1934 ATF specimen book, the next complete one after its introduction. Compare Tippecanoe.
- 1930: Benton, Engravers Text, Bank Gothic (see Bitstream's version), Garamond-3 (with Thomas Maitland Cleland), Paramount (some have this as being from 1928: see Eva Paramount SG by Jim Spiece). McGrew: Paramount was designed by Morris Benton in 1930 for ATF. It is basically a heavier companion to Rivoli (q. v.), which in turn is based on Eve, an importation from Germany, but is heavier than Eve Bold. It is an informal face with a crisp, pen-drawn appearance. Lowercase is small, with long ascenders and short descenders. Vertical strokes taper, being wider at the top. It was popular for a time as an advertising and announcement type.
- 1931: Thermotype, Stymie (with Sol Hess and Gerry Powell). Stymie Obelisk is a condensed Egyptian headline face---the latter was revived by Nick Curtis as Kenotaph NF (2011).
- 1932: Raleigh Gothic Condensed (the digital version by Nick Curtis is Highpoint Gothic NF (2011)), American Text (blackletter). Mac McGrew: Raleigh Gothic Condensed was designed by Morris F. Benton for ATF in 1932. It is a prim, narrow, medium weight gothic face, with normally round characters being squared except for short arcs on the outside of corners. The alternate characters AKMNS give an even greater vertical appearance than usual. At first, this face was promoted with Raleigh Cursive as a stylish companion face, although there is no apparent relationship other than the name. Compare Phenix, Alternate Gothic, Agency Gothic.
- 1933: American Backslant, Ultra Bodoni (a great Bodoni headline face; see Bodoni FB (1992, Font Bureau's Richard Lipton). About Agency Gothic, McGrath writes: Agency Gothic is a squarish, narrow, monotone gothic without lower- case, designed by Morris F. Benton in 1932. It has an alternate A and M which further emphasize the vertical lines. Sizes under 36-point were added in 1935. Agency Gothic Open was drawn by Benton in 1932 and introduced in 1934; it follows the same style in outline with shadow, and probably has been more popular than its solid companion. Triangle Type Foundry, a Chicago concern that manufactured matrices, copied this face as Slim Open, adding some smaller sizes. ATF's working titles for these faces, before release, were Tempo, later Utility Gothic and Utility Open. Compare Raleigh Gothic Condensed, Poster Gothic, Bank Gothic. Digital versions include Warp Three NF (2008, Nick Curtis), which borrows its lowercase from Square Gothic (1888, James Conner's Sons), FB Agency (1995, David Berlow at FontBureau)
- 1934: Shadow, Tower (heavy geometric slab serif), Whitehall. Font Bureau's Elizabeth Cory Holzman made the Constructa family in 1994 based on Tower. Digital versions include Warp Three NF (2008, Nick Curtis), which borrows its lowercase from Square Gothic (1888, James Conner's Sons), FB Agency Gothic (1995, David Berlow at FontBureau) and Agency Gothic by Castle Type. Eagle Bold followed in 1934. McGrew: Eagle Bold is a by-product of the depression of the 1930s. The National Recovery Administration of 1933 had as its emblem a blue eagle with the prominent initials NRA, lettered in a distinctive gothic style. Morris Benton took these letters as the basis for a font of type, released later that year by ATF, to tie in with the emblem, which businesses throughout the country displayed prominently in advertising, stationery, and signs; naturally it was named for the eagle. Compare Novel Gothic. USA Resolute NF (2009, Nick Curtis) is based on Eagle Bold.
- 1935: Phenix. This condensed artsy sans was revived in 2011 at Red Rooster by Steve Jackaman and Ashley Muir as Phoenix Pro.
- 1936: Headline Gothic.
- 1937: Empire (Bitstream version). This ultra-condensed face was digitally remade and modernized by Santiago Orozco as Dorsa (2011).
Typefaces alphabetic order:
- Agency Gothic (+Open
- Alternate Gothic No.1 (+No.2, +No.3)
- American Backslant
- American Caslon&Italic
- American Text
- Announcement Roman&Italic (1916). For digital revivals or influences, see Friendly (2012, Neil Summerour) and Society Page NF (2009, Nick Curtis).
- Antique Shaded
- Bank Gothic Light (+Medium, +Bold, +Light Condensed, +Medium Condensed, +Bold Condensed). For digital versions, see Bank Gothic AS Regular and Condensed (2008, Michael Doret).
- Baskerville Italic
- Benton (Whitehall)&Italic
- Bodoni&Italic (+Book&Italic, +Bold&Italic, +Bold Shaded, +Bold Open)
- Bold Antique (+Condensed)
- Broadway (+Condensed). The prototy[ical art deco typeface.
- Bulfinch Oldstyle
- Card Bodoni (+Bold)
- Card Litho +Light Litho)
- Card Mercantile
- Card Roman
- Century Expanded&Italic
- Century Bold&Italic (+Bold Condensed, +Bold Extended)
- Century Oldstyle&Italic (+Bold&Italic, +Bold Condensed)
- Century Catalogue&Italic
- Century Schoolbook&Italic (+Bold)
- Cheltenham Oldstyle&Italic (+Condensed, +Wide)
- Cheltenham Medium&Italic (+Medium Condensed, +Medium Expanded, +Bold&Italic, +Bold Condensed&Italic, +Bold Extra Condensed&Title, +Bold Extended, +Extrabold, +Bold Outline, +Bold Shaded&Italic, +Extrabold Shaded, +Inline, +Inline Extra Condensed, +Inline Extended)
- Clearface&Italic (1907, +Bold&Italic, +Heavy&Italic)
- Clearface Gothic: a flared version of Clearface.
- Cloister Black
- Cloister Oldstyle&Italic (+Lightface&Italic, +Bold&Italic, +Bold Condensed, +Cursive, +Cursive Handtooled, +Title&Bold Title)
- Commercial Script
- Copperplate Gothic Shaded
- Cushing Antique
- Della Robbia Light
- Dynamic Medium
- Eagle Bold
- Engravers Bodoni
- Engravers Old English (+Bold)
- Engravers Bold
- Engravers Shaded
- Engravers Text
- Franklin Gothic&Italic (+Condensed, +Extra Condensed, +Condensed Shaded)
- Freehand. Mac McGrew: Freehand, a face based on pen-lettering, was designed for ATF by Morris Benton in 1917. The working title before release was Quill. Derived from Old English, it is an interesting novelty, and has had quite a bit of use. Compare Civilite, Motto, Verona.
- Garamond&Italic (+Bold&Italic, +Open)
- Globe Gothic (+Condensed, +Extra Condensed, +Extended, +Bold&Italic)
- Goudy Bold&Italic (+Catalogue&Italic, +Extrabold&Italic, +Handtooled&Italic, +Title)
- Greeting Monotone
- Headline Gothic
- Hobo&Light Hobo (1910). For digital versions, see Informal 707 (Bitstream), Hobbit (SF), Homeward Bound (Corel), and Hobo (Bitstream).
- Invitation (+Shaded)
- Light Oldstyle
- Lightline Gothic&Title
- Lithograph Shaded
- Louvaine Light&Italic (+Medium&Italic, +Bold&Italic)
- Miehle Extra Condensed&Title
- Monotone Gothic&Title
- News Gothic (+Condensed, +Extra Condensed&Title)
- Norwood Roman
- Novel Gothic
- Packard (+Bold)
- Pen Print Open
- Piranesi Italic (+Italic Plain Caps, +Bold&Italic, +Bold Italic Plain Caps)
- Poster Gothic
- Raleigh Gothic Condensed (1934).
- Rockwell Antique
- Rugged Roman
- Schoolbook Oldstyle
- Souvenir (1914). Revived in 1977 by Ed Benguiat as ITC Souvenir, but a total failure as a type design. Simon Garfield: Souvenir was the Comic Sans of its era, which was the 1970s before punk. It was the face of friendly advertising, and it did indeed appear on Bee Gees albums, not to mention the pages of Farrah Fawcett-era Playboy. Mark Batty from International Typeface Corporation (ITC) on one of his best-selling fonts: A terrible typeface. A sort of Saturday Night Fever typeface wearing tight white flared pants. Garfield also retrieved this quote by type scholar Frank Romano in the early 1990s: Real men don't set Souvenir. Digital revivals also include Sunset Serial by Softmaker, and ITC Souvenir Mono by Ned Bunnel.
- Stymie Light&Italic (+Medium&Italic, +Bold&Italic, +Black&Italic)
- Tower Condensed (1934). Revived by Photo-Lettering Inc as PL Tower.
- Typo Roman&Shaded
- Typo Script&Extended
- Typo Shaded
- Typo Slope
- Typo Upright&Bold
- Ultra Bodoni&Italic (+Condensed, +Extra Condensed)
- Venetian&Italic (+Bold)
- Wedding Text&Shaded
View Morris Fuller Benton's typefaces. A longer list. A listing of various digital versions of News Gothic. More News Gothic-like typefaces. [Google]
Various commercial digital versions of the Centaur typeface. [Google]
View the digital typefaces that are related to Jenson, and that can be bought at MyFonts. [Google]
MyFonts: Venetian faces
Top-ranked fonts at MyFonts on the theme "Venetian faces". I think there are many errors in the tagging. [Google]
MyFonts: Venetian typefaces
Large web page with all Venetian typefaces at MyFonts---taken in a broad sense, Venetian or its descendants. Another take. And a long page with hundreds of commercial Venetian fonts. See also here. [Google]
French printer and artist born in Sommevoire, France in 1420. He worked mostly in Venice as a printer, type designer, punch cutter, and engraver from 1468 until his death in Venice in 1480. In 1475 he was made a papal count by Pope Sixtus IV. He produces his first roman type in Cicero, Epistolae ad Brutum (1468), which is described as perfect and unequaled. A Greek typeface which is used for quotations was made in 1471. In 1473, he creates a blackletter typeface which he uses in books on medicine and history. In 1475, he founds his first book trading company, Nicolaus Jenson sociique, whose partners include the Frankfurt businessmen Peter Ugelheimer and Johann Rauchfass. In 1480, his second book trading company is launched under the name Johannes de Colonia, Nicolaus Jenson et socii.
Jenson's typefaces influenced many new alphabets:
- William Morris based his Gold Type on Jenson' type in 1890. Cobden-Sanderson modeled his typeface for Doves Press on Jenson's alphabets in 1900.
- Bruce Rogers emulated them with his Centaur font (1914; called Venetian 301 at Bitstream).
- In 1926, Jenson's roman is recut by Morris Fuller Benton as Cloister Old Style.
- Eusebius (Ernest Detterer and Robert Hunter Middleton, Ludlow) is a further extension. Jim Spiece's NicolasJensonSG is a digital type family that builds on and extends Eusebius.
- Perhaps the most prominent of digital Jensonian faces is Robert Slimbach's Adobe Jenson (1996).
- Other derived typefaces include Hess Old Style (Sol Hess, 1920-1923 and Steve Jackaman, 1993), Jenson Oldstyle (ATF), Montaigne and Hightower (Tobias Frere-Jones, Font Bureau).
Brief bio by The Cotsen Institute of Archaeology of UCLA. Linotype link. FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google]
Paula Do Souto
Graduate from FADU, University of Buenos Aires, who created the light Venetian typeface Trovattore (2008). [Google]
Danish typographer and graphic designer. After studying in Copenhagen he went to the Imprimerie Nationale in Paris to study under José Mendoza. Agfa Creative Alliance designer who made the Jante Antiqua typeface . According to Poul Steen Larsen, the transitional family Jante (digitized by a technician at Purup Electronics Ltd) is the second complete Danish typeface, after Venetian (which was based on drawings by George Abrams).
Review of Adobe Jenson
Robert Slimbach's Adobe Jenson is reviewed by Tim Rolands. [Google]
Robert Hunter Middleton
American designer (b. Glasgow, 1898, d. Chicago, 1985), who spent his entire life at Ludlow Typograph Company (retiring in 1971) and built an impressive type library, creating over 100 typefaces. He received a doctorate in Fine Arts from Transylvania University. Ludlow hired him in 1923, where he became type director in 1993. He retired from the Ludlow Typograph Company in 1971. At Ludlow, he had to create solid commercial variations of existing typefaces for the Ludlow machine and come up with practical new designs. Bio by Nicholas Fabian. One can also consult the M.A. dissertation of Stephen Glenn Crook at the University of Chicago, entitled "The contribution of R. Runter Middleton to typeface design and printing in America" (1980), which lists his 98 typefaces of his 24 type familes. His oeuvre:
Among his books:
- Eusebius (1924). This page explains that Ernst Detterer started work for Ludlow on Nicolas Jenson in 1924. Middleton drew Nicolas Jenson Italic at Ludlow in 1929, followed by Bold, Bold Italic, and Roman Open series in later years. In 1937 the family was renamed Eusebius. Nicolas Jenson SG is a revival at Spiece Graphics in 1995 by Jim Spiece.
- Ludlow Black (1924). Mac McGrew: Ludlow Black was designed by Robert H. Middleton for Ludlow in 1924. It is very similar to Cooper Black, the most apparent differences being the concave serifs and the greater slant of the italic. Also compare Pabst Extra Bold.
- Cameo (1927, a chiselled font). Mac McGrew: Cameo was designed by R. Hunter Middleton for Ludlow in 1926. It is derived from a heavy version of Caslon, with a thin white line within the left side of each heavy stroke, giving a very pleasing appearance. A 1926 Ludlow ad says of it, "Designed and punches produced in our own plant". Apparently it was the first, or one of the first, so produced. Compare Caslon Shaded, Caslon Openface, Caslon Shadow Title, Gravure, Narciss.
- Caslon Extra Condensed. See Caslon RR Extra Condensed by Steve Jackaman.
- Delphian Open Titling (1928).
- Stellar (1929, a serifless roman done 29 years before Zapf's Optima!). Mac McGrew: Stellar and Stellar Bold were designed by R. Hunter Middleton for Ludlow in 1929 as a less severe alternative to the monotone sans-serifs which were coming into great popularity. There is moderate thick-and-thin contrast, and strokes flare slightly toward the ends, while ascenders and descenders are fairly long; all this gives a feeling of warmth and pleasantness. Cap M is widely splayed, and sloping strokes are cut off at an angle. An alternate A, E, and H in both weights have the crossbar extended beyond the left upright, and there is an alternate U without the extended vertical stroke. Compare Optima, Lydian, Radiant.
- Garamond (1929-1930, see the Font Bureau revival FB Garamond, and Steve Jackaman's Garamond RR Light).
- Tempo (1930-42, a sans family) and Tempo Heavy Inline (1935). Mac McGrew: Tempo is Ludlow's answer to the sans serifs which gained popularity in the late 1920s. The entire series was designed by R. Hunter Middleton, director of Ludlow's department of typeface design. The Light, Medium, and Bold weights were introduced in 1930, Heavy and several variations in 1931, and other variations over the next decade or more. They are generally a little different from other sans serifs, and include some innovations not found elsewhere. The most distinctive characteristics are found in the Light Italic and Medium Italic, which have a somewhat more calligraphic feeling and less stiff formality than other such faces, and which also offer alternate cursive capitals, rare in sans serifs. But there are more inconsistencies in Tempo than most other families. For instance, the Light, Medium, Bold, and Heavy Italics are designed with a moderate slope of 10 degrees to fit straight matrices without too much gap between letters; this works well enough in the lighter weights, but produces a loose effect in the more rigid heavier weights. But the two largest sizes of Tempo Bold Italic and some of the other italics are designed to fit italic matrices with a slant of 17 degrees, which is rather excessive for sans serifs, especially the condensed versions, although it is handled well. Variant Oblique characters are available for Medium Italic which get away from the calligraphic feeling; only these and none of the cursive characters are made in (Tempo continues) the largest sizes. Tempo Bold Extended and Black Extended show the influ- ence of other European grotesques, with much greater x-height and some characters unlike those in the normal and condensed widths. There are a number of alternate characters for many of the Tempos. especially in the Medium, Bold, and Heavy weights; their use converts Tempo to an approximation of Kabel or other series. But a few alternates are not enough to create the effect of Futura, apparently demanded by some users, so Tempo Alternate was created in several weights, and introduced about 1960. This is close to Futura, except that the italic has Ludlow's 17-degree slant, much greater than Futura's usual 8 degrees. This family-within-a-family also has some alternate characters in some weights, to further convert the face into an approximation of other European grotesques. Tempo has been quite popular with newspapers, and to a lesser extent for general commercial printing. Compare Futura, Sans Serif, Erbar, etc. Also see Umbra.
- Karnak (1931-42, a slab serif family). Mac McGrew: Karnak is a family of square-serif types designed by Robert H. Middleton for Ludlow, beginning in 1931, when the light and medium weights were introduced, with other weights and widths announced as late as 1942. Like Stymie, the other extensive American square-serif series, it is derived from Memphis, and all three series are very similar. Most members of the Karnak family are most easily distinguished by the cap G. Karnak italics are also distinguished by a greater slant to fit Ludlow's 17-degree matrices, except 14-point and smaller in Karnak Intermediate Italic and Medium Italic, which are made on straight matrices and slant about 10 degrees. Light and medium weights have several alternate round capitals as shown; the very narrow Karnak Obelisk also has comparable alternate round AEMNW. Compare Cairo, Memphis, Stymie. One magazine article speaks of Karnak Open, but this has not been found in any Ludlow literature.
- Lafayette (1932).
- Mayfair Cursive (1932). Revived as Mayfair (2006, Rebecca Alaccari, Canada Type).
- Umbra (1932). Mac McGrew: Umbra was designed by Robert H. Middleton for Ludlow in 1932. It is essentially a shadow version of Tempo Light, in which the basic letter is "invisible" but there is a strong shadow to the lower right of each stroke. Compare Shadow. Images: URW Umbra.
- Eden (1934, a squarish didone). See digital revivals by Jason Castle called Eden Light and Eden Bold, 1990, and by Steve Jackaman and Ashley Muir at Red Rooster called Eden Pro (2010).
- Mandate (1934).
- Ludlow Bodoni (1936; see Bodoni Black Condensed by Steve Jackaman, and Modern 735 (Bitstream's version of Middleton's Bodoni)). Bodoni Campanile (1930; see Bodoni Campanile, 1999, by Steve Jackaman). Bodoni Modern (1930). See a digital revival called PL Modern Heavy Condensed.
- Coronet (1937). This is Ribbon 131 in the Bitstream collection and Coronet by Steve Jackaman.
- Flair (1941).
- Admiral Script (1953).
- Condensed Gothic Outline (1953).
- Cloister Open Face (1920).
- Florentine Cursive (1956). See Florentine Cursive by Steve Jackaman.
- Formal Script (1956).
- Radiant (1938, see EF Radiant at Elsner+Flake, and Radiant RR at the Red Rooster foundry). McGrew: Radiant was designed by Robert H. Middleton for Ludlow, and introduced in 1938, with additional members of the family being added over the following two or three years. It is a precise, thick-and-thin, serifless style, express- ing the modem spirit of the forties while breaking away from the ubiquitous monotone sans-serifs. Radiant Medium is actually about as light as possible to maintain thick-and-thin contrast, but bold and heavy weights offer substantial contrast. All upright versions have as alternates the round forms of AKMNRW, as shown with some of the specimens. Italics have the standard 17-degree slant of Ludlow italic mats, which is rather extreme for serifless faces, except for small sizes of Medium Italic, which are made on straight mats and are redesigned with about 10-degree slope. Like most Ludlow faces, all versions of this face have fractions and percent marks available as extras. Thick-and-thin serifless faces are rare in this country. Compare the older Globe Gothic; also Empire, Stellar, Lydian, Optima, and Czarin, which aren't really in the same category.
- Record Gothic (1927-61).
- Samson (1940). Mac McGrew: Samson is a very bold, sturdy face designed by R. Hunter Middleton in 1940 for Ludlow. It is derived from lettering done with a broad pen, and retains much of that feeling. The name was chosen to denote power and strength. It has been popular for newspaper advertising in particular. Compare Lydian, Valiant. An interpolation between a signage face and a poster face, it was revived as Ashkelon NF (2011, Nick Curtis).
- Square Gothic.
- Stencil (1937-1938). A Cyrillic was made by Victor Kharyk.
- Wave (1962), a connected brush script. Digitizations include Coffee Script (2006) and Middleton Brush (2010), both by Patrick Griffin at Canada Type. Mac McGrew: Wave was designed for Ludlow in 1962 by Robert H. Middleton. It is a 1 medium-weight script, not quite joining, with a brush-drawn appearance and thick-and-thin contrast. The apparent angle is quite a bit more than the 17-degree slope of Ludlow matrices, but letters fit together compactly without noticeable looseness, and form smoothly flowing words. Compare Brush. Mandate, Kaufmann Bold.
- "Making Printer's Typefaces" (1938, The Black Cat press, Chicago, IL). In this book, he shows his own creations for Ludlow matrices, and talks about typography in general.
- Chicago Letter Founding (1937, The Black Cat Press, Chicago, IL). Middleton calls Chicago the printing center of the nation, and goes on in this small booklet about the lives and contributions of people like Robert Wiebking, Frederic Goudy, Bruce Rogers, Oswald Cooper, and himself.
Linotype link. Drawing.
Pictures: i, ii, iii, iv.
View the typefaces made by Robert Hunter Middleton. [Google]
Professor of Art Graphic Design at Lamar Dodd School of Art, part of the University of Georgia, Athens. Born in 1939, Arnholm designed the ITC Legacy Sans family (1992, a 51-font remake of the 1960s Arnholm Sans), and the ITC Legacy Serif family (1992, Venetian). In 2009, ITC Legacy Square Serif and ITC Legacy Serif Condensed were added. ITC Legacy Square Serif won an award at TDC2 2010.
His early fonts were released at VGC, the Visual Graphics Corporation: VGC Aquarius (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, Outline) (1967) (this was digitized in 2007 by Steve Jackaman as Aquarius), VGCArnholm Sans Bold (1965), VGC Fovea (1977).
Arnholm also designed WTC Veritas for the World Typeface Center, New York, 1981-85.
He created these headline typefaces for the Los Angeles Times, 1980: L.A. Times Regular, L.A. Times regular italic, L.A. Times Bold and L.A. Times Bold Italic.
MyFonts page. Linotype bio. FontShop link. Klingspor link.
View Ronald Arnholm's typefaces. [Google]
Rubicon Computer Labs Inc.
In Chelsea, Québec, Lee-Jeff Bell designed many type families that are patterned after major historical type families, mimicking what Bitstream did in the late eighties. He also developed Thames and Helv Condensed, and Unifont. Rubicon claims that their fonts are optimally hinted for even very small screen resolutions. The fonts:
- Realist Fonts: Hilbert Neue (a sans typeface in the style Helvetica Neue), Uranus (like Univers).
- Humanist Fonts: Opulent (like Optima), Frobisher (like Frutiger), Guilford (like Gill Sans).
- Book Fonts: SGaramond (a 4-weight Stempel Garamond clone), Bentley (like Bembo), Burnett (like ITC Berkeley Oldstyle).
- Legacy Fonts: Hilbert (like Helvetica), Tribune (like Times), Hilbert Condensed (like Helvetica Condensed), Tribune Condensed (like Times Condensed).
- Condensed Fonts: Hilbert Neue Condensed (like Helvetica Neue Condensed), Frobisher Condensed (like Frutiger Condensed), Uranus Condensed (like Univers Condensed).
- Packaging Fonts: Karat (like ITC Kabel), IGaramond (like ITC Garamond).
- Newspaper Fonts: Essex (like Excelsior), Gisborne (like Gazette).
- Other: Hilbert Compressed (like Helvetica Compressed), Sharpe Classified (like Spartan Classified).
Yet another URL. This site offers free demo fonts by Rubicon: Bentley (Bembo-like), BurnettDemo-Normal, FrobisherCondDemo-Normal, FrobisherCondDemo, FrobisherDemo-Normal, FrobisherDemo, GisborneDemo, GuilfordDemo-Normal, GuilfordDemo, HilbertNeue, HilbertNeueCondDemo-Normal, HilbertNeueCondDemo, HilbertNeueDemo-Normal, HudsonCondDemo, HudsonDemo, IGaramondDemo-Normal, IGaramondDemo, Karat, KaratDemo-Normal, OpulentDemo-Normal (humanist sans), OpulentDemo, SGaramondDemo-Roman, SGaramondDemo, TribuneCondDemo, TribuneDemo, UranusCondDemo-Normal, UranusCondensedDemo, UranusDemo-Normal, UranusDemo. [Google]
Born in Moscow in 1963. Graduated from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology in 1985. He became a TeX specialist. Since 2003, he creates his own typefaces. Gaithersburg, MD-based designer of a Cyrillic Venetian typeface (2004) called Bucentoro. At TypeArt 05, he received awards for Bucentero and SPQR Caps. He is working on Bucentoro Greek (2006). In Bucentoro's low-contrast design, we can find influences of Nicholas Jenson, Francisco Griffo and Vadim Lazursky.
His Neacademia (2009, +Kursiv) won an award at Paratype K2009. It was published in 2011 at Rosetta Type: Neacademia is a Latin and Cyrillic type family inspired by the types cut by 15th century Italian punch-cutter Francesco Griffo da Bologna for the famous Venetian printer and publisher Aldus Pius Manutius. The family is designed for lengthy texts.
Klingspor link. [Google]
SIAS (or: Signographical Institute Andreas Stötzner)
Andreas Stötzner (b. 1965, Leipzig) is a type designer who lives in Pegau, Saxony. Graduate from the Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst Leipzig and the Royal College of Art in London (1994). Since then, free-lance. Started making typefaces in 1997. He edits the sign and symbol magazine Signa. He spoke at Typo Berlin 2004 and at ATypI 2005 in Helsinki where his talk was entitled On the edges of the alphabet. Coauthor with Tilo Richter of Signographie : Entwurf einer Lehre des graphischen Zeichens. He set up SIAS in 2006-2007 and started selling fonts through MyFonts. Abstract Fonts link. Klingspor link.
He created Andron Scriptor (2004, free), with original ideas for Greek and Cyrillic alphabets. The Andron project intends to extend this Venetian text face in many directions: right now, it covers Latin, Greek, Coptic, Gothic, runes, Cyrillic, Etruscan and Irish scripts, musical symbols, astronomical and meteorological symbols, and many dingbats. The Andron MC Corpus series (2012) contains Uncial, Mediaeval and Capital styles.
Other fonts: Gramma (2007, three dingbats with basic geometric forms), Andron Corpus Publix (2007, dingbats including one called Transport), SIAS Freefont (2007, more dingbats), SIAS Lineaturen (2007, geometric dingbats) SIAS Symbols (2009), Andron Freefont (2009, text font), Andron 1 Latin Corpus (2009), Andron 1 Greek Corpus (2009), Andron Kyrillisch (2009, consisting of Andron 1 CYR, Andron 2 CYR and Andron 2 SRB where SRB stands for Serbian), Andron 2 English Corpus (2010, blackletter-inspired alphabet), Andron 2 Deutsch Corpus (2010), Andron Ornamente (2012), Reinstaedt (2009, blackletter family), Crisis (2009, economic sans).
Lapidaria (2010) is an elegant art deco sans family that includes an uncial style and covers Greek. Hibernica (2010) is a Celtic variant of Lapidaria. Symbojet Bold (2010) is a combination of a Latin and Greek sans face with 400 pictograms.
Rosenbaum (2012) is a festive blackletter face, obtained by mixing in didone elements.
In 2013, he published Arthur Cabinet, a six-style inline art deco caps collection of typefaces, with accomapnying Arthur Ornaments.
Showcase of Andreas Stötzner's typefaces at MyFonts. View the SIAS typeface library. [Google]
Based in Fort Wayne, IN, Jim Spiece (b. 1946, Wabash, IN) likes to revive old type designs. FontShop link.
The typefaces made Jim Spiece:
- Adonis Old Style SG: after a little stationery and greeting card typeface developed for American Type Founders in 1930 by Willard T. Sniffin.
- Anthology SG (2005).
- Arched Gothic Condensed: another Victorian type, developed around 1885 by the James Conners&Son Foundry (New York).
- Ark Monogram SG: Ark is a combination monogram set based on the ATF Virkotype designi from the 1930s.
- Asteroid Primo SG (2009).
- Astoria Antique (2003): 19th century style ornamental face.
- Aviator SG (1995), aka Ventura Slim, based on an old 1930s lettering style popularized by Carl Holmes in his book.
- Bernhard Brushscript SG: based on an extremely heavy informal script was created in the early 1920s by Lucian Bernhard.
- Bernhard Gothic SG
- Beverly Shores Script SG (2004).
- Birdlegs SG (1991).
- Cactus Flower SG (2006): a Wild West family based on lettering by Ross F. George.
- California Poster SG (1996).
- Centric Geo SG (1996) and Centric Serif SG (1996). These are squarish slab faces.
- Concerto Rounded SG: revival of some 1920s Lucian Bernhard lettering.
- Edison Swirl: A frilly Victorian blackletter face based on a design by Hermann Ihlenburg from ca. 1900.
- El Castillo SG (2008): an old style newsprint family.
- Epicerie One&Two SG (2008): a signage family.
- Eva SG. Eva Antiqua SG is an exquisite family based on the 1922 Klingspor model by German designer Rudolf Koch (known as Koch Antiqua or Locarno). It also includes Eva Paramount SG, which is a revival of a 1928 typeface, also flared, by Morris Fuller Benton called ATF Paramount.
- Frisco Antique Display SG (2004): based on a woodtype display face from the 1880s by Bruce Type Foundry.
- Gable Antique Condensed (2002): based on a Bauer Type Foundry art nouveau face.
- Gambit Nouveau SG (2004): art nouveau.(2004): art nouveau.
- Grand Slam SG (2002): based on an old cardwriting style known as Poster Gothic.
- Headline Helpers One SG and Headline Helpers Two SG (2009).
- Hollywood Deco SG (1994): based on a Willard T. Sniffin deco-inspired original from 1932.
- ITC Blair (1997). Blair has its roots in the Inland Type Foundry, ca. 1900.
- ITC Deli Deluxe and ITC Deli Supreme (1999)
- ITC New Winchester
- Ironman SG (2002): art deco poster font.
- Kingsbury Condensed SG (1992): 1930s style art deco face.
- Kolinsky Sable SG (2004): a brush display face due to Charles P. Bluemlein, 1944.
- Little Brown Frog SG (2007).
- Melrose Modern SG (2005): art deco family.
- Memorandum SG (1992): a sans text family.
- Metropolis SG: revival of a long-legged 1932 classic design by W. Schwerdtner for the Stempel Foundry.
- Mingo Gothic SG (1991-1992).
- Narcissus SG (Open and Solid): Narcissus Open is a heavy typeface designed by Walter Tiemann in 1921 for the Klingspor Foundry in Germany.
- Newport Classic Basic SG and Newport Classic SG: based on an extra condensed art deco typeface designed by Willard T. Sniffin for American Type Founders in 1932.
- Nicolas Jenson SG: a large text family about which Spiece writes: It was the original work of fifteenth century designer Nicolas Jenson that formed the basis for this roman serif style developed by Ernst Detterer in 1923. Similar in spirit to other early twentieth century revivals such as Centaur, Cloister Old Style, and Italian Old Style, Nicolas Jenson is distinguished by its pristine and delicate nature. A gifted young apprentice to Detterer, Robert Hunter Middleton, greatly expanded the family. And by 1929, bold, italic, and open were part of the Ludlow Foundry's beautiful Nicolas Jenson Series. It was reintroduced under a new name, Eusebius, in 1941.
- Nova Script Recut One SG (2011): based on Nova Script (1937, George F. Trenholm).
- Pacific Clipper SG (1991): a mix between Koch's kabel and ATF's Novel Gothic (1929, Morris Fuller Benton and Charles H. Becker).
- Panorama SG (1995): art deco family, based on an old 1930s lettering style popularized by Carl Holmes is his wonderful book on the subject.
- Quaint Gothic: Arts&Crafts face.
- Samson Classic SG: a heavy display face based on a 1940 design by Robert Hunter Middleton for the Ludow Foundry.
- San Remo Casual SG: a fifties style connected script.
- Sheridan Gothic SG: an art nouveayu face, ca. 1910, known as Grant Antique.
- Speedway SG (1992-1993): connected upright 1950s diner script.
- Stellar Classic SG (1997): Stellar was originally designed by by Robert Hunter Middleton in 1929 as a serifless roman well before Hermann Zapf's Optima, released in 1958.
- Stratosphere SG (1993).
- Telepod SG (2002): based on an old Speedball lettering style and has a very retro look.
- Thumbnail Text SG (2005).
- Travel Kit SG (2004): art deco.
- Tribunus SG: roman Trajanus style family, originally designed in 1939 by Warren Chappell for Stempel.
- Tweed SG (1992): handlettering.
- Ultramodern Classic SG: a marquee lettering font family in the style of Broadway. Based on a 1928 design by Douglas C. McMurtrie, Aaron Borad, and Leslie Sprunger.
- Valentina SG (1991-1992): a plump comic book style script.
- Veranda Poster SG: derived from a European art supply manufacturer's logotype done in the Vienna (Wien) Austria style, which was used by artists such as Julius Klinger and Willy Willrab in the 1920s.
- Wellsbrook Initials SG: based on the 1920s work at Bauer of the German graphic designer Emil Rudolf Weiss.
- Zinc Italian (2002): 19th century style curly ornamental face, aka Zinco in the Victorian era.
MyFonts link. Klingspor link. [Google]
Stabenfonts is a German typefoundry in Hamburg, est. 2013 by Johannes Steil. Steil's first commercial typeface is the humanist sans Estragon (2013): Estragon is a vivid sans-serif text face with venetian influences, suitable especially for books. It is remarkable for its light slant, to the right, for most of the verticals, its small sized uppercase letters making it suitable for languages where they are often used (for example German,) and its just lightly inclined true italics. [Google]
Textism declares Robert Slimbach's multiple master Jenson family the best digital version of Nicolas Jenson's Venetian Renaissance face. [Google]
The Yale Typeface
Typeface specially designed in 2004 by Matthew Carter for Yale. It is free for all units at Yale University. From the press release: Yale is inspired by the late fifteenth-century Venetian typeface that first appeared in Pietro Bembo's De Aetna, published by Aldus Manutius. [...] In 1929, Stanley Morison of the Monotype Corporation in England led a project to revive Aldus's De Aetna face. The resulting typeface, Bembo, proved to be one of the most widely used and highly regarded book faces of the twentieth century. It continues regularly to appear in Yale publications. Unfortunately, the more recent photocomposition and digital versions of Bembo lack the vigor, weight, and formal integrity of either the De Aetna face or of the original Monotype version of Bembo. Matthew Carter's Yale recovers the strength of the Aldine original, and updates it by sensitively simplifying the basic letterforms and their details. Aspects of the vigor and "color" of the well-known typeface Galliard, an earlier Carter design, are also evident in the new Yale face.
The fonts include YaleAdministrative Roman, YaleAdministrative Italic, Yale Design Roman, Yale Design Italic, Yale Small Capitals, Yale Web Small Capitals, Yale Street and Yale Street Aligning Figs. [Google]
Thomas James Cobden-Sanderson
Thomas Wood Stevens
Early 20th century designer of letters, such as Art Nouveau Capitals, Italic Capitals, Italic Lowercase, Modern Script Italics, Modern German Italic Capitals, Modern Round Gothic, Uncial (based on a 14th century manuscript), Venetian Modern Capitals, Roman Lowercase, Modern German.
Author of Lettering (1916, The Prang Company, New York). He was at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh. PDF file.
Digital remakes include Wood Stevens (2012, Intellecta). [Google]
[Tim Rolands Digital Studio (was: TR Typographic Services, Phont Typographics, Stylus Digital Typography, Studio Renaissance)]
Tim Rolands Digital Studio (was: TR Typographic Services, Phont Typographics, Stylus Digital Typography, Studio Renaissance)
Tim Rolands (b. St.Louis, MO, 1970, based in Kirksville, MO and London, UK, but also in Stevens Point, WI) is an independent digital type developer, producing TrueType and Postscript typeface families for MacOS and Windows. He founded Tim Rolands Digital Design in 2001. Other names for his company include TR Typographic Services, Phont Typographics, Stylus Digital Typography, Studio Renaissance. His fonts can be bought at MyFonts.
Tim's creations include Orlando (free), Anvil (also available in OpenType), Valor (2006, an experimental modern face that combines geometry and mediaeval Lombardic ideas), Miranda (an Aldine, roman caps family: Pro version appeared in 2012), Aegis, Prospero (1997, inspired by the early Romans of Nicolas Jenson; see Prospero Pro (1997-2008)), Illiad, Kimberly, Timotheus, Envoy (2001, garalde family), Odyssey (2001, classical Roman caps), Alexander.
View Tim Rolands's typefaces. [Google]
Celebrated type designer, born in 1970 in New York City. Until 1999, he worked mainly at Font Bureau:
- FB Agency.
- Benton Sans (1995-2003). Done with Cyrus Highsmith, it is a revival of Benton's 1903 family, News Gothic.
- BentonGothic (2000).
- CochinOldstyle (1992), CochinBlack (1991).
- Garage Gothic (1992). In three weights, it is based on parking garage ticket lettering but very reminiscent of license plate characters.
- Grand Central (1998).
- Griffith Gothic (1997-2000).
- Hightower (1994-1996). Venetian typeface.
- Interstate (1993). Done for the United States Federal Highway Administration, but later released as a type family.
- Niagara (1995).
- Nobel (1993). An exquisite geometric sans family based on old ideas of De Roos. FB Nobel showcased.
- FB Reactor (which was first a FUSE7 font).
- Reiner Script (1993). Based on a 1951 brush script by Imre Reiner.
At FontFont, he designed the children's handwriting fonts Dolores and Dolores Cyrillic.
At FUSE 15, he designed Microphone (1996). At FUSE 10, he published Fibonacci, a font consisting just of lines.
His custom work includes WorthGothic (1996), WorthLogo1996 (1995), WorthText (1995), GQGothic (1995), Halifax, Commonwealth (1995), Belizio-TwentySix (Font Bureau), HermanMillerLogo (1999, Font Bureau). Cassandra, Vitriol (1993), Quandry (1992-1994) and Chainletter (1993).
Retina Agate (2001, specially made for small-print stock listings at the Wall Street Journal) netted him a Bukvaraz 2001 award and an AIGA 2003 Design Award.
Since 1999, he designs for the Hoefler Type Foundry:
- HTF Retina (2002). For use in the Wall Street Journal.
- Gotham (2002). A sans serif done with the help of Jesse M. Ragan. Read about it here. In 2007, he published a rounded version of it, called Gotham Round. Gotham was used in 2008 by Obama in his presidential campaign. Gotham poster by Joakim Meihack.
- Cyclone (2003).
- In 2010, he and Jonathan Hoefler designed the sans family Forza.
- Giant (2003).
- Knoz (2003).
- Topaz (2003).
- Whitney (2004). This is an amazing 58-style sans family designed for the Whitney Museum, but now generally avalaible from Hoefler, and touted as a great family for infographics. A derivative, Whitney-K, is the house font of Kodak.
In 2004, The Hoefler Type Foundry became Hoefler&Frere-Jones, New York's main contempiorary foundry. With Hoefler, he collaborated on projects for The Wall Street Journal, Martha Stewart Living, Nike, Pentagram, GQ, Esquire, The New Times, Business 2.0, and The New York Times Magazine.
In all, he has designed over five hundred typefaces for retail publication, custom clients, and experimental purposes. His clients have included The Boston Globe, The New York Times, The Cooper-Hewitt Museum, The Whitney Museum, The American Institute of Graphic Arts Journal, and Neville Brody. He has lectured at Rhode Island School of Design (from which he graduated with a BFA in 1992), Yale School of Art, Pratt Institute, Royal College of Art, and Universidad de las Americas. His work has been featured in How, ID, Page, and Print, and is included in the permanent collection of the Victoria&Albert Museum, London.
Interview. Interviewed by Dmitri Siegel. In 2006, Frere-Jones received the prestigious Gerrit Noordzij Prize. He created Estupido Espezial for fun, but it actually made it into an issue of Rollingstone. Catalog of his faces at Font Bureau.
View typefaces designed by Tobias frere-Jones. [Google]
[HiH (Hand in Hand)]
New York-based type designer at ITC, 1917-1988. Tony Stan did a version of Jean Jannon's Garamond (ITC Garamond, 1977). Other faces: ITC American Typewriter (1974, with Joel Kaden), ITC Garamond (1977), ITC Cheltenham (1975-1978), ITC Cheltenham Handtooled (with Ed Benguiat), ITC Century (1980), ITC Berkeley Old Style (1983, a Venetian typeface), Pasquale, Ap-Ap.
About ITC Garamond, Andreas Seidel writes: That one is a modern recreation that in my view breathes much of the 1970s feel and is generally considered the least historical "Garamond". The high x-height does not improve readability, as you will have to adjust the line-spacing accordingly. The Garamond wiki is equally negative about ITC Garamond. Happy (2005, Canada Type, Patrick Griffin) is the digital version of one the most whimsical takes on typewriters ever made, an early 1970s Tony Stan film type called Ap-Ap. Some of the original characters were replaced with more fitting ones, but the original ones are still accessible as alternates within the font. We also made italics and bolds to make you Happy-er (quote by Canada Type).
The 1975 revival of Cheltenham by Goodhue (1896) and later by Morris Fuller Benton, resulted in a Cheltenham with increased x-height. Not everyone was pleased with that.
Digital versions of ITC Berkeley Oldstyle besides that of ITC include University Oldstyle (SoftMaker), Californian (Font Bureau), B695 Roman (SoftMaker) and Venetian 519 (Bitstream).
Linotype link. FontShop link. Klingspor link.
View Tony Stan's typefaces. [Google]
Typedia: Typeface classification
The classification from the Typedia community:
- Fraktur: A German form of Blackletter with broken strokes. Classic example: Fraktur.
- Old English: The English blackletter style. Classic example: Cloister Black.
- Rotunda: A Blackletter style featuring wider lowercase with more rounded strokes.
- Schwabacher: A German form of Blackletter with simplified, rounded strokes.
- Textura: A Blackletter style featuring tall, narrow lowercase made mostly of straight strokes.
- Chancery: A script style of calligraphy made with a broad-point pen with slightly sloping, narrow letters that are the basis for italics in serif faces. Capitals may or may not have flourishes. Originated during the Renaissance. Classic example: Zapf Chancery.
- Etruscan: An early Roman form of calligraphy drawn with a flat brush held at a steep angle. Caps only, as lowercase had not been invented yet. Classic example: Adobe Pompeii.
- Uncial: A Celtic style of calligraphic script with forms created by a broad-nibbed pen at an almost horizontal angle, but sometimes more tilted in later variants. Roman lowercase is derived from Uncial forms. There is only one case in pure Uncial designs. Used during the middle ages. Classic example: American Uncial.
- Inscriptional---Roman Inscriptional: Stone-cut serif style from the late Roman Empire. The basis of modern roman capitals. Classic example: Trajan.
- Ornamented, Novelty
- Art Deco: A geometric display typeface style popular in the 1920s and 1930s. Classic example: Broadway.
- Art Nouveau: Display typefaces with a flowing, organic style popular in the early 20th Century. Classic example: Arnold Bocklin.
- Comic Strip Lettering: A style meant to look like the hand-drawn letters associated with comics or cartoons. This style is usually san serif, often having a loose, informal structure and is sometimes based on brush lettering. Classic example: Balloon.
- Dot Matrix: A style whose characters are composed of a pattern of dots used mainly for low-resolution impact printers, or to simulate the look of the output of such printers. Classic example: FF Dot Matrix.
- Futuristic: A style meant to suggest a futuristic theme. Often cold, brutal and geometric with a machine aesthetic and simplified construction. Classic example: Stop.
- Machine Readable: A style designed to be read by machine. These fonts are usually san serif and often feature unusual character shapes to make them more distinguishable from one another. Classic example: OCR-B.
- Pixel: A style whose characters are composed of pixels (usually represented as squares) used mainly for low-resolution computer display. Outline fonts are sometimes made to look like Pixel Fonts. Classic example: Silkscreen.
- Pseudo Foreign Script: A style intended to mimic non-Western letters. For example, a font that looks like Chinese, but is actually composed of Latin characters. Faux Chinese/Arabic/Hebrew. Classic example: Bruce Makita.
- Victorian: A whimsical, eclectic display style popular in the late 19th Century. Classic example: Skjald.
- Sans Serif
- Gothic: A sans serif style with moderate stroke contrast and modern proportions particular to the U.S. Usually features a two-story lowercase g, angled strokes on C and S, and a sloped, non-cursive italic. Classic example: Franklin Gothic.
- Grotesque: A sans serif style with moderate stroke contrast and modern proportions particular to the U.K. Usually features a two-story lowercase g, closed strokes (usually curving in slightly) on C and S, and a sloped, non-cursive italic. Classic example: Bureau Grot.
- Geometric Sans: A sans serif style made with rigidly geometric forms and little to no stroke contrast. Classic example: Futura.
- Grotesk: A sans serif style with low stroke contrast and modern proportions. Usually features a one-story lowercase g, closed or angled strokes on C and S, and a sloped, non-cursive italic. Classic examples: Akzidenz Grotesk, Helvetica.
- Humanist Sans: A sans serif style with proportions modeled on old-style typefaces. Characterized by open strokes on characters like C and S. Italics of this style often are more cursive in appearance, rather than a simple slanted version of the roman. Often has more slightly stroke contrast than other sans serifs. Classic examples: Gill Sans, Frutiger.
- Square Gothic: A sans serif style composed mainly of straight or nearly straight lines and (often) curved corners. Stroke contrast is usually low. Classic example: Bank Gothic.
- Swiss Gothic: A sans serif style with noticeable stroke contrast, straight sides on round characters, modern proportions, and large x-height. Usually features a one-story lowercase g and closed strokes on C and S. Classic example: Jay Gothic.
- Brush Script: Typefaces modeled after lettering made with a brush. Strongly associated with advertising in the mid-20th Century on. Classic example: Brush Script.
- Casual Script: Typefaces based on a style of lettering characterized by informal appearance, somewhat like handwriting, but more refined. Similar to Brush Script or Sans Serif. Classic example: Murray Hill.
- English Roundhand: A connecting-script style of calligraphy made with a flexible tipped pen. The characters are usually steeply sloped and capitals are often very elaborate. Popular in the 18th and 19th Century. Sometimes called Copperplate Script. Classic example: Bickham Script.
- French Roundhand: A connected-script style of calligraphy, sometimes with upright characters, a high stroke contrast and decorative capitals. Used in France in the 17th through 19th Century. Also called Civilité. Classic example: Typo Upright.
- Handwriting: A script style based on ordinary handwriting. Characters may or may not be connected. Classic example: Felt Tip Roman.
- Rationalized Script: A script style with sans serif qualities, low stroke contrast, and a formal appearance. Characters may or may not connect. Associated with 20th Century commercial design. Classic example: Gillies Gothic.
- Grecian: A typically heavy display face with octagonal shapes where curves are normally used. Also known as Chamfered or Beveled. Popular in the 19th Century for wood types. Classic example: Acropolis.
- Latin: A serif style with large triangular or wedge-shaped serifs. Stroke contrast is medium to low. Popular in the 19th Century for wood types. Classic example: Latin.
- Modern: A serif style with high stroke contrast and vertical stress. Classic example: Modern No. 20.
- Didone: A serif style with high stroke contrast and vertical stress. Serifs are usually unbracketed. Classic examples: Bodoni (Italian), Didot (French).
- Scotch Modern: A serif style with medium to high stroke contrast and vertical stress, known for large serifs and tiny aperture. Serifs are usually bracketed. Classic examples: Modern No. 20, Scotch Modern.
- Old Style: A serif typeface with relatively low stroke contrast, angled stress, angled serifs. Classic example: Bembo.
- Antique: A serif style with moderate stroke contrast, bracketed serifs and usually vertical stress. Serifs are angled as in Old Style. Popular in the 19th Century. Classic example: Bookman.
- Dutch Old Style: A serif style with somewhat angled stress, bracketed serifs, and medium to high stroke contrast. Characteristic of Dutch and English types of the 18th Century. Classic examples: Caslon, Plantin, Times Roman.
- French Old Style: A serif style with angled stress on rounds; usually features a small eye on the lowercase e; soft, bracketed serifs and moderate stroke contrast. Classic example: Garamond.
- Spanish Old Style: A serif style with soft, bracketed serifs, medium to high stroke contrast, and often highly angled stress. Classic example: Rongel.
- Venetian Old Style: A serif style with angled stress on rounds; usually a tilted crossbar on the lowercase e; usually has somewhat low stroke contrast. Serifs are sometimes unbracketed. This style is associated with very early printing (Incunabula) in the West. Classic example: Jenson.
- Slab Serif: A serif style with serifs equal to or nearly the same thickness of the main strokes. Main strokes usually have low contrast. Classic example: Rockwell.
- Clarendon: A slab serif style with heavy, bracketed serifs, modern proportions and construction, low stroke contrast. Classic example: Clarendon.
- Egyptian: A serif style with heavy, unbracketed serifs, modern proportions, low stroke contrast. Basic construction is similar to Modern, but with low stroke contrast. Sometimes called Antique. Classic example: Egiziano.
- French Clarendon: A serif style with reverse stress (horizontal strokes thicker than vertical strokes) and slab serifs, sometimes bracketed, usually condensed. Popular in the 19th Century. Classic example: Playbill.
- Geometric Serif: A serif style made with rigidly geometric forms. Usually features slab serifs. Classic example: Stymie.
- Spur Serif: A serif style with very small serifs. Usually similar in design to san serif faces, except for the serifs. Usually very little stroke contrast. Classic example: Copperplate.
- Transitional: A serif style which, historically, bridges the gap between Old Style and Modern. Stroke contrast is stronger than old style, but less than modern. Bracketed serifs. Stress is mainly vertical. Characteristic mainly of English types around 1800. Classic example: Baskerville.
- Scotch Roman: A serif style with medium contrast and vertical stress, medium-sized bracketed serifs. Classic examples: Miller, Caledonia.
- Tuscan: A serif style with splayed or ornate serifs. Classic example: Thunderbird.
The University of California at Berkeley releases freely downloadable versions of Goudy's 1938 Venetian font Berkeley Oldstyle, now called University Old Style. History of the font in the "readme" file: Goudy was commissioned in 1938 to design a new family of typefaces for the University Press at the University of California-Berkeley. He preferred the name University Old Style, but the University staff preferred adding the name of the state. In his translations of Goudy's types, Richard Beatty returned to Goudy's preference for naming the family--it fits computer menus more easily. Beatty's translations are based on Goudy's original designs and do not reflect the changes made by Monotype when they were given permission to copy the faces and sell them under the name of 'Californian.'
In 1995, Beatty was commissioned by the University of California at Berkeley to design additional faces that would be heavy enough for campus signage and with a family relationship to Goudy's University Old Style. In 2000, Beatty was commissioned by the University of California at Berkeley to design demi-bold faces that fit between the roman and bold in weight and black faces that go beyond bold in weight without the variations of the fonts designed by Beatty specifically for signage.
The family comprises UniversityOS, UniversityOSBlack, UniversityOSBlack-Italic, UniversityOS-Bold, UniversityOS-BoldItalic, UniversityOSDemi, UniversityOSDemi-Italic, UniversityOS-Italic, UniversityOSSC, UniversityOSSCBlack, UniversityOSSCBlack-Italic, UniversityOSSC-Bold, UniversityOSSC-BoldItalic, UniversityOSSCDemi, UniversityOSSCDemi-Italic, UniversityOSSC-Italic, UniversityOSTitling, UniversityOSTitling-Bold, UniversityOSSCSign, UniversityOSSCSign-Italic, UniversityOSSign, UniversityOSSign-Italic, UniversityOSSignTitling. [Google]
As Bill Davis explains, Veronese (1911) was Monotype's first custom font: In 1911, Monotype introduced the font Veronese at the request of the publisher J.M. Dent&Sons Ltd. Veronese was a Venetian style serif typeface drawn in the spirit of William Morris's version of Nicolas Jenson's fifteenth-century roman type known as Italian Old Style. The Veronese custom font was first used for a limited edition book of Lorenzo de Medici's poems printed by Ballantyne Press for Dent in 1912. This was the first of many custom typefaces designed by Monotype for use with its hot metal typecasting machines to address the needs of its customers.
For digital versions, check Granada Serial (Infinitype), Veronese RR (1992, Steve Jackaman), ITC Veronese. [Google]
Designer (1880-1971) of "New Hellenic" (1927-1928), a very elegant Greek face with original capitals, and a lower case that is based upon a 15th century Venetian face ascribed to Giovanni Rosso (Rubeus). He published Greek Printing Types 1465/1927 (Mastoridis Publications, Typophilia, 1995). Scholderer was curator in the British Museum Library. In 1927, Scholderer, on behalf of the Society for the Promotion of Greek Studies, got involved in choosing and consulting the design and production of a Greek type called New Hellenic cut by the Lanston Monotype Corporation. He chose the revival of a round, and almost monoline type which had first appeared in 1492 in the edition of Macrobius, ascribable to the printing shop of Giovanni Rosso (Joannes Rubeus) in Venice. New Hellenic was the only successful typeface in Great Britain after the introduction of Porson Greek well over a century before. The Greek Font Society digitized the typeface (1993-1994) funded by the Athens Archeological Society with the addition of a new set of epigraphical symbols. Later (2000) more weights were added (italic, bold and bold italic) as well as a Latin version. That type family is called GFS Neohellenics (1993-2000). [Google]
Born in Richmond, VA, 1904, d. Charlottesville, VA, 1991. Typographer, illustrator, letterer. He made two type families:
Chappell studied under Koch in 1931-1932 and worked briefly for him afterwards. This page states that he designed a font called Eichenauer (for Gustav Eichenauer, who cut the type in lead) in 1955, but it was never manufactured and released. This face, tentatively named Eichenauer, was shown in Chappell's book A Short History of the Printed Word.
- Trajanus (1939-1940, for Stempel). McGrew on Trajanus: Trajanus was designed by Warren Chappell, New York illustrator and 1 letterer, in 1939, and cast by Stempel in Germany. It has the basic form of classic Venetian letters, but with a nervous, pen-drawn, contemporary quality. Ascenders are fairly long but descenders are short. The narrow italic lowercase shows a calligraphic quality in particular. There is an extra little flick of the pen at the end of crossbars off and t,. caps M and N have no serifs on their apexes; and cap U is lowercase in form. Trajanus is named for the Roman emperor whose accomplishments are immortalized in classic letters on the Trajan column. The three versions are also made by German Linotype, but have not received much attention in America. For revivals, see TribunusSG by Jim Spiece and Linotype Trajanus (probably close to the original design as Linotype absorbed Stempel).
- Lydian (1938, for ATF, available at Bitstream; Lydian Cursive is from 1940). McGrew writes: LYDIAN series is a brilliant and popular calligraphic style designed by Warren Chappell for ATF. The lighter weight and italic were designed in 1938; bold and italic in 1939. They have the appearance of being lettered with a broad pen held at a 45-degree angle, but the ends of vertical strokes are square, improving legibility and stability. This is probably the most popular thick-and-thin serifless letter of American origin, though the concept is more popular in Europe. Oldstyle figures were made for these four Lydians, but were fonted separately and very rarely used. These four faces were copied by Intertype in an unusually large range of sizes for a slug machine, and from these matrices some suppliers cast fonts of type for handsetting. Lydian is named for the designer's wife, Lydia. Compare Czarin, Stellar, Radiant, Optima, Samson, Valiant. Lydian Cursive was drawn by the same designer in 1940. Although it gives the appearance of having been drawn with the same sort of pen as the regular series, it is much freer and more calligraphic, with a style unmatched by any other American script or cursive face. Lydian Bold Condensed was designed in 1946, also by Chappell, but not marketed until 1949. It has the general character of the earlier faces, but with much more emphasis on the vertical strokes. This gives the lowercase a suggestion of the effect of a simplified German blackletter. Revivals include Lydian Cursive (Bitstream) and Lydian (Bitstream), both part of their big font heist. For a free family, see Libris ADF.
Klingspor file on him (PDF). FontShop link. [Google]
British type designer, architect and designer (b. Walthamstow in East London, 1834, d. 1896). Defender of the medieval form, he set up Kelmscott Press in 1891, and was one of the founders of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Morris was an artist, poet, writer and designer himself, but he is probably best remembered for his fabric designs and his book designs for Kelmscott Press, such as The Kelmscott Chaucer (1896). All his punches and matrices and some types are now with Cambridge University Press.
William Morris's typefaces:
- Kelmscott Golden or Golden Type (1889-1890): a bolder re-design of the classical Jenson face, done while he ran Kelmscott Press. The punches were cut by E.P. Prince. It was based on Nicolas Jenson but darkened. ATF's copy of this was called Nicolas Jenson, just before 1900. Morris used it in many of the books in the Kelmscott Press. Ancient Roman was Keystone Type Foundry's adaptation in 1904 of the Golden type [Mac McGrew deems it comparable to Jenson Oldstyle]. Digital versions include GoldenType (Elsner and Flake), GoldenType ITC (ITC), Kelmscott Roman (Nick Curtis), Kelmscott (Scriptorium), True Golden (Scriptorium), URW GoldenType (URW), URW GoldenTypeITC (ITC).
- Troy (1891-1892): blackletter. Called Morris Gotisch, it was published by Berthold in 1903. Multiple digital versions exist: P22 Morris Troy (2001, Richard Kegler), Joyeuse (1992, Scriptorium: a variation), Morris Gothic and Morris Initials (Tom Wallace), Troy3Roman (Chet Gottfried), MorrisBlack (Dan Solo), Satanick (Marty Snyder), Kelmscott (Scriptorium), Morris Gotisch (Gerhard Helzel), MorrisBlackLetter (Scriptorium), MorrisRoman (Dieter Steffmann), Troycer (Torbjörn Olsson).
- Chaucer (1892): an enlargement [in the sense of point size only!] of Troy. Wetzig mentions the date 1897. For a digital version, se Alter Littera Chaucer (2012).
- Morris Romanized Black. Mac McGrew: Morris Romanized Black is an adaptation of the Troy and Chaucer types designed by William Morris for his Kelmscott Press. This adaptation first appeared under the name Tell Text about 1895, and was renamed in 1925. Troy and Chaucer were two sizes of one style, approximately 18- and 12- point respectively. William Morris had previously designed a roman type which became popular commercially as Jenson Oldstyle (q.v.); of this design he says, "After a while I felt that I must have a Gothic [in the sense of Blackletter or Old English] as well as a Roman, and herein the task I set myself was to redeem the Gothic character from the charge of unreadableness. ... Keeping my end steadily in view, I designed a blackletter type which I think I may claim to be as readable as a Roman one, and to say the truth, I prefer it to the Roman." Compare Satanick. For digital versions, refer to the digital interpretations of Troy.
- Jenson Oldstyle, Morris Jensonian, Morris Old Style. Well, not really---Mac McGrew explains: Jenson Oldstyle, though a comparatively crude face in itself, did, much to start the late nineteenth-century move toward better types and typography. Designed by J. W. Phinney of the Dickinson Type Foundry (ATF) and cut by John F. Cumming in 1893, it was based on the Golden Type of William Morris for the Kelmscott Press in 1890; that in turn was based on the 1470-76 types of Nicolas Jenson. Morris had established standards for fine printing, in spite of the fact that he did not design really fine types. Serifs in, particular are clumsy, but the Jenson types quickly became popular. BB&S introduced Mazarin in 1895-96, as "a revival of the Golden type, redesigned by our artist." But it was a poor copy, and was replaced by Morris Jensonian. Inland's Kelmscott, shown in 1897, was acquired by BB&S and renamed Morris Jensonian in 1912; Keystone had Ancient Roman (q. v.); Crescent Type Foundry had Morris Old Style. Hansen had Hansen Old Style (q. v.); and other founders had several other faces, all nearly like Jenson. It is hard to realize that Jenson was inspired by the same historic type as the later and more refined Centaur, Cloister, and Eusebius. ATF spelled the name "Jensen" in some early specimens, and added "No. 2" to the series, the latter presumably when it was adapted to standard alignment or when minor changes were made in the design. Jenson Italic was introduced at the same time as the roman. ATF advertised Phinney's Jenson Heavyface in 1899 as "new and novel-should have been here long ago." Jenson Condensed and Bold Condensed were introduced in 1901.
- Morris Initials: illuminated capitals in the Kelmscott edition of Chaucer's works at the Kelmscott Press. Digital versions: Morris Inits (George Williams), Chaucerian Initials (Scriptorium), Morris Initials (Scriptorium), Morrisinits (Dieter Steffmann).
Self portrait, 1856 and picture, age 53.
William S. Peterson writes on Morris.
FontShop link. MyFonts link. Bio by Nicholas Fabian.
Reference books include Typophile Chapbook: The Kelmscott Press, 1891 to 1898 (William Morris), and The Cambridge University Press Collection of Private Press Types, Kelmscott, Ashendene, Eragny, Cranach (Thomas Balston, 1951; inscribed by Adrian Wilson to Bob&Jane Grabhorn). [Google]