TYPE DESIGN INFORMATION PAGE last updated on Mon Nov 21 14:41:20 EST 2022
FONT RECOGNITION VIA FONT MOOSE
Educational and reference site run by Ben Archer, a designer, educator and type enthusiast located in England (who was in Auckland, New Zealand, before that). Glossary. Timeline. Type categories. Paul Shaw's list of the 100 most significant typefaces of all times were recategorized by Archer:
Founded by Carolina de Bartolo, 101 Editions is the San Anselmo, CA-based publisher of the book Explorations in Typography: Mastering the Art of Fine Typesetting and its iOS companion app. 101 Editions also offers full-service creative direction for a wide range of visual communications. It specializes in contract publishing, typographic consulting and custom typefaces.
Explorations in Typography Mastering the Art of Fine Typesetting is both the title of a 2011 book and the name of a web site by Carolina de Bartolo and Erik Spiekermann. The site is worth a visit, as users can "set" their own text. Their own blurb: [The book] is a vast collection of beautiful typesetting examples. Page after page, a brief article by Erik Spiekermann has been set in hundreds of different ways in hundreds of different typefaces, creating an extended visual taxonomy of typesetting that allows you to learn by looking. With complete type specifications on every page and examples set in hundreds of typefaces (many from the FontFont library), the aggregate effect is an ersatz type catalog as well as an extensive resource of typesetting ideas.
Her typefaces include Txt101 (2014: a fresh typeface for mock text and borders, designed in collaboration with Chiharu Tanaka at Psy/Ops).
Nick Shinn ran an interesting project in his 2009 class at Humber College in Toronto. In the 1950s, Toronto built a subway system [which is run by the TTC, the Toronto Transit Commission], with comprehensively modernist architecture. As part of the program, a geometric, all-caps typeface was designed (anonymously), for use in signage [read Joe Clark's article about the type and its history]. Nick Shinn's course began with digitizing the original drawings, to introduce the technicalities of font production in FontLab, and then proceeded with students producing their own designs for a matching lower case. The 27 students each produced a typeface. The results are here: Alex Plociennik, Andrea Luis, Andrew Clanahan, Andrew Hodge, Chris Bacchus, Cornelius Quiring, Craig Steffan, Daniel Marcus, Dan Mitchell, Danny Wu, Darren Ray, David Spindler, Gurchan Birdi, Jackie Saik, Joe Beausoleil, Katie Short, Mag Ciemiega, Michael Cirillo, Michael Lao, Michael Neto, Nick Seeger, Nik Firka, Orlena Chan, Piotr Dymura, Scott Krysa, Tiffany Delve, Todd Haskins. [Google] [More] ⦿
A Case For Type Design Education
A Treatise on Font Rasterisation
The title of this informative article is A Treatise on Font Rasterisation With an Emphasis on Free Software. It explains font hinting, anti-aliasing, subpixel rendering and positioning, and gives a survey of the state of the art, and pays special attention to X11 and Unix. The following Unix tools are discussed: Freetype, Fontconfig, Cairo, Qt and Xft. [Google] [More] ⦿
In an article entitled Why We Need to Stop Advocating Helvetica as the Best Typeface (February 2021), Aasawari Kulkarni writes: Every good typeface---in my opinion---has been designed with the intent, to be used to fulfill a certain purpose. That might be one of the answers to the question why do we need more typefacesâ (if not the ultimate answer to the question). Living amidst a thousand fonts then, why do we still keep spotting and using just a few "normal" ones time and time again? Why do we keep falling on Helvetica's (and its counterparts') back for safety, like going back to an ex merely for the sake of familiarity and comfort? We put hours into making full proof concepts and sketches for our designs, spend waking nights selecting the perfect color pallets, making original forms. And yet when it comes to tying it all together, we simply select a beautiful, no-nonsense, Swiss typeface from our back pocket of the many Helvetica-like typefaces. There is no way we can go wrong with that. But must "not going wrong" be the only ultimate aim for a designer? We have been taught to keep things simple, to use proportions that work, and use forms that are comfortable, agreeable to all. And using Helvetica-like typefaces reinstates this need to be conventionally correct. It also helps that these fonts complement the rest of our careful considerations. As Jen Wang says in Helvetica, Modernism and the Status Quo of Design, "Although design contributes to the culture it perpetuates and reflects upon, it is seen as the stage for the message, not as part of the message itself." Even today, many Neue fonts masquerading as rebrands and brand refreshes are plastering on to thick layers of, excessively prim, Swiss, barren walls of redundant, monotonous design. To me, this looks like a missed opportunity, to not let type do the talking, beyond just the words it has been set in; to not let your type choices truly elevate your design on top of that indistinguishable wall. Why would you paint the town all in yellow when there are in fact a thousand different colours that could be more appropriate for different parts of the town?
References: Jen Wang: Helvetica, Modernism and the Status Quo of Design, Dangerous Objects, Medium, 8 December, 2016. Peter Bilak: We don't need new fonts, 8 Faces Magazine, issue 3, 2011. [Google] [More] ⦿
Reactions by typophiles to Acrobat Reader 7, released in December 2004. Good news: It includes Myriad and Minion Pro (for free). Bad news: read on. Grant Hutchinson writes: "Every release since 4.0 has been bigger, slower and more bloated with creeping featuritis to the point of disfunction. Meh, indeed. Do yourself a favor... download version 7, install the free fonts and turf the rest." The general feeling is to hang on as long as possible to the Acrobat Reader 3 and 4 versions. [Google] [More] ⦿
Agate is an old size type of approximately 5.5 points, a size that mattered for small print such as in newspapers. In newspaper advertising, fourteen agate lines made one inch of matter. [Google] [More] ⦿
The Sackers family (Monotype, and before that Agfa) is a vintage typeface family. Its members:
As a whole, this is an elegant but curious collection. There are few clues as to its origins, which may be a bit louche because we can easily recognize Engravers Gothic in the Sackers Gothic, for example. All typefaces look like they originate in the 19th century, and started probably out as engraved (copperplate) lettering.
Alan Fletcher (1931-2006) once said, A typeface is an alphabet in a straightjacket, Inhibition is a nail in your head, and A person without imagination is like a teabag without hot water. [Google] [More] ⦿
All Good Things Typography
Dead link. Archive (FontPool), history of type, type classification (by Matthias Neuber and Morton K. Pedersen), page layout guide, type choice guide, logo type guide, mixing type guide, Windows software guide, Mac type software guide, glossary. By Kevin Woodward. [Google] [More] ⦿
Alphabettes is a showcase for work, commentary, and research on lettering, typography, and type design, organized by and for women. The original group of 98 that started the site: Alessia Mazzarella, Alice Savoie, Alisa Nowak, Amy Papaelias, Andrea Tinnes, Annica Lydenberg, Aoife Mooney, Bianca Berning, Barbara Bigosinska, Caren Litherland, Chavelli Tsui, Danielle Evans, Denise Gonzales Crisp, Catherine Griffiths, Catherine Schmidt, Dana Tanamachi, Diana Ovezea, Dyana Weissman, Elena Abertoni, Elena Veguillas, Elizabeth CareySmith, Emilie Rigaud, Emma Laiho, Erin Ellis, Erin McLaughlin, Hendrika Makilya, Indra Kupferschmid, Isabel Urbina PeĂ±a, Isabella AragĂŁo, Jeannette Weber, Jen Mussari, Jessica Hische, Jillian AdelJulia Sysmäläinen, Kali Nikitas, Karolina Lach, Kathleen Sleboda, Kimya Gandhi, Ksenya Samarskaya, Laura Meseguer, Laura Serra, Laura Worthington, Lila Symons, Lily Feinberg, Linda Hintz, Linda Kudrnovska, Liron Lavi, Liza Enebeis, Luisa Baeta, Lynne Yun, Maria Doreuli, Mariko Takagi, Marina Chaccur, Marta Bernstein, Martina Flor, Mary Catherine Pflug, Mary Kate McDevitt, Meghan Arnold, Michelle Perham, Moeko Yamaguchi, Nadine Chahine, Nadine RoĂźa, Naomi Abel, Nicole Dotin, Nicole Phillips, Nina StĂ¶ssinger, Nora Gummert-Hauser, Petra Cerne Oven, Pilar Cano, Pooja Saxena, Rathna Ramanathan, Roxane Gataud, Ruxandra Duru, Sandrine Nugue, Sara Soskolne, Sarah Maxey, Shauna Lynn Panczyszyn, Shelley Gruendler, Shoko Mugikura, Sibylle Hagmann, SlĂˇvka Paulikova, Sol Kawage, Sol Matas, Sonja Hernandez, Sonja Knecht, Sonja Stange, Spike Spondike, Susanne Dechant, Tiffany Wardle de Sousa, Tania Raposo, Ulrike Rausch, Verena Gerlach, Veronika Burian, Victoria Rushton, Wendy Xu, Xandra Zamora, Zeynep Akay. [Google] [More] ⦿
In 1944, American Type Founders (ATF) introduced Alpha-Blox. Quoting Jennifer Farrell, this is an impressive system of both solid and linear shapes that could be combined to create all manner of typefaces, ornament and pattern in 1- or 2-colors. The design possibilities were endless and limited only to the imagination of the printer/designer.
Digital revivals of this modular typeface family include
AlphaBot: Nikita Pashenkov
Alphabot "is a virtual robot that is able to take the shape of any letter in the English alphabet as you type them on a keyboard. A software application written in C++/OpenGL features 12 alphabots loosely arranged in a 3D landsape that the user can traverse using arrow keys or a mouse." Dated 2000. See also here. [Google] [More] ⦿
A classic form of blackletter first seen in 1472 in Augsburg where Johann Bämler created a version. It was very popular in the 16th century. Revived, e.g., by the following foundries: Drugulin/D. Stempel (1919), Benjamin Krebs (1918), Genzsch&Heyse (1835), Berthold, C.F. Rühl (1903). [Google] [More] ⦿
American Amateur Press Association (AAPA)
Organization with many type pages related to letterpress, and run mostly by Dave Tribby. I quote Tribby: From its formation in 1892 (from the merger of 23 leading foundries) to its demise in the late twentieth century, American Type Founders was the dominant force in foundry type. Throughout its existence, ATF produced some of the most beautiful printing fonts. During its first half century, those typefaces were displayed in a series of substantial catalogs.
Chicago's Barnhart Brothers & Spindler foundry chose not to join the ATF combine in the 1890s. It finally became part of ATF in 1911, but continued to operate under its own name until it was closed in 1933.
Based upon Mac McGrew's American Metal Typefaces of the Twentieth Century, Maurice Annenberg's Type Foundries of America and their Catalogs, and a review of ATF type catalogs published in 1897, 1899, 1900, 1903, 1906, 1909, 1912, 1923, 1934, 1941, 1960, and 1971 (plus BB&S catalog No. 25), Tribby has compiled a spreadsheet of ATF typefaces, their identification numbers, and which page numbers they appeared on in those catalogs. He put together a similar spreadsheet for BB&S catalogs that were published in 1897, 1909, and 1925.
The following PDF files were prepared from the individual worksheets in the spreadsheet file.
Mac McGrew writes: Antique in general is a generic nineteenth-century term applied to a variety of old type styles. A few that were given a new lease on life by Monotype and the slug machines are listed here; others were similar to the older Clarendons, Dorics, Ionics, etc. Also see Bold Antique and Bold Condensed Antique, Modern Antique and Modern Antique Condensed, and Old Style Antique, also Cushing Antique, Latin Antique, etc. Antique No.1 is similar to Bookman. Antique No.2 (Lino) is equivalent to Antique No.6 (Mono) and comes from BB&S, where it was later known as Antique Bold. Antique No.3 is equivalent to Modern Antique. Antique No. 525 (ATF) is very similar to Antique [No. 53] (BB&S) and Antique No.1 (Inland); also to Consort Light, the 1950s English revival (see Clarendon). Hansen's Antique No.1 was slightly lighter than the others. Antique Condensed comes from BB&S. Antique Extra Condensed was shown as Skeleton Antique by Marder, Luse in 1886 or earlier and by BB&S somewhat later, with many sources producing the same or very similar designs. Antique Shaded was designed by Morris F. Benton in 1910 but not introduced until 1913, when it was described as "the first of a series of shaded typefaces." It was later promoted as part of "the new gray typography." This typeface was the first one cut on a new shading machine invented by the designer's father, Linn B. Benton. When Monotype copied it, the typeface was named Rockwell Antique Shaded, to tie it in with that company's Rockwell series (q. v.), but since Rockwell is often confused with Stymie, it is perhaps natural that Antique Shaded is sometimes though incorrectly called Stymie Shaded. [Google] [More] ⦿
Antique Olive is a brash humanist sans-serif typeface designed in 1959 by French type designer Roger Excoffon for an Air France logo. It was released at Fonderie Olive (Marseille, France) as a retail typeface in 1962 with further development occurring until 1968. In addition to a basic weight, Antique Olive was produced in medium, condensed, wide, bold, condensed bold, extra bold (known as Antique Olive Compact), and ultra bold (known as Nord). Its almost reverse stress disqualifies Antique Olive from use as a body typeface. It was effectively used, e.g., in the Sesame Street credits from 1969 until 1983.
Digital typefaces influenced by Antique Olive:
Alternate URL. The history of all fonts used and produced by Cupertino, CA-based Apple. A brief summary of this:
The Apple Design team won two awards at 25 TDC in 2022, pne for SF Arabic (a contemporary interpretation of the Naskh style with a rational and flexible design; this extension of San Francisco serves as the Arabic system font on Apple platforms. Like San Francisco, SF Arabic features nine weights and variable optical sizes that automatically adjust spacing and contrast based on the point size of text. The typeface features an extensive repertoire that covers numerous vocalization, tone and poetic marks, extended vowel signs, honorifics and Quranic annotations. SF Arabic provides support across the following languages: Arabic, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Sorani, Mazanderani, Northern Luri, Pashto, Persian, Rohingiya, Sindhi, Urdu, and Uyghur) and SF Symbols 3 (over 600 new symbols including representations of devices, game controllers, health, communication, objects, and tools; it prides greater control over how color is applied to symbols, and has a variable font srtyle as well). [Google] [More] ⦿
This discussion walks us through the original Apple GX fonts, such as Tekton GX, Skia (Matthew Carter), Buffalo Gal (Thomas Rickner), Jam (Erik van Blokland), Chunk (Matthew Butterick) and Zycon (Font Bureau). [Google] [More] ⦿
Copyright-free type and typefounding books. Several type specimen books from the University of California Library Collection have been scanned in by Microsoft. Other libraries are participating as well. [Google] [More] ⦿
Arial: ein Nekrolog
German article by Ralf Turtschi (Swiss, b. 1955) on the history of Arial from its genesis in 1982 as a Helvetica "clone" to its present status as most-used font. Ralf goes on to warn his readers that Microsoft is repeating history by pushing, very soon, its own Segoe, a Frutiger clone. Notable German quotes in which he performs a damning autopsy on Arial: Die Arial ist weder als Textschrift noch als Headlineschrift zu empfehlen, da fehlt einiges an Klasse. [...] Eine unausgeglichene Laufweite, also die Proportionen und der Abstand zwischen den Zeichen, gibt der Arial einem miserablen Grauwert. Das Verhältnis von schwarzen Linien und weissen Flächen lässt sie plump und charakterlos auf dem Papier kleben. Besonders hässlich sind die angeschrägten Endstriche bei a, e, s und t. Die Proportionen und die Form des t sind eine Zumutung und das a sieht wie nach einem Hagelschlag verformt aus. [...] Die Arial ist lieblos, unausgeglichen und verbeult, sie hat mir noch nie Freude bereitet. About the Segoe drama (Trauerspiel), he writes: Die Geschichte wiederholt sich hier, Die Segoe atmet den Geist der Frutiger von Adrian Frutiger, die sich in den 80er-Jahren zur Alternative der viel benutzten Helvetica anbot. Hier springt Microsoft 20 Jahre zu spät dem vermeintlichen Lifestyle nach, und statt eine eigenständige Schrift zu entwickeln, kupfert die Branchenführerin eine der erfolgreichsten und schönsten Schriften ab. Man könnte ja auch eine bestehende Schrift ordentlich lizenzieren. Ein Trauerspiel. So, why did Microsoft not properly license Frutiger from the man himself? After Adobe had to rip off Frutiger with its Myriad, now Microsoft joins the corporate theft business. Why not reward type designers properly? Fontshop joined Turtschi in his analysis. See also this brilliant piece by Fred Nader from 2003. [Google] [More] ⦿
Yet another comparison between Helvetica and its sometimes maligned Monotype "clone" [not my words], Arial. And a test to tell one from the other. Footnote: Arial is designed to compete with Helvetica, yes, but it is based on Monotype Grotesque (early 1900s) and not on Helvetica. Pic with a comparison. [Google] [More] ⦿
Type outfit in Dallas, TX, with some free fonts, some commercial fonts (BOSS fonts: 4000 fonts for 30 USD), and some typography essays on anti-aliasing. There seems to be a connection withComputer Support Corporation. It released at one point in 1996 a big CD of fonts called Arts&Letters, which I believe is related to Bay Animation. These were renamed fonts from elsewhere. About 100 fonts were at this site. A sampling of the free fonts: Amos-Normal, ArcherNormal, Asia-Extended-Bold, Banco-Normal, Barrett-Condensed-BoldItalic, CallimarkerItalic, Cane-StripedNormal, Cane-Hollow, CoffeeSackExtendedItalic, CraneNormal, Dominon-Normal, Enview-Bold, Glaze-Normal, Gorgio-Normal, Leo-Normal, Matterhorn, Orient2Normal (oriental simulation), PennantNormal, Plank-ExtendedNormal, RoninNormal, ShalomNormal (Hebrew simulation), Tangiers-Normal, ThreeDeeNormal, WampumNormal. The list of about 2000 fonts I am aware of, all made between 1995 and 2001, is here. [Google] [More] ⦿
An in-depth study of font usage in American newspapers, carried out by Bill Davis of Ascender Corporation in 2004. A brief summary of its findings:
Ascender claims to have the ultimate proof that freeware/shareware fonts are inferior to commercial fonts. Statistics are only given for 4572 freeware TTF and OTF fonts, so we don't know how they compare, but that does not deter Ascender. The findings and my comments in italics:
Atelier for design and typography run by Wolfgang Beinert. Classification of type. Roman numerals. Interesting sub-page on typographical rules for numbers. Make sure to visit his award-winning designs of calendars. [Google] [More] ⦿
Interesting font links. In French, by Yves Perrousseaux. Jef Tombeur describes this as follows: "The Atelier Perrousseaux is a small publishing house having on its catalogue the founder's books but also books, essays, studies by the late Gérard Blanchard, Adrian Frutiger, Ladislas Mandel, François Richaudeau (a linguist) and, soon, René Ponot." [Google] [More] ⦿
This ATF classic headline sans was first introduced in 1906. Mac McGrew writes: Railroad Gothic is a plain, traditional form of heavy, condensed gothic, first shown by ATF early in the century, although it has the appearance of a nineteenth-century face, as some characters seem disproportionate to the others. There is no lowercase. It has long been popular for newspaper headlines, especially in the very large sizes, some of which continue to be shown in recent ATF lists. Ludlow makes the same design in some large sizes as Gothic Bold Condensed Title. Compare Headline Gothic (ATF). ATF Type adds: Railroad Gothic was the quintessential typographic expression of turn-of-the-century industrial spirit---bold and brash in tone, and a little rough around the edges. A favorite for the plain speak of big headlines, Railroad Gothic quickly gained popularity among printers. Its condensed but robust forms were likely a source of inspiration for later families of industrial sans serifs.
For revivals and extensions:
This script started out in 1958 as Intertype's reaction to ATF's successful script typeface Murray Hill. AtMahogany Script, or simply Mahogany Script was a Compugrapghic / Agfa typeface. Today, it is sold by Monotype Imaging. Solo called it Hallmark Script, while Linotype and Bitstream call it Monterey. Copies in the Castcraft collection include OPTI Mahogany Script and OPTI Mountain Script. [Google] [More] ⦿
ATypI, Association Typographique Internationale, is the type community's premier organization. Founded in 1957 by Charles Peignot. Its goals are
ATypI 2006 Type Tech presentations in PDF format by Thomas Phinney (Adobe) and some others. More specifically:
The Association Typographique Internationale was created by Charles Peignot. It is interested in the development and protection of fonts, organizes an annual meeting on typography, and has a large international membership. [Google] [More] ⦿
The original Aurora Grotesk dates back to the Johannes Wagner Foundry (1912), but Paul Barnes points out that the same typeface appears under multiple names in the Handbuch der Schriftarten, 1926:
On the digital side, in chronological order:
John Berry muses about the quintessential seventies font, Avant Garde (Herb Lubalin) and the downfall of multiple master technology. Alex White explains its development, and how sublime it is when used as intended---all caps with lots of ligatures, crossing legs, and so forth. It was created for the cover of Avant Garde Magazine by Herb Lubalin and his group. This racy magazine (Jan 1968-mid 1971) was edited by Ralph Ginzburg (Eros). [Google] [More] ⦿
Inland Type Foundry font made in 1904. With its tall ascenders and small x-height, and irregular edges, it is similar to Pabst Old Style (1902, Goudy). Avil was in the 1911 ATF catalog, but not in the 1923 ATF catalog. People suspect that ATF went with Pabst Old Style, and chose not to continue Avil. For a full specimen, see Sheperd in Dan X. Solo's Rustic and Rough-Hewn Alphabets: 100 Complete Fonts by Dan X. Solo (1991, Dover).
Mac McGrew: Advil was advertised by Inland Type Foundry in 1904 as "a new typeface, most excellent for fine booklet and catalog work." It follows a popular style of the day, with tall ascenders, small x-height, and irregular edges. It is very similar to Pabst Oldstyle (q.v.), but narrower. [Google] [More] ⦿
Baskerville is a transitional typeface originally designed by English type designer John Baskerville, circa 1754. Baskerville Old Face was designed by Isaac Moore in 1768. Various versions of these two type families are sold throughout the world. Some discussion here. Here is a quick overview:
Typophiles with opinions on metal versions of Baskerville, giving a nod to Monotype Baskeville, and voicing concern that the digital Baskervilles are too anemic. Wikipedia: Interest in Baskerville seems to have revived in the early 20th century, with Bruce Rogers among others taking an interest in him. [...] Not surprisingly, therefore, the type was revived for mechanical composition in the 20th century. ATF was first, followed by English Monotype in 1923, and thereafter other manufacturers (notably Linotype) followed suit. Monotype Baskerville (Series 169), perhaps the best-known of these revivals was a commercially successful type despite (or perhaps because) it was heavily "cleaned up" by the Monotype drawing office Monotype's was based on a font designed for use at a fairly large size in an edition of Terence's comedies published in 1772. ATF and Linotype used strikes from genuine punches of a smaller size type; it is not therefore surprising that different versions of Baskerville look noticeably different: they are (or may) still be 'authentic'.
Mac McGrew's discussion, mainly regarding metal Baskervilles in America: There are two distinct varieties of Baskerville in America. Both based on the types of John Baskerville, distinguished eighteenth-century English printer and typefounder, who was noted for his quest for perfection. His types are based on Caslon and other popular typefaces of the day, but are more precise and have a little more contrast, with stress more nearly vertical, making them the first transitional designs between oldstyles typified by Caslon and moderns typified by Bodoni. A consistently noticeable characteristic is the lowercase g, with its lower loop not completely closed. All versions have rather long ascenders, and present an appearance of dignity and refinement.
On ATF's Baskerville, he writes: The ATF version, which is called Baskerville Roman in foundry specimens but which most typesetters call American Baskerville, is produced from strikes (unfinished matrices) brought from Stephenson Blake, English typefounders, in 1915. In England it is known as the Fry Foundry version, and is said to have been cast from original matrices cut about 1795 by Isaac Moore as a close copy of Baskerville's own types. Small sizes to 14-point tend to be rather light and narrow, while sizes from 3D-point up have more weight and vigor. Production was discontinued about 1950, perhaps because most specimens didn't show the handsome larger sizes in sufficient detail; it was reinstated in 1957 without the sizes below 18-point. ATF Baskerville Italic was designed in 1915 by Morris F. Benton. It is a handsome typeface in itself, but has little in common with its roman mate other than adjustment to the narrowness of small sizes. It is not made above 18- point, nor-since it was reinstated-below small 18-point. Compare Century Catalogue Italic.
About Linotype Baskerville: Linotype Baskerville, said to be based on original punches which are still in existence, is much like the ATF face, but differs in details of capitals C, Q, W, and lowercase w, y, and &. It was cut in 1926 under the direction of George W. Jones, British typographer. The italic was recut in 1936 under Linotype's program of typographic refinements. Lanston Monotype Baskerville is virtually a duplicate of the English Monotype face, which is based on original letters but is more regularized and has somewhat less contrast between thick and thin strokes than the Fry and Linotype versions. It was cut in 1923 under the direction of Stanley Morison, being derived from the great primer (18-point) size of Baskerville's type, and copied by Lanston in 1931. The Intertype roman typeface is substantially the same as Monotype except for adaptation to mechanical requirements. But while the Monotype italic is considerably narrower than the roman, on Intertype the two typefaces are necessarily the same width.
Finally, McGrew evaluates Monotype Baskerville: Monotype Baskerville Italic has only the swash-like capitals JKNTYZ of the original, while both Linotype and Intertype have replaced these letters with regular characters in standard fonts, but offer a variety of swashes as alternates. Linotype, Monotype, and Intertype each provide their own versions of Baskerville Bold. All are similar, but the Monotype version is slightly heavier over all; this version was designed by Sol Hess, and is claimed to have been adapted from an original heavy typeface created by John Baskerville about 1757 and not generally known. Linotype and Intertype also have bold italics, the former designed by C. H. Griffith in 1939. (Latin Condensed was called "Baskerville" in ATF's 1898 book.) [Google] [More] ⦿
Born in New York in 1900, she died in London in 1969. A typographer, writer, and art historian, she worked for the British Monotype Corporation for most of her life, and was famous for her energy, enthusiasm and speeches. Collaborator of Stanley Morison. She created a typeface called Arrighi. She is famous for The Crystal Goblet or Printing Should be Invisible (The Crystal Goblet, Sixteen Essays on Typography, Cleveland, 1956, and Sylvan Press, London, 1955), which is also reproduced here and here. The text was originally printed in London in 1932, under the pseudonym Paul Beaujon. Here are two passages:
Beatrice Warde was educated at Barnard College, Columbia, where she studied calligraphy and letterforms. From 1921 until 1925, she was the assistant librarian at American Type Founders. In 1925, she married the book and type designer Frederic Warde, who was Director of Printing at the Princeton University Press. Together, they moved to Europe, where Beatrice worked on The Fleuron: A Journal of Typography (Cambridge, England: At the University Press, and New York: Doubleday Doran, 1923-1930), which was at that time edited by Stanley Morison. As explained above, she is best known for an article she published in the 1926 issue of The Fleuron, written under the pseudonym Paul Beaujon, which traced types mistakenly attributed to Garamond back to Jean Jannon. In 1927, she became editor of The Monotype Recorder in London. Rebecca Davidson of the Princeton University Library wrote in 2004: Beatrice Warde was a believer in the power of the printed word to defend freedom, and she designed and printed her famous manifesto, This Is A Printing Office, in 1932, using Eric Gill's Perpetua typeface. She rejected the avant-garde in typography, believing that classical forms provided a "clearly polished window" through which ideas could be communicated. The Crystal Goblet: Sixteen Essays on Typography (1955) is an anthology of her writings. Wood engraved portrait of Warde by Bernard Brussel-Smith (1950). [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
Beautiful Web Type
Stockholm-based Chad Mazzola's selection of best free typefaces. Chad holds a B.A. in Philosophy from Hampshire College and has worked as a designer, product manager, and executive at technology companies in both the US and Sweden. His recommendations:
Beginners guides to type design: Justin Penner
A list of beginner's guide to type design resources compiled by Justin Penner:Google] [More] ⦿
Benjamin Franklin, Typefounder (1925, Douglas C. McMurtie, New York) describes Benjamin Franklin as typefounder. McGrew writes about Franklin: Prior to 1722 English typefounding was at a low ebb, and most printers in that country used Dutch types. But in that year William Caslon completed the first sizes of his new style, which quickly gained dominance over the Dutch types. This new English style was also extensively exported to other countries, including the American Colonies, where it was popular before the Revolution. In fact, the Declaration of Independence of the new United States was first printed in Caslon's types. Benjamin Franklin met Caslon in London, admired and recommended his types, and used them extensively in his printshop. F. Kerdijk penned the Dutch book Benjamin Franklin. Drukker - Postmeester - Uitvinder en Gezant, 1706-1790 (1956, Drukkerij Trio, 's-Gravenhage), a 16-page booklet that further explains Franklin's multidimensional persona. Further books on Franklin's sideline include Typophiles Chapbook: B. Franklin, 1706-1790. Franklin's interests in typography and as a printer have caused a number of typefaces to be named after him, such as the famous Franklin Gothic, but also Ben Franklin, Ben Franklin Condensed and Ben Franklin Open (metal types at Keystone Type Foundry. 1919), Franklin's Caslon (2006, P22), Poor Richard RR (named after Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard Almanack"), Poor Richard (1994, Projective Solutions: a free font), and Benjamin Franklin Antique (free font by Dieter Steffmann). [Google] [More] ⦿
Besides my own best-of-2013 list in typeface design, one can consult the lists by Christoph Koeberlin (who includes his own FF Mark in his list), and Sean Mitchell's list (editor of Type release). [Google] [More] ⦿
Bill Dawson (XK9, Los Angeles) is a graphic designer who has interesting things to say about type--his Typethos series of type quotes is a must-read.
Dave Farey's great essay on the history and implementations of Bodoni. All Bodoni typefaces published today have genetic material from Giambattista Bodoni's original. Below are various implementations:
Bookman is due to Alexander Phemister (1860) and Chauncey H. Griffith (1936), and is an ATF face. Mac McGrew: Old Style Antique [No. 560] was the typeface on which Bookman was based. It was cast by a number of founders, of which Keystone continued to cast it into this century. Also see Stratford. Other pre-digital foundries that did Bookman include Ludlow, Linotype and Miller&Richard. ITC Bookman was designed in 1975 by Ed Benguiat. Other digitizations include Book PS (Softmaker), Bookface, Bookman BT (Bitstream), Revival 711 (Bitstream), BM (Itek), Brooklyn (Corel), and Antique Old Style. See also Bookman-like typefaces.
Bram de Does was a type designer born in Amsterdam in 1934. He died on December 28, 2015. At Enschedé in Haarlem, which he joined in 1958, and for which he worked most of his life, he designed Trinité (1978-1981) and Lexicon (1990-1991). Enschedé write-up. Author of Kaba Ornament Deel I - Vorm (De Spectatorpers, 2002), De Kaba Ornament in Vignettes Borders and Patterns (2006, De Buitenkant) and Kaba Structuren (De Buitenkant), which present the Kaba ornaments that de Does designed at enschedé in 1987 just before its closure in 1990.
Trinité won him the prestigious H.N. Werkman Prize in 1991. Mathieu Lommen and John A. Lane published Bram de Does Boektypograaf & Letterontwerper Book Typographer & Type Designer (Amsterdam, 2003). Mathieu Lommen published Bram de Does: letterontwerper & typograaf / typographer & type designer in 2003 at De Buitenkant.
In 2003, a 53 minute Dutch documentary was made: Systematisch Slordig: Bram de Does - Letterontwerper&Typograaf (Coraline Korevaar/Otto de Fijter, Woudrichem). That video is also at Vimeo and here. A collection of many of his drawings is at the University of Amsterdam. Part of this collection (e.g., the development of Lexicon) has been scanned in and placed on the web. Details on his fonts:
Jan Middendorp explains the similarities between Matthias Noordzij's Caecilia and Lucas DeGroot's TheSerif by tracing them back to Gerrit Noordzij's teaching. No plagiarism here, he says: Caecilia is a text font, and TheSerif is for shorter texts. [Google] [More] ⦿
Call it what it is
Great article by John Downer on the various categories of historical revivals. He classifies them as follows:
Carolina de Bartolo
Mac McGrew describes the situation of Caslon in the era of metal type. All text below is quoted. Caslon is "the oldest living typeface," having survived in almost exactly its original form since every character was hand-cut by William Caslon more than 250 years ago. Virtually the same design is still available, along with a myriad of imitations, derivatives, and attempts at improvement. Altogether, they form a number of families, for there is little or no compatibility between many typefaces which now bear the name Caslon. In fact, Caslon is perhaps the hardest set of types to group into reasonable categories; therefore some of the following classifications are arbitrary.
Excerpts from the wiki page on Caslon: Caslon refers to a number of serif typefaces designed by William Caslon I (1692-1766), and various revivals thereof. Caslon shares the irregularity characteristic of Dutch Baroque types. It is characterized by short ascenders and descenders, bracketed serifs, moderately-high contrast, robust texture, and moderate modulation of stroke. The A has a concave hollow at the apex, the G is without a spur. Caslon's italics have a rhythmic calligraphic stoke. Characters A, V, and W have an acute slant. The lowercase italic p, q, v, w, and z all have a suggestion of a swash. [...] Caslon's earliest design dates to 1722. Caslon is cited as the first original typeface of English origin, but type historians like Stanley Morison and Alfred F. Johnson, a scientist who worked at the British Museum, did point out the close similarity of Caslon's design to the Dutch Fell types cut by Voskens and other type cut by the Dutchman Van Dyck. [...] Nicols writes: "he (Caslon) cut the beautiful fount of English which is used in printing Selden's Works 1726. Nicols describes this character as far superior over comtemporary Dutch founts used in English books at this period. Rowe More does not give any comment on this. Dutch founts were in use by several printers in England at that time. The Oxford University Press used the "Fell-types", character cut by the Dutch typefounder Voskens. The Cambridge University Press had received in January 1698 some 52 series of alphabets from Holland, all cut by Van Dyck. But even before that in 1697 thay used the Text-sized roman and italic of Van Dyck in an edition of Gratulatio Cantabrigiences. Character of Van Dyck and Voskens is found also in: William Harison, Woodstock Park, Tonson, 1706. Although Nicols attributes this character to Caslon, the fount used in Seldens Works is actually cut by Van Dyck. The italic is identical to the Van Dycks Augustijn Cursijf fount in specimen sheets issued in 1681 by the widow Daniel Elzevir. This woman had bought the type foundry of Van Dyck after Van Dyck died. The roman in this book, is a Garamond. This fount is used in the first volume and in the greater part of the second volume, It is found in a specimen sheet of the Amsterdam printer Johannes Kannewet, in accompagny with Van Dyck's Augustijn Cursijf. The only thing known about this Kannewet is that he was a printer, not a typefounder. This specimen-sheet is preserved in the Bagford-collection in the British Museum, and can be dated 1715 or earlier because Bagford died in 1716. There is no reason to suppose anything is added on a later date to this collection. The roman is named: Groote Mediaan Romyn. This fount is also found on a specimen sheet of the widow of Voskens. Therefore it can be assumed to be the work of Voskens. The earliest use of it at Amsterdam is 1684. The earliest use of a roman and italic cut by Caslon can be identified in books printed William Bowyer in 1725, 1726 and 1730. The founts cut by Caslon and his son, were close copies of the Dutch Old typeface cut by Van Dyck. These founts were rather fasionable at that time. The alternative founts they cut for text were a smaller, rather than a condensed letter. The Caslon types were distributed throughout the British Empire, including British North America. Much of the decayed appearance of early American printing is thought to be due to oxidation caused by long exposure to seawater during transport from England to the Americas. Caslon's types were immediately successful and used in many historic documents, including the U.S. Declaration of Independence. After William Caslon I's death, the use of his types diminished, but saw a revival between 1840-1880 as a part of the British Arts and Crafts movement. The Caslon design is still widely used today. For many years a common rule of thumb of printers and typesetters was When in doubt, use Caslon. [Google] [More] ⦿
A quaint and spindly typeface from VGC, sometimes known as Chevalier or Chivalry. Digital versions, all basically equivalent:Google] [More] ⦿
Henry Charles Bukowski (b. Andernach, Germany, 1920, d. San Pedro, CA, 1994) was a German-American poet, novelist, and short story writer. His writing was influenced by the social, cultural, and economic ambience of his home city of Los Angeles. Typefaces styled after Bukowski's work: Bukowski (2014, Ingi Kristján Sigurmarsson), Buk (2017, Jefferson Camargo). Dedicated web site.
The original Clarendon is due to Robert Besley (1845). Robert Bringhurst writes: Clarendon is the name of a whole genus of Victorian typefaces, spawned by a font cut by Benjamin Fox for Robert Besley at the Fann Street Foundry, London, in 1845. These typefaces reflect the hearty, stolid, bland, unstoppable aspects of the British Empire. They lack cultivation, but they also lack menace and guile. They squint and stand their ground, but they do not glare. In other words, they consist of thick strokes melding into thick slab serifs, fat ball terminals, vertical axis, large eye, low contrast and tiny aperture. The original had no italic, as the typeface had nothing of the fluent hand or sculpted nib left in its pedigree.
Mac McGrew adds: Clarendon is a traditional English style of typeface, dating from the 1840s, the name coming from the Clarendon Press at Oxford, or, according to some sources, from Britain's Earl of Clarendon and his interest in that country's Egyptian policies. (Such typefaces were classified as Egyptians, and inspired such later designs as Cairo, Karnak, Memphis, and Stymie.) Early Clarendons were used primarily as titles and display typefaces, for which their strong and sturdy nature was well suited. They have the general structure of romans, but lack the hairlines typical of those typefaces. Being heavier, the traditional Clarendons were often used as boldfaces with romans, before the family idea provided matching boldface designs.
McGrew continues his discussion by pointing out various revivals and typefaces with strong similarities: Similar typefaces were known as Doric or Ionic, before more individualized type names became common; in fact, all three names were sometimes used interchangeably. Most foundries had versions of Clarendon, and sometimes Doric and Ionic, in the nineteenth century, but most of these typefaces were obsolescent by the turn of the century. However, a few were copied by Linotype, Intertype and Monotype, and thus given a renewed lease on life. Clarendon Medium of BB&S was formerly known as Caledonian. ATF had a similar typeface known as Ionic No. 522. Keystone showed Clarendon Condensed in 1890. Clarendon [No. 51 of BB&S was called Winchendon by Hansen, and extended to 48-point. Like many pre-point-system typefaces, some foundries adapted them to point-system standards by casting them on oversize bodies, others on undersize bodies with overhanging descenders. In the later 1950s Stephenson Blake in England revived several of these early Clarendons under the new name of Consort, which became a popular import (and the source of some of our specimens). Consort Bold Condensed is said to be the first Clarendon, of 1845. (Some added members of the Consort family are noted under Popular Imports in the Appendix.) In 1953 a new version of Clarendon was developed by Hermann Eidenbenz for the Haas Type foundry in Switzerland and later acquired by Stempel in Germany. The Haas Clarendon was copied by Linotype in 1966, in light and bold weights, and about the same time Ludlow brought out three weights of essentially the same face. This was created primarily to set the newspaper ads of a large department store, but it was a good addition to the resources of Ludlow. ATF commissioned a modernized rendition of Clarendon from Freeman Craw, and this was brought out in 1955 as Craw Clarendon (q.v.). About 1961 Monotype brought out Clarendon Bold Extended, similar to Craw Clarendon but heavier. Also see Ionic, News with Clarendon, Manila.
Common Windows typefaces
Scorecard (dated February 2004, signed by Luc, to be taken with a grain of salt) for some of the main type companies, Linotype, Agfa/Monotype, Adobe, Fontshop/FontFont, URW, Bitstream, FontBureau. Criteria: (1) respect for designers (defending their rights, mentioning their names prominently in the font and in advertising), (2) honesty in advertising, (3) contributions to the art of typography, (4) web sites.
Cont Ed Typography
Jef Tombeur's site on orthotypography (in French). One can buy at this site the comprehensive book by Jean Meron entitled Orthotypographie : recherches bibliographiques (2002), which has a preface by Fernand Baudin. [Google] [More] ⦿
A page with some copperplate script fonts, as defined by Encyclopaedia Britannica: "formally English round hand, in calligraphy, dominant style among 18th-century writing masters, whose copybooks were splendidly printed from models engraved on copper. The alphabet was fundamentally uncomplicated, but the basic strokes were often concealed in luxuriant flourishing". [Google] [More] ⦿
Dead link. Stephan Baitz's informative page about Ancient Scripts and Fonts, including fantasy fonts, alien and sci-fi fonts, Blackletter fonts, uncials, runes, symbolic fonts, Indic simulation fonts, Arabic simulation fonts (such as Caliph) and exotic fonts. Lots of links are provided as well. Fonts are displayed an can be downloaded from an archive. His page looks great too. [Google] [More] ⦿
Site about typography. Despite the slow loading, worthwhile information on type, including a glossary and a type history timeline. Incredible-flashy design, yet the authors forgot to mention their own names. [Google] [More] ⦿
A newspaper typeface published in 1902 by American Type Founders (ATF). Mac McGrew: Curtis Post was produced by ATF in 1902 for the Saturday Evening Post magazine of Curtis Publishing Company, but soon released to printers in general. It is based on Post Oldstyle Roman No.2, a style which previously had been handlettered for headings in the magazine. Like many fonts of the day, it contained several alternate characters and logotypes. Some specimens hyphenate the name as Curtis-Post. Curtis Shaded Italic was cut in 1910; it is uncertain whether this is the same as Post Shaded Italic. Compare the various Post typefaces.
Nick Curtis's Saturday Morning Toast NF (2001) is based on the logotype font of the Saturday Evening Post from the 20s. He writes: Saturday Morning Toast is warm, cuddly and endearing in its quirky charm. [Google] [More] ⦿
Czech Design and Typography (studio experimentalniho design)
Darkmode refers to white type on black background. It is generally understood that for white type on dark printed matter should be bolder (than its black on white counterpart), while white text on a black screen should be thinner as the screen spews white in the reader's direction. Dalton Maag, in its presentation of its Darkmode typeface family writes: There are well-known optical and psychological effects in design which result in text presented white-on-black being perceived as larger and bolder than the same text presented black-on-white. This presents a challenge for consistent visual hierarchy on different backgrounds, especially when designing for emissive displays.
Dalton Maag's Darkmode (2020-2021) is an adaptation of an earlier font by them, Stroudley, which was created for physical signage and wayfinding: Our [Dalton Maag's] aim for Darkmode was to translate Stroudley's fundamental characteristics of accessibility, readability, and legibility to on-screen reading, digital navigation, and electronic signage. Darkmode's open counters, tall x-height, humanist proportions, and clear and distinguishable characters all contribute to a comfortable reading experience, even at low resolutions or small sizes. The Darkmode family consists of eight static weights, ranging from Thin to Black, plus a variable font (VF) file, with both weight and darkmode [on/off] axes.
Additional references include
English stonecutter (b. Codicote, 1915; d. Cambridge, 1995). An ex-apprentice of Eric Gill, he set up his own shop in Cambridge in 1939. His carved plaques and inscriptions in stone and slate can be seen on many churches and public buildings in the United Kingdom. He and his third wife Lida Lopes Cardozo, also a stonecutter, designed the main gates of the British Library.
In 1952 Kindersley submitted MoT Serif to the British Ministry of Transport, which required new lettering to use on United Kingdom road signs. The Road Research Laboratory found Kindersley's design more legible than Transport, a design by Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert, but nevertheless chose Transport. Many of the street signs in England, especially in Cambridge use Kindersley's fonts.
Kindersley was known for his letterspacing system. Author of Optical Letter Spacing for New Printing Systems (Wynkyn de Worde Society/Lund Humphries Publishers Ltd, 1976) and Computer-Aided Letter Design (with Neil E. Wiseman).
The Cardozo Kindersley workshop, which Kindersley founded and was later continued by Cardozo, publishes a number of typefaces based on Kindersley's work. They include Kindersley Street (2005, aka Kindersley Grand Arcade) which is based on Kindersley Mot Serif (1952). It was designed for the Grand Arcade, Cambridge.
London street signs that were designed by David Kindersley served as the basis of a complete lapidary typeface by Boris Kochan and Robert Strauch of Lazydogs Type Foundry, called Streets of London (2013).
Dean Cameron Allen died in 2018 at the age of 51. Obituary in The Globe and Mail: It is with unspeakable sorrow that we announce the sudden passing of Dean Cameron Allen, on January 13, 2018 at the age of 51. He leaves behind his parents, James and Holly; his brother, Craig; an adoring family; longtime partner, Gail; and a legion of loving friends and admirers around the world. Renaissance man, trailblazer and autodidact extraordinaire, Dean was a person of dazzling wit, charm and erudition. Graphic designer, typographer, teacher, web pilgrim, critic, author, Weimaraner tamer, song and dance man, chef... he brought titanic intelligence, insight and humour to everything he did. And whatever room he was in, he was the weather. He was instrumental in bringing clean, elegant design and typographical rigour to the early internet. And in raising online writing to a fresh and thrilling new art form. A source of inspiration to many, he was generous with his guidance and praise. Equally at home with the bawdy as the sublime, he could wield his humour like a cudgel or dashing sleight of hand. And salvage even the most dire situation with laughter. He moved from his native Vancouver to France in his thirties, and had perfected the bise and Gallic shrug by day two. He was a loving stepfather, and gave full, raucous meaning to the term 'bon vivant'. O, combien tu nous manques. His absence is unfathomable. We miss him with every breath.
Dean used to run a site called Textism, that had Essays and opinions on typography, ca. 2000-2003, but the site disappeared some time later. It included a critical comparison of twenty great text typefaces: Jenson, Bembo, Granjon, Elzevir, Caslon, Fleischmann, Baskerville, Fournier, Bell, Bulmer, Miller, Centaur, Janson, Electra, Fairfield, Dante, Aldus, Sabon, Albertina. [Google] [More] ⦿
Author of "abcdefg" [a better constraint driven environment for font generation] (1989 Raster Imaging and Digital Typography conference, pp. 54-70), as employee of Xerox PARC. She describes an experimental system that automates the generation of letters in a font from four master characters (o, h, p and v). [Google] [More] ⦿
Delve Fonts (was: Delve Media Arts)
Delve Withrington (Alameda, CA; b. 1970, Asheville, NC) studied at Savannah College of Art and Design, designed signage, print projects and web pages in addition to designing custom typefaces, worked for Fontshop, and in 2004, joined the type team at Agfa Monotype, which morphed into Monotype Imaging, Redwood City, CA. From Asheville, NC, he moved around and ended up in San Francisco. In 1996, he founded Delve Fonts in Berkeley, CA (in fact, Delve Media Arts, and later renamed Delve Fonts). He has collected a virtually complete list of books on typography. Author index. MyFonts link. Designer of these typefaces:
Design & typo
Design Eva Wilsson
Now Eva Wilsson and formerly Eva Grinder. Swedish designer of Mido (2007), a free medium-bold Egyptian typeface that became commercial in 2016. On her site, she offers a research paper on Egyptian type, and describes the development of Mido.
Designing with Type
Craig was the Design Director for Watson-Guptill Publications and is a member of the New York Art Directors Club, Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI), Type Directors Club (TDC), Typophiles, and a past member of the American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA). He teaches typography and design at The Cooper Union and lectures widely. Designing with Type is a growing resource for typography students and educators maintained by James Craig, author of Designing with Type: A Basic Course in Typography (1999, Watson Guptill). That book was updated to Designing with Type, 5th Edition: The Essential Guide to Typography (2006, by James Craig and Irene Korol Scala, published by Watson Guptill). Links to commercial foundries. Also check the student design subpage. [Google] [More] ⦿
An early techno family from 1974 sold by Elsner&Flake. Clones include Space Gothic. The design of Digital Sans is identical to that of Sol (1973, Marty Goldstein and C.B. Smith at VGC). [Google] [More] ⦿
Commercial Japanese font outfit, involved in various font activities. Their fonts are featured at and sold by P22 in the Font Pavilion CD series. Each set features several Roman and Katakana fonts in TrueType for Windows and PostScript for Macintosh. Of particular interest is the DPI72 series, all screen pixel fonts in type 1 format:
Recommendations on glyphs along which typefaces can easily be distinguished. We get
Dmitriy Horoshkin's library of Rusian books on type and typography include these downloadable texts:
Type designer Dmitry Kirsanov (b. Orenburg, Russia, 1965) graduated from the Orenburg Art School in 1987. He worked freelance for Yuzhnyi Ural publishing company in Orenburg. After attending the Moscow State University of Printing (1996), he joined its Department of Print Design in 1997 as an instructor of typographic design and computer graphics. From 1996 on he worked at ParaGraph International, designing typefaces. Since April 1998 Kirsanov works for ParaType. His page has essays on the history of serif and sans serif, and on font matching. Would be great for an introductory course. He designed a Cyrillic version of ITC Bodoni 72 (2000, called PT ITC Bodoni, Paratype) and ITC Bodoni 72 Swash (2001). PT Mas d'Azil (Paratype, 2002) and PT Mas d'Azil Symbols are prehistoric lettering and pictorial fonrs based on images discovered in a prehistoric cave of Mas-d'Azil, France. He created Magistral (1997, based on a clean look sans display typeface of Andrey Kryukov), Venetian 301 (2003, Paratype; a Cyrillic version of Bitstream's Venetian 301, which in turn was based on Bruce Rogers' Centaur, which in turn goes back to the 1470s alphabets of Nicolas Jenson), News Gothic (2005, a Cyrillic family based on the perennial News Gothic sans family), and Mag Mixer (2005, an industrial-look mechanical typeface based on Magistral).
In 2018, Albert Kapitonov and Dmitry Kirsanov revived the early 20th-century typeface Lehmann Egyptian from the Berthold and Lehmann type foundries in St. Petersburg, and published it at Paratype.
His talk at ATypI 2008 in St. Petersburg is on the first didones in Russia.
Donald Knuth about TeX, Metafont, and Truetype. One quote: " I saw that the whole business of typesetting was being held back by proprietary interests." Elsewhere, he was surprised to learn from the interviewer that In-Design is using TeX's whole-paragraph optimization. [Google] [More] ⦿
Mac McGrew writes: Dorsey was designed by Inland Type Foundry in 1904, and named for a printer in Dallas, Texas. It is an oldstyle antique series, much like Bookman but with slightly more contrast. Light Dorsey, introduced in 1910, is somewhat similar to Cushing Monotone, but with smaller x-height and longer ascenders. There were also condensed and extra condensed versions.
Mac McGrew: Drew is a delicate, compact roman type with a pen-lettered effect. It has long ascenders and comparatively small x-height. The long serifs are mostly unbracketed, but the general feeling is informal and closer to oldstyle in details. It originated with Inland Type Foundry and was shown in 1910. Compare Adcraft, Avil; also Bernhard Modern, Cochin. The image below is from the 1923 ATF catalog. [Google] [More] ⦿
Vítor Quelhas was born in Porto, Portugal, in 1979. He received an MA in Multimedia Arts at Fine Arts School of the University of Porto (FBAUP), Portugal, with a thesis on Dynamic Typography. He studied Communication Design/Graphic Arts at FBAUP, where he graduated in 2002. In 2001/02 he studied abroad as an ERASMUS student in Communication Design at Willem de Kooning Academie, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. He is an invited Assistant Professor of Computation and Fine Arts, Communication Design, at the Department of Visual Arts, Bragança Polytechnic Institute, since 2002. As a designer, he has been responsible for different projects, including DynTypo, his research website concerning dynamic typography. From the latter site: dynTypo is a collection of work and research by various designers, programmers and artists interested in the possibilities of dynamic and interactive typography in the multimedia arts scene. There are many links, many of which go to John Maeda's lab at MIT. Speaker at ATypI 2006 in Lisbon on Dynamic typography. Alternate URL. Another URL. And another one. [Google] [More] ⦿
E-a-t (experiment and typography) is a joint Czech and Slovak enterprise that through publications and exhibitions tries to increase the visibility of Czechoslovak type design. Exhibitions in 2004 include Brno and Prague. In 2005, one is planned in Bratislava. Review by Dan Reynolds.
Swiss typefounder who made the Haas Type foundry as the center of the Swiss movement in the design of typefaces in the 1950s. He directed Max Miedinger in the development of Helvetica, and Hermann Eidenbenz in Clarendon> (1953).
Ellen Lupton is a writer, curator, and graphic designer. She is director of the MFA program in graphic design at Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA) in Baltimore. She also is curator of contemporary design at Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum in New York City.
Author of Thinking with Type (Princeton Architectural Press, 2004). Visit also the interesting Thinking with type web page, which features a fun section on "crimes against typography", notes on type classification, a course outline, and tons of other educational material. See also here and here. Author of Laws of the Letter (with J. Abbott Miller).
Ellen Lupton was the keynote speaker at AypI2006 in Lisbon. In that talk, summarized here, Ellen Lupton discusses the benefits of truly free fonts (Perhaps the free font movement will continue to grow slowly, along the lines in which it is already taking shape: in the service of creating typefaces that sustain and encourage both the diversity and connectedness of humankind.) and provides key examples: Gaultney's Gentium, Poll's Linux Libertine, Peterlin's Freefont, Bitstream's Titus Cyberbit, and Jim Lyles' Vera family. She is the editor of D.I.Y.: Design It Yourself (2006).
Elzevir is an oldstyle typeface style related to garaldes. Elzevir was also the name of a renowned family of printers in the 16th and early 17th century in Leiden, The Hague, Utrecht, Copenhagen and Amsterdam. The first one, Louis (1540-1617), was the son of a Belgian printer in Leuven and established a print shop in Leiden in 1580. Other members include Isaac Elzevir, Bonaventrura Elzevir, and Abraham I Elzevir. They were operational until 1712.
London-based designer who wrote a Ph.D. thesis on typeface design of the late 1980s and early 1990s (at Kingston University, 199): "New Faces: type design in the first decade of device-independent digital typesetting (1987-1997)". Her thesis is on-line. [Google] [More] ⦿
Empire Gothic was offered by Keystone Type Foundry in 1912. Although the name does not identify it as an italic, it is somewhat similar to Medium Gothic Italic, according to Mac McGrew. [Google] [More] ⦿
Type historian James Mosley explains that Abraham Lichtenthaler, a seventeenth century printer from the Bavarian town of Sulzbach is credited with introducing the character to roman printing type. Follow-up article by Jonathan Hoefler. [Google] [More] ⦿
Evolution of the Alphabet
Olivier Randier's pages devoted to typography. Has sub-pages on hyper Casse, his project on the listing and study of all 65000 signs/symbols from all languages. There is also l'Outil, a gallery of nice typographical examples.
Olivier Randier, Lionel Buchet and others helped with the development of a set of school fonts for SG Création (a company owned by Gérard and Marc Seintignan). These fonts were commercialized since about 2008 under the name SG Education. Link for Olivier Randier. [Google] [More] ⦿
The hyper-heavy typeface Fat Cat probably appeared first as an uncredited typeface within the pages of Alphabete: Ein Schriftatlas von A bis Z. It inspired these digital fonts:
Fat Faces: origins
On February 22, 2021, Sebastien Morlighem gave a great Zoom talk in a seminar series hosted by The Cooper Union in New York. In it, he described the beginnings of fat types from around 1780 until their zenith of fatness and development around 1825, all in London. Here is a summary of the exposition for those who have no access to the video at The Cooper Union.
Sebastien started with quotes from famous type experts and type historians:
Without a good definition, but eager to tell us the story, Sebastien showed examples of gradual thickening of the stems and increase of contrast from bold to fat, starting in Thomas Cottrell's foundry, where Robert Thorne (1754-1820) was employed. After Cottrell's death, Robert Thorne bought his foundry in 1794 and replaced the types by his own. Already in 1774, Thomas Cottrell had shown big fat letters in his A Specimen of Printing Types, very much related in shape to the Caslon types, as Cottrell had previously worked for the Caslon foundry. Similar large letters were also shown in broadsides by William Caslon in 1785. This was the time that a need arose for advertizing via posting bills and large lettering on buildings and coaches. Not to be outdone, Edmund Fry showed a very bold Ten Lines Pica in 1787 and S&C Stephenson had a sixteen lines pica in 1796. Thorne in his 1794 book, A Specimen of Printing Types, shows for the first time lower case versions of the letters. Still, serious mechanical challenges remained, as the early types of posting bills were often sand cast. Sometimes printers would use wood types, and in rare instances, even fill in the fat letters by hand.
The period from 1805 until 1810 saw the rise of the fat face; Sebastien showed us examples, in particular, of great use by the Liverpool-based printer G.F. Harris. Type historian Daniel Berkeley Updike (Printing Types: Their History, Forms and Use, Harvard University Press, 1922, vol. 2, p. 196) wrote: Thorne [...] is responsible for the vilest form of type invented up to that time. Thorne's specimen book of "Improved (!) Types" of 1803 should be looked at as a warning of what fashion can make men do. Stanley Morison, for whom Sebastien showed little respect, even wrote Thorne's "fat grotesque" [sic] was the first original English design to make an impression abroad. [...] With Thorne was produced a letter during 1800-1803 which was a novelty, distinct and dreadful. [Memorandum on Revision of the Typography of "The Times" , Selected Essays on the History of Letter-forms in Manuscript and Print. Edited by David McKitterick, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980, vol. 2, p. 305]
Great progress was made in the genre by Caslon & Catherwood ca. 1810, who slowly evolved fatter types from bold typefaces. In 1812, William Caslon Juior (William Caslon IV) introduced a new production method, which he called the sanspareil matrices. They would allow for more accurate and crisper letters, and more efficient production of very large lettertypes. And so, the race was on, to make bigger and fatter typefaces. Other, newer foundries also started showing the popular fat types, including Vincent Figgins in 1815, caslon & catherwood in 1820, and Thorowgood in 1821, a year after he bought Thorne's foundry after Thorne's death in 1820. Nicolete Grey in XIXth Century Ornamented types and Title Pages [1938, London: Faber and Faber Limited] had this to add to a fat face by Fry and Steele from 1808: In this letter of Fry [...] the process seems to have reached a norm. It is a superb, wide, generous letter, magnificently roman, but with a good deal less of order and more of pomp than Trajan's classic. [...] It is a letter which falls into no category. In the process of fattening, Cottrell's ordinary eighteenth-century capital has changed, the modelling has been exaggerated and the shading become uniformly vertical and the forms of the letters have grown softer and rounder, yet it is not a modern face, for the shading is quite gradual and the bracketing very full, nor are the thick strokes thick enough, nor are the thin strokes thin enough, for it to be a fat face.
Microsoft page on figures, with information on proportional versus tabular numerals (tabular numerals are of the same width); old style numerals (three groups: 0, 1 and 2 align from baseline to x-height; 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 descend to the nearly the lowercase descender; 6 and 8 ascend to the figure overshoot height); vulgar fractions, shilling fractions, nut fractions; fractions reserved in unicode tables. [Google] [More] ⦿
Folio breitfett or Folio-Grotesk breitfett was an extended sans titling typeface at the Bauersche Giesserei, 1963, designed by K.F. Bauer and W. Baum. In the phototype era, it became known as Folio Bold Extended, and was used extensively by Universal Studios back in the late 60s to the mid-70s for various TV shows such as The Rockford Files, Banacek, McMillan & wife, McCloud, and Columbo. [Google] [More] ⦿
Font Bakery is a command-line tool written in Python 3 for checking the quality of font projects. It is a tool similar to tools used for checking the quality of fonts on Google Fonts.
The proposal is to map each font as a vector of features such as thickness, x-height, descender height, obliqueness, and so forth. Pairing would happen by selecting a font that is close in one or two features, but very different in others. This is not quite machine learning, but the principle is nice, and perhaps easy to automate given a good program. If the features are all centered at zero, then it is proposed to maximize the absolute value of P and N, where P is the inner product restricted to positive terms and N to negative terms. Github link. [Google] [More] ⦿
Düsseldorf-based German foundry of designer Nina Hons (b. 1974, Germany), formrly Nina David. Nina studied communication design at Art Center College of Design. In 1998 Nina Hons was rewarded a certificate of typographic excellence from the Type Directors Club in New York for her typeface UniF (1997, a unicase typeface published at Fountain). In 2002, she set up Font-O-Rama, her own commercial type foundry.
Her fonts include Geomee (2003, a noteworthy rounded squarish family), Mein Schatz (2004, a sans family), Casi (2000), DSC (2000, pixel face), Eiei (2001, eggs font for Easter), KomodoreDestroy (2000), KomodoreNormal (2000, horizontally-striped typeface), Pagra (2001), UniF (1997), UniFIce (2001), UniFRama (2002), UniFXmas (2000), Liebling (2005, a serif to go with Mein Schatz), Mein Schatz (2003, sans), Longing (2005, liquid typeface with ornaments added), Herzchen (2006), and Sweet Home (2005, stitching face).
Ian Obermuller's introduction to typefaces, with a visual glossary, and wonderfully instructive pages on type classification and type recognition. Ian is a 2010 graduate of the Seattle Central Creative Academy. [Google] [More] ⦿
Dave Bodenstab's tutorial of the various font files that may be used with FreeBSD and the syscons driver, X11, Ghostscript and Groff. Cookbook examples are provided for switching the syscons display to 80x60 mode, and for using type 1 fonts with the above application programs. Dead link. [Google] [More] ⦿
A club for fontaholics, that has grown into a world of its own. It has a a great annotated list of download warehouse links, a funny confessional [read Sara's story!], original fonts, utilities such as FontDreams and FontSaver, a messageboard, one of the most useful lists of links anywhere, and many pages with tips and font support. Beautifully packaged, it provides hours of comfort and stress release for all font lovers. [Google] [More] ⦿
Great article by David Earls in which he explains his views on what fonts are. He argues that, like a music CD, fonts are data, not software. Some quotes:
Typophile discussion as a reaction to David Earl's article which claimed that fonts are data, not software. Here are some viewpoints:
Carefully crafted page by Stefan Unterstein who lists and discusses high quality free fonts. His list:
Lausanne and/or Paris-based type site related to a project conceived and designed by two graphic designers, Franz Hoffman and Pierre Terrier from studio koilinen, and a software developer, Marc Escher. A quote: It provides the ability to create fonts that preserves the gestures of a given handwriting and the original look of the drawing appliance (ball-point pen, pencil, ink, paper, etc.)
Fontself allows one to make fonts directly in Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop. It appears that one can create, with their commercial software an Opentype font by simple dragging and dropping an image with the individual letters. It works on both Mac and Windows. This, in turn can be used to simulate handwriting. Fonts (format unclear, not downloadable) include grunge typefaces (Agrotesk, Linexspray), handwriting (Psycho, Mascara, Meriem, Bic, Ehcadnarac, Manu, Signo, Manuscript), and scanned text typefaces (Baskerville, Garabig, Franklin Multi, Sabon, Gothique, Dido). Fontself also provides an editor for creating color fonts. Creative Market link. [Google] [More] ⦿
Established in 1989 in Berlin by Erik Spiekermann, Joan Spiekermann and Neville Brody. Also offices in San Francisco, Australia, Austria and Norway. It has a formidable collection of fonts, better known as the FontFont collection. It is a major source of new type, and organizes a Conference in Berlin each year, called TYPO Berlin. In 2015, FontShop was sold to Monotype.
Online font site run by Sean Cavanaugh (b. Cape May, NJ, 1962) out of Camano Island, WA. This used to be called Title Wave Studios. Since 1996, Sean Cavanaugh is the head of FontSite. In the archives, one can/could find essays on writing style, rules of typography, and a comparison by Thomas Phinney (program manager of Latin Fonts at Adobe) of T1 and TTF. The Fontsite 500 CD (30 USD) offers 500 classical fonts with the original names, plus a few names I have not seen before, such as Bergamo (=Bembo by Francesco Griffo), Chantilly (=Gill Sans), Gareth (=Galliard), Noveo sans (=Neuzeit Grotesk), Palladio (=Palatino), Savoy (=Sabon), URWLatino, Unitus, Toxica, Publicity, Plakette, Pericles, Opus (=Optima), Melville, Function, Flanders, Cori Sans, Binner. Uli Stiehl provides proof that many of the fonts at FontSite are rip-offs (identical to) of fonts in Martin Kotulla's (SoftMaker) collection. This is perhaps best explained that Sean Cavanaugh's last real job was director of typography for SoftMaker, Inc., where he oversaw the development and release of SoftMaker's definiType typeface library and associated products [blurb taken from Digital Type Design Guide: The Page Designer's Guide to Working With Type, published in 1995 by Hayden Books].
Free fonts: Bergamo, CartoGothic (1996-2009), CombiNumerals. At MyFonts, the CombiNumerals Pro and CombiSymbols dingbat families are available since 2010. The site has a number of fonts with the acronym FS in the name, so I guess these are relatively original (but I won't swear on it): Allegro FS, Beton FS, Bodoni Display FS (+ Bold, Demibold), Bodoni No 2 FS (+ Ultra, Bodoni Recut FS (+Bold, Demibold), and so forth. His 500 Font CD has these fonts:
Four parts of a typeface
Frank Hinman Pierpont
This is an interesting book project by fathom Information Design: This project started because of a fascination with the way that PDF files contain incomplete versions of fonts. The shape data is high enough quality to reproduce the original document, however only the necessary characters are included in the PDF. This prevents others from extracting the fonts to be used for practical purposes, but creates an opportunity for a curious Victor Frankenstein who wants to use these incomplete pieces to create something entirely different. So the authors grabbed letters from tens of thousands PDF files and printed a book in them. [Google] [More] ⦿
Franklin Gothic was designed from 1904 until 1913 by Morris Fuller Benton for ATF. It was one of the most successful advertising sans typefaces ever made. What the Americans called gothic in those days corresponds to the German Grotesk and the British grotesque. Designs close to Franklin Gothic of that era in Germany include Basic Commercial and Reform from D. Stempel AG. Later serif typefaces by Benton include Alternate Gothic, Lightline Gothic and News Gothic.
Franklin Gothic is seen in many high-profile situations, from books to billboards. It was featured on the cover of Lady Gaga's The Fame Monster. It is the official typeface of the MOMA (Museum of Modern Art) in New York, and was even the typeface in the PBS series The Electric Company. Franklin Gothic Condensed was used for subtitles in the Star Wars films.
In 1979, under license with ATF, Vic Caruso began work on more weights of Franklin Gothic for ITC. His version adheres closely to the subtle variations in stroke thickness of the original design. As was usual with all ITC designs of that period, it had an enlarged x-height and condensed proportions, and, as a result, it became a standard choice for use in newspapers and advertising. In 1991, David Berlow completed the family for ITC (MyFonts shows 96 styles) by creating compressed and condensed weights. He writes: ITC Franklin Gothic Compressed is designed especially to solve impossibly tight copyfitting problems, while maintaining high legibility standards. ITC Franklin Condensed provides medium weights of narrow proportions.
Digital remakes and variations and versions include Franklin Gothic (URW++), Gothic 744 (Bitstream, later simply renamed Franklin Gothic), Franklin Gothic SG (2016, Elsner & Flake), Franklin Gothic Pro Black Condensed (2011, Red Rooster), and Frankfurt Gothic (Corel).
In 2019, ATF Type published ATF Franklin Gothic (Mark van Bronkhorst, Igino Marini, and Ben Kiel), a broad and multi-weight interpretation of Franklin Gothic, which only had bolder weights. For the lighter styles, the designers were inspired by Benton's Monotone Gothic.
MyFonts hit list for Franklin Gothic and its descendants. Subpage with the 96 styles of ITC Franklin Gothic by David Berlow, 1991-2008. [Google] [More] ⦿
Frederic William Goudy
A personal opinion on the membership and conference fees for ATypI. After a Typophile discussion, ATypI's president, Mark Batty, lowered ATypI's membership fee for citizens of developing countries on February 18, 2003. A positive move! [Google] [More] ⦿
Interesting discussion on Typophile on the transition from metal to digital type. Items dealt with include ink traps and thorns, optical scaling, soft contours, and randomized letters. [Google] [More] ⦿
Wiki entry on Frutiger, the sans serif typeface created by Swiss type designer Adrian Frutiger in 1968 for the newly built Charles De Gaulle International Airport at Roissy, France. This typeface design was initially prepared by Adrian Frutiger for his friend Alfred deVolz at Sofratype. The working drawings were made by Andre Guertler. The typeface was called Concorde (or Concorde Sofratype) and was released in 1968. When Linotype purchased Sofratype, the typeface was withdrawn, and the rights were returned to Frutiger. The design re-appeared in 1970-1971 on the signage for the Charles de Gaulle airport at Roissy outside of Paris. Linotype purchased the design from Frutiger and it was re-released as the typeface Frutiger in 1976. The new typeface, originally called Roissy, was completed in 1975 and installed at the airport the same year. A very legible family, it was released to the public by Stempel in 1976. Corporations worldwide use it for their identity: Raytheon, the National Health Service in Britain, the British Royal Navy, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the Finnish Defence Forces. Road signs in Switzerland are in Frutiger, and the public transport system in Oslo uses it as well. Extensions of it include
Fuck yeah kerning
A typeface designed by Paul Renner in 1932 (Bauer, Neufville, Berthold).
Derived typefaces include Futura Display by URW, Futura Display SB (2004, Scangraphic), Futura Display SH (2004, Scangraphic), Futura Display EF (Elsner & Flake), Deko Display Serial (2010, Softmaker), Function Display (Infinitype), S842 Deco (Softmaker), Steile Futura, Topic, Bauer Topic. Turista Gorda NF (2009, Nick Curtis) is based on Baltimore Type Foundry's Airport Tourist which in turn used ideas from Renner's 1932 typeface Futura Display.
Airport Gothic is a related metal face. Mc McGrew on Airport Gothic: Most of this series is the first American copy of Futura, which originated in Germany in 1927, designed by Paul Renner for Bauer. One source says it was cut from original Futura drawings, smuggled out of that country, but it seems more likely that matrices were made by electrotyping the imported type. An extrabold weight, Airport Black, was cut by Baltimore about 1943; information on this cutting is scarce and contradictory---one account says it was designed by Bill Stremic or Bill Blakefield, another that it was designed by Carl Hupie (or Hooper), and cut by Herman Schnoor. There is also Airport Black Condensed Title and Airport Broad. The latter is a modification of Airport Black, cut 50 percent wider on the pantagraph by Herman Schnoor. Baltimore later cast some of its Airport series from Monotype Twentieth Century matrices, and in a few cases listed both series. Airport Relief, Baltimore 299, is English Monotype Gill Sans Cameo Ruled, while Airport Tourist, Baltimore 602, is Futura Display, cast from electrotype mats of the German foundry type.
Hess Neobold was designed by Sol Hess for Monotype in 1934. Mac McGrew: It is a narrow, bold, and very squarish gothic with small serifs, designed for attention-getting display in a style of the day, but never made in more than one size. Compare Airport Tourist (Futura Display), Othello. [Google] [More] ⦿
Futura: Text by Mac McGrew
Futura is a geometric, serifless type designed by Paul Renner for Bauer Type foundry in Germany in 1927, and features reproportioning which at first seemed radical in relation to the traditional gothics. It first gained popularity in America as imported foundry type. The first copies in this country were made by Baltimore Type under the name Airport (q.v.). One source says it was cut from original Futura drawings, but most likely it was electrotyped from imported fonts. Three extrabold versions were added by Baltimore Type, apparently being introduced before their counterparts from other sources.
Airport Black and Airport Black Condensed Title were cut about 1943. Airport Broad is essentially a modification by pantagraph of Airport Black, being cut 50 percent wider. These typefaces are heavier than most of their counterparts, none of which copy them exactly, although Spartan Extra Black is about the same weight.
Intertype copied a number of Futura typefaces under the original names in 1939, with additional weights designed by Edwin W. Shaar and Tommy Thompson up to 1956.
Monotype copied the series under the name Twentieth Century, with additional versions by Sol Hess.
Spartan is claimed to have been redrawn from various European sources, but is almost indistinguishable from Futura. It was cut cooperatively by American Type and Linotype, with smaller sizes matching from both sources. Linotype introduced its Sanserif 52, later renamed Spartan Black, in 1939, while other weights appeared as late as 1955. Some of the additional weights were drawn for ATF by Bud Renshaw and Gerry Powell.
On Ludlow, Tempo Alternate is a near copy of Futura, but not quite as close as the other typefaces listed; in addition, this typeface has several alternate letters and figures which change the character of the design when substituted. [Google] [More] ⦿
Stefan Lundhem started Fyrisfonts. He is the designer of Garajannon (Garamond family), Spartacus (a Roman, CODEX-like lettering font), Beckhem Gothic, Fournament, Primus, Fyris Fraction, Fyris Fraktur, Krabat, Heltime (mix of Times and Helvetica), Terminator, Bessie (2001, multiline art deco typeface modeled after Marcia Loeb's 1972 alphabet, Rainbow), Billie (2001, art deco titling, modeled after Marcia Loeb's 1972 alphabet, Zig Zag), Jämför abc, Miami Blues and Miami Vice (beautiful, now called Bessie and Billie, respectively). The pages in Swedish contain an in-depth study of Jenson and Adobe Jenson MM, Caslon, Cloister Old Style, Fraktur, Garamond, Minion MM, MultipleMaster fonts, Myriad MM, OpenType, Poynter, RailwayType, Newspaper type, Web fonts, Web typography, and screen typography. [Google] [More] ⦿
Manfred Baierl created the screen fonts Mini-5 and Mini-7 for 5pt and 7pt screen text in 2001. He also created the old typewriter font AltAdler, and the dot font Punkt. Free downloads. He sells Fishsoup, a type 1 font consisting of a smorgasbord of type styles. His pages have lots of useful discussions and links, not least of which is Bembo's Zoo. Check also on-line converter for typographic measurements, Top 10 typefaces, Information on the Euro. Download Ansicode (ANSI numbers replace characters). [Google] [More] ⦿
FE Mittelschrift is the German car plate font designed between 1978 and 1980 by Karlgeorg Hoefer (1914-2000) together with the University of Giessen (Dept. of Physiology and Cybernetic Psychology). FE is the abbreviation of the German word fälschungserschwerend (difficult to forge). Characters were designed individually so that a C could not be made into an O and so forth. The typeface was first used on cars in 1994. Article by Susanne Schaller, with comments by a number of people. Martin Core claims his Sauerkrauto (2000) font was based on images of the license plates. Spiekermann dislikes the typeface because the letters have no relationship to each other: he calls it a complete forgery. [Google] [More] ⦿
Gerrit van Aaken
Getting Started With Type Design: A Personal Journey
Gill Sans: Critique by Ben Archer
Ben Archer argues why Gill failed in his attempt to improve on Johnston's Underground typeface in his design of Gill Sans. He laments the lack of consistency and rhythm, the poor choices for some tails, ascenders and descenders. He concludes by saying: The old metal version of Granby has a faithfulness to Johnston's proportions and characteristics that Eric Gill missed in such a way as to suggest he did it deliberately. Nearly a century later, Edward Johnston's pioneering work is still the big noise in contemporary sans serif typeface design. So much for fool-proof! [Google] [More] ⦿
Git for type designers
German/English web site by Lübeck, Germany-based printing engineer Lars Kähler (b. 1962) about all typographic matters, but still under construction. For example, it will have biographies, complete lists of fonts from the major foundries, technological surveys, and articles on the history of type. Lars has been typesetter from 1987 until 1994. He spoke at ATypI 2006 in Lisbon on Global Type, his project. PDF of Lars' presentation. [Google] [More] ⦿
Globe and Mail
Canada's main newspaper, The Globe and Mail, was redesigned on April 23, 2007. It features a new font family, consisting of Globe and Mail Sans, Globe and Mail News, and Globe and Mail Text subfamilies, all designed by Nick Shinn. Thanks to the new type, the width of the paper was decreased to 12 inches, matching the Wall Street Journal. The redesign is good, with strong sectioning by well-designed separators. Sample. See also the piece by News Designer. The Globe and Mail News font replaces the old serif headline font, and introduces a semi-serif with the ascenders of the b, d and l slightly bent near the top. Its "l" has a tail for readability I suppose. Personally, I would have stuck with a solid serif headline face---classy and timeless.
Chapter two, October 1, 2010--another redesign, this time catastrophic by any standard. Text content is reduced, pictures are bigger and flashier (and all in color), sports scores, sudoku puzzles, and just about any piece of information is smaller (to the point that sudokus, for example, are almost impossible to do with no scratch space left), and large one-page ads without information are taking over. Nick Shinn's Globe Sans is not bad, but the Globe promises a reduction in its use of serif typefaces for text, and that is another major blunder. This is very sad, indeed, because just about all other newspapers in the country, some French ones excepted, are in the hands of a right-wing group and provide predictable biased content. [Google] [More] ⦿
Globe Gothic is a typeface that came to ATF via Central Type Foundry's Quentell. Its career path is described by Mac McGrew: Globe Gothic is a refinement of Taylor Gothic, designed about 1897 by ATF at the suggestion of Charles H. Taylor of the Boston Globe, and used extensively by that paper. But Taylor Gothic has mostly the same lowercase as Quentell, though with hairlines heavied a bit. ATF's Central Type Foundry branch in St. Louis claims to have originated Quentell (q.v.) in 1895 or earlier. The conversion to Taylor Gothic was designed by Joseph W. Phinney, while the redesign as Globe Gothic in about 1900 is credited to Morris Benton. It is a serifless, thick-and-thin face, distinguished by the high crossbar on E, F, and H. The angular end on the stems of V, W, and most lowercase letters.
But there is a slight controversy as to whom designed Globe Gothic Bold, Benton, or Goudy, or others, McGrew: Globe Gothic Condensed, Extra Condensed, and Extended were designed by Benton about 1900. Globe Gothic Bold and its italic are also credited to Benton, in 1907 and 1908 respectively. But Frederic W. Goudy, in the book on his typefaces, says, "This type (Globe Gothic Bold), drawn at the suggestion of Joseph Phinney, followed in the main certain points which he wished brought out. It never had much vogue and is the least satisfactory (to me) of all my types." This is puzzling, as the bold departs somewhat from the style of the lighter weights, but is not at all characteristic of Goudy's work-nor of Benton's, for that matter. Studley of Inland Type Foundry was similar. Compare Ryerson Condensed, Radiant, Matthews, Pontiac, World Gothic.
In the digital era, we find Globe Gothic MN by Mecanorma and a more extensive family at Lanston Monotype called LTC Globe Gothic (2005). Colin M. Ford also created a digital typeface called Globe Gothic. Eli Hernandez's Magnolia (2019) was inspired by Globe Gothic. [Google] [More] ⦿
Glyphic typefaces have flared strokes or tapered waistlines. They emulate letters carved into stone or bronze. Most of them are not serifed, but they can hardly be called sans typefaces either. Classical examples include Optima (Hermann Zapf), Albertus (Berthold Wolpe) and Pascal (José Mendoza). More recent glyphic or incise typefaces include Ideal Sans (Jonathan Hoefler), Carter Sans (Matthew Carter and Dan Reynolds, 2010, ITC) and Winco (Ramiro Espinoza). [Google] [More] ⦿
This 11,000 font archive has taken typefaces from all major foundries and removed the trademark and copyright notices. The names are unchanged. It contains for example Basic Commercial (Linotype, 2004). If Linotype sues Goldenweb, then we have an interesting situation, because Linotype did exactly the same thing when it derived Basic Commercial from Berthold's Akzidenz Grotesk (namely, it removed and replaced the trademark and copyright notices, but did not touch the electronic font data). [Google] [More] ⦿
Mac McGrew's discussion on Gothic starts with an important remark: Gothic, the purists say, is Blackletter or what we more often call Old English. But the name is so firmly established in American usage as meaning a plain block letter without serifs or hairlines, that we must accept that meaning. Also, it is part of many type names. But we prefer to go further, and reserve the term gothic for the traditional forms, and sans serif for the modified forms originating in Germany with the Bauhaus movement of the 1920s. Our preferred general term is serifless. In this book, gothics having distinctive family names are listed alphabetically throughout---see Alternate Gothic, Franklin Gothic, Modern Gothic, News Gothic, etc. Those with merely descriptive names are included in this section under the following headings: Numbered Gothics, Condensed Gothics, Inclined or Italic Gothics, and Miscellaneous Gothics. The term "Lining," added to many names when they were realigned to new standards around the turn of the century, has generally been ignored in this book, as it was later dropped in nearly all cases. Nineteenth-century gothics are not included except for a few representative ones or those that have been substantially used subsequently. "Title" gothics---all-cap versions usually occupying almost the entire body---are shown as secondary listings to the cap-and-lowercase versions where both exist. Offset Gothics were cut in reverse for a process of transferring proofs of type to lithographic stones, or more recently to electronic parts. Also see Record Gothic Offset. He the discusses gothic typefaces in detail.
P22 reports this story about the foundry's theft of a design by Goudy: In 1900 Frederick Goudy was commissioned by W.W. Denslow to letter his edition of Mother Goose stories for the McClure, Phillips Co. of New York. (Denslow was the Illustrator of the original Wizard of Oz and also an occasional Roycroft illustrator.) The lettering that Goudy designed featured short ascenders and descenders, as well as a tall x-height. Shortly thereafter the Inland type foundry of St. Louis released a typeface that was a direct copy of Goudy's lettering. Goudy seemed to be more offended that the font was named "Hearst" after the notorious newspaper mogul, than by the fact that they copied his designs. As Goudy had put it: "To my surprise, a little later on, the Inland Type foundry of St. Louis, without consultation with me, brought out a new type copied--not inspired--from my Denslow lettering, and added insult to injury by naming it "Hearst." Goudy's reaction was to create his own type typeface for release. The result of Goudy's attempt to outdo a copy of his design evolved into the Pabst type face. Created for the Pabst Brewing Company, this type design has some similarities to Hearst, but is clearly its own unique face. The ascenders are much taller than Hearst and the x-height is reduced. The distressed edging of the letters and the caps bear a similarity, but clearly these are two distinct typefaces. Five years later in 1907, Goudy's "Powell" typeface was created for the Mandel Brother department store in Chicago. This "Powell" typeface bears a closer similarity to "Hearst."
Typography joint run by Bill Troop, a phenomenal wordsmith. Just read this quote: Typeface Design is obtuse, incomprehensible, unsuitable, unremunerable, and irresistable. With the aid of the computer, it has never been easier to design a typeface, and never easier to manufacture one. Because of PostScript, TrueType, and font creation programs like Fontographer, Font Studio, and Font Lab, there have never been more typeface designs available, nor have there ever been so many typeface designers active. Yet, just as at all times and places there is very little good of anything to be had, so there are remarkably few fine typefaces available today. Printers now have merely a fraction of the first rate types they had in 1930. " [Google] [More] ⦿
Arizona-based Don Lancaster's huge list of links for PDF and Acrobat. Includes PostScript code websitan.ps, reflog1.ps and weblogu2.ps (website analysis in PostScript), urlindoc.ps (embed url links directly into your pre-Acrobat source documents), tutorial on PostScript "alpha" transparency, a JPEG to PDF file conversion tutorial, catools1.ps (a et of PostScript utilities that let you read Acrobat catalog internals), and a PFB2PFA.PS program. He has, among many other things, some articles on text justification in postscript, called Picojustification and Postjustification. [Google] [More] ⦿
Günter Schuler is a German author interested in good typography. Among the things he seels are the Cleverprinting DTP-Typomter (a handy sheet for measuring type sizes, both absolute and relative), TypeSelect Schriftenfächer (a wall paint-style foldout with typefaces), and Grundkurs Typografie und Layout (an introductory book on typography). [Google] [More] ⦿
This story is taken from the Lineto web site in 2015, just after the digital revival Unica 77 (Christian Mengelt) was published by them. All italic text are verbatim quotes. The underlying thread is a huge fight between Haas and Linotype, with on the Haas side, the Swiss outfits Team 77 and Lineto, and on the Linotype side, the corporate heavyweight. Lineto / Team 77 writes: We are proud and honoured to release Unica77, created by Christian Mengelt of Team 77, the original authors of Haas Unica. Some see Unica as the pinnacle of modernist type design, arguably the most modern and the most Swiss typeface: the idea of a Â«pure mediumÂ», a Â«neutral carrierÂ». Unica was the typeface that finally delivered what Helvetica had only promised, at a moment when, in a bizarre twist of fate, no-one was looking. And released for a fading technology at a time of transition, it was soon relegated to undeserved obscurity. The tragic story of Haas Unica is one of technological progress, economic pressure, corporate powerplay, bad timing, and unfortunate coincidences. It's the dark side of Helvetica's bright success story.
Helvetica had been secretly developed at the Haas Foundry in the mid-1950s, against the will of Stempel, their majority stakeholder. First presented as Neue Haas Grotesk, in 1957, it was a sensational success. Haas, a relatively small enterprise depending on cooperation and licensing deals, licensed it to Linotype for worldwide exploitation, who adapted it and turned it into the fabled Helvetica. However, Linotype prevented Haas from producing Helvetica for the now prevalent phototypesetting technology, and as a consequence, Haas was denied any major share of its global success.
In 1973, Alfred Hoffmann of the Haas type foundry had enough. He invited the prolific type designers André Gürtler, Christian Mengelt, and Erich Gschwind to investigate improving Helvetica for phototypesetting, and to propose a new typeface optimised for the dominant technology of the day. Their thorough analysis of four formally related typefaces (Akzidenz Grotesk, Univers, Neue Haas Grotesk and Helvetica), later published in the document Â«From Helvetica to Haas UnicaÂ», served as foundation for the synthesis of the brilliant new typeface, its name an amalgam of Univers and Helvetica.
But by the time Bobst/Autologic (for their Eurocat system) and Linotype (for their Linotronic range) came out with Haas Unica, the days for phototypesetting were numbered. The personal computer was on its way to radically alter the design and printing professions, and in 1984 the Apple Macintosh promised a new dawn for type design. Haas Unica fell into the gap of this transitional period. It had taken six years from commissioning to foundry release, and when it came out, the world was ready to move on.
The shift from analogue to digital turned the industry upside down. In rapid succession, companies went bankrupt, were taken over, stripped of their assets, and sold down the river. Four years after launching Haas Unica, Haasâ€™ business partner Stempel was sold to Linotype. Haas, one of the world's oldest foundries with a back catalogue of sheer excellence, was taken over and terminated in 1989. Haas Unica disappeared, and its designers' appeals to Linotype for a digital reissue bore no fruit---it remained buried for close to 30 years.
But it was not forgotten. As avid users of type, we often wondered why Haas Unica wasn't available on the market. In 2004, Berlin-based designer and Lineto partner Stephan Müller came across a digital version in a Scangraphic specimen book. As it wasn't available to buy, he sourced a black market copy, made minimal changes to it and discreetly used it for an artist book. This made waves and before long, Unica became a revered tool of choice for keen designers, among them Norm, Cornel Windlin, Laurent Benner, Jon Hares, and Gregor Huber & Ivan Sterzinger, to name but a few.
The years passed, and in 2012, there still was no legitimate version of Haas Unica around. What was the problem? It seemed mysterious. When we got in touch with Team 77 to express our gratitude and respect, Christian Mengelt told us the whole Unica saga. Talking to him, we also realised that the version of Unica we had grown to appreciate as a quietly obedient servant was an unauthorised version, resolutely rejected by its original designers. According to Mengelt, its more monolinear drawing and its spacing and kerning bore little resemblance to the more subtle and refined original.
At the same time, Mengelt confirmed that Linotype had absolutely no interest in re-issuing Haas Unica and had even given up the trademark years ago; it was obviously just dead weight to them. We were awestruck and decided right there and then to collaborate, in a mission to preserve Unica in its true form and original state. Christian Mengelt dug out the original drawings and went to work, carefully redrawing each of the 8 original cuts. Maurice Göldner closely collaborated with Mengelt to adapt character sets to full Latin Extended encodings, build features and extend the family with new weights (Thin, Medium, Extra Black coming soon). The rest is history, as they say.
Handwriting: An Elegy
A wonderful article by Ann Wroe in the November 2011 issue of Intelligent Life. She celebrates the dying art of writing. The first two paragraphs set the tone: Take a sheet of paper. Better still, take a whole sheaf; writing prospers with comfort and cushioning. The paper may be deliciously thick, with ragged edges and a surface capillaried with tiny fibres of the rags that made it. It may be thin, blank, industrial A4, one of a thousand in a cut-price pack from Staples. It may be wove paper, vellum-smooth and shiny, or a bit of scrap, torn not quite straight, with a palimpsest of typed meeting-minutes showing through. But write. The instrument matters but, for the moment, seize anything. The old fountain pen, so familiar that it nestles like a warm fifth finger in the crook of the thumb, its clip slightly shaky with over-use; the pencil, its lead half-blunt and not quite steady in that smooth cone of wood; the ultra-fine felt tip from the office cupboard, with its no-nonsense simplicity, or the ancient mapping pen, nibbed like a bird's claw, which surely writes only in copperplate, scratching fiercely as it goes. Seize even a ball-point, though its line is mean and thin, and though teachers will tell you that nothing ruins writing faster. Dip, fill or shake vigorously; and write. [Google] [More] ⦿
A list (in German) of typefaces used by companies (often specially designed). Translated and partially reprodused here. We also took info from this subpage.
A documentary film about Helvetica and the influence of type in our lives, by Gary Hustwit, released in 2007. From the web site: Helvetica is a feature-length independent film about typography, graphic design and global visual culture. It looks at the proliferation of one typeface (which will celebrate its 50th birthday in 2007) as part of a larger conversation about the way type affects our lives. The film is an exploration of urban spaces in major cities and the type that inhabits them, and a fluid discussion with renowned designers about the choices and aesthetics behind their use of type. Helvetica encompasses the worlds of design, advertising, psychology, and communication, and invites us to take a second look at the thousands of words we see every day. The film was shot in high-definition on location in the United States, England, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, France and Belgium. [...] Interviewees in Helvetica include some of the most illustrious and innovative names in the design world, including Erik Spiekermann, Matthew Carter, Massimo Vignelli, Wim Crouwel, Hermann Zapf, Stefan Sagmeister, Michael Bierut, Jonathan Hoefler, Tobias Frere-Jones, Experimental Jetset, Michael C. Place, Norm, APFEL, Pierre Miedinger, Bruno Steinert, Otmar Hoefer, Rick Poynor, Lars Müller, and many more. Screened in Montreal on May 5, 2007, at Concordia University, the reaction was unanimously positive. The editing, pace, music and visual content are just perfect. The humour of Hustwit shines through when he pits the rationalists (pro-Helvetica people) against the emotionalists (the grunge crowd). The interviews with Massimo Vignelli (very funny), Wim Crouwel, Erik Spiekermann (about Helvetica: "bad taste is everywhewre"), Paula Scher (she said that Helvetica was used by the war corporations in Vietnam and is the cause of the Iraq war) and Michael Bierut are very entertaining. Maybe on purpose, maybe not, Hustwit used the Germans as a comical counterweight. FontShop link. [Google] [More] ⦿
Taken from the flyer for Helvetica---Homage to a Typeface, edited by Lars Müller:
About the genesis of the name Helvetica, Max Miedinger's famous typeface from 1957. According to Bruno Steinert, Stempel's marketing director had the idea to change the name, because Neue Haas Grotesk didn't sound like very good for a typeface that was intended to be sold in the United States. Alfred Hoffmann, the son of Eduard Hoffmann who influenced and advised Miedinger, explained: Stempel suggested the name of Helvetia, this is very important. Helvetia is the Latin name of Switzerland. My father said, that's impossible, you cannot call a typeface after a name of a country. So, he said, why don't we call it Helve-ti-ca. So, in other words, this would be "the Swiss typeface". And they agreed. [Google] [More] ⦿
Helvetica, the Voice of Opposition
Jacques Paris lists and discusses hollow truetype fonts. Some downloads: AgencyGothic, CaesarOpen, Bio-disc, FanatikaOne, FanatikaTwo, GoudyOldStyleBT-Roman, CAITLYN, Nonstop, PointedOut, Ruffian-Outline, RainyDays, SqueezeMeBaby, ArialicHollow, BurnOut, Callistroke, Flashbackversion3, Flyman, ImpressedMetal, JediHollowNormal, JediSolidNormal, lemans, YoldAnglican, AlfredoHeavyHollow, Babylon5-Hollow, Bullpen3D, Bullpen, Bullpen-Italic, Gubbrra.AgencyGothic, Bio-disc, FanatikaOne, FanatikaTwo, GoudyOldStyleBT-Roman, CAITLYN, Nonstop, PointedOut, Ruffian-Outline, RainyDays, SqueezeMeBaby, Stitch-&Bitch, ArialicHollow, BurnOut, Callistroke, Flashbackversion3, ImpressedMetal, JediHollowNormal, JediSolidNormal, lemans, YoldAnglican, AlfredoHeavyHollow, Babylon5-Hollow, Bullpen3D, Bullpen, Bullpen-Italic, Gubbrra. [Google] [More] ⦿
In 2016, Garagefonts published a pair of nostalgic 1980s-theme typefaces without identifying the designer, other than International TypeFounders and Phil's Fonts. Homage Script (2016) is inspired by James Hellmuth's 1980 cover lettering for Phil's Photo Homage to the Alphabet, and Homage Condensed (2016) is a digital revival of LSC Condensed by Tom Carnese and Herb Lubalin. [Google] [More] ⦿
Argentinian site managed by Longinotti's group at FADU, University of Buenos Aires, est. 2009. This project is dedicated to extreme fonts---many creations are truly spectacular. It is thus a huge source of font ideas. The list below has the names and creators of the 208 fonts made by FADU-UBA graduates between 2008 and 2010, in three consecutive classes, with direct links to their university pages, where one can find images. Because of the overload, I will only comment on a few of the typefaces elsewhere on my Argentinian page. In alphabetical order of typeface name: ⦿ 1810 Golpista: by Lucas Morsellino ⦿ 72 Degrees: by Alvaro Vaquero ⦿ Alfonsina: by Rocio Cueto ⦿ Aliro: by Carla S. Bozzola ⦿ Anette's Font: by Paula Bustos ⦿ Angélica: by Facundo Quiroga ⦿ Antigona: by Analía Aspauzo Baez ⦿ Aracno: by Denise Furman ⦿ Arnol: by Verónica Bertazzo ⦿ Babel: by Florencia Pereira Da Luz ⦿ Backigham Palace: by Luciana Paiva ⦿ Bakery: by Agustina Re ⦿ Balawi: by Ma. José Galanda ⦿ Balu: by Bratin Esteban ⦿ Bariloche: by Yanina Walter ⦿ Bella Donna: by Ma. Laura Verazzi ⦿ Belta: by Aixa Aztarbe ⦿ Bemola: by Ma. Angeles Scarimbolo ⦿ Bendland: by Debora Palti ⦿ Benicius: by Diego Martinez Bela ⦿ Bernini Gian: by Martín Dalesandro ⦿ Bikini: by Marcela Casabona ⦿ Black Queen: by Matías J. Fernández G. ⦿ Blackheart Inertia: by Sebastián Barraud ⦿ Blackwidow: by Cinthia Alonso ⦿ Blindado: by Ma. Cecilia Montaño ⦿ Blue Velvet: by Jésica Sanson ⦿ Bogus: by Emiliano Suárez ⦿ Boldalic: by Gutierrez ⦿ Bolticad: by Hernán Rodríguez ⦿ Botero: by Sebastián Garbrecht ⦿ Brott: by Andrea Broitman ⦿ Buffóntica: by Lucía Ladreche ⦿ Calvina: by Laura Dattoli ⦿ Caroline Type: by Luciana Manazzoni ⦿ Carta: by Carolina Monacci ⦿ Caspianfont: by Ana Zimmermann ⦿ Celeni: by Lucía Ramallo Sarlo ⦿ Cenefa: by Natalia Vetta ⦿ Ceñida: by Agustín Morano ⦿ Clonum: by Alejandra Arregger ⦿ Cloverflieds: by Mariana Mac Loughlin ⦿ Colofón: by Maximiliano Sproviero ⦿ Column Roman: by Ayelén Starzak ⦿ Cupcake: by Andrea Landoni ⦿ Dam: by Luz Aicardi ⦿ Damajuana: by Rocio Ruiz ⦿ Dammar: by Yony Fernando Huaman ⦿ Decorte: by Juan Manuel Riva ⦿ Dei Verbum: by María Teresa Beccar ⦿ Delhi: by Francine De Tullio ⦿ Denan: by Hernán Silles Roth ⦿ Dergollum: by Carol Pinto ⦿ Desencadenada: by Francisco Valdez ⦿ DHNN Wilson: by Lucas Davison ⦿ Dighot: by Diana Sanchez ⦿ Dilatatie: by María Brex ⦿ Diplodocus: by Martiniano Garcia Cornejo ⦿ Dixie Light: by Eugenia Mello ⦿ Don Felix: by Natalie Galindo ⦿ Donatello: by Fernando García Laucona ⦿ Drop Seriff: by Alberto Federico ⦿ Efilona: by Leonardo Píccolo ⦿ Eightys's font: by Ana Valeria Canelo ⦿ Ema Zunz: by Lucía Szych ⦿ Epistemologia: by Jacques Franz Toriglia ⦿ Erahood: by Pamela Aurora ⦿ Etile: by Santiago Adur ⦿ Expressive: by Julieta Valiente ⦿ Faegon: by Pablo Menéndez ⦿ Famkul Italic: by Florencia Diaz ⦿ Fatty: by Justina Leston ⦿ FedDartype: by Sebastián Fucks ⦿ Fegs: by Celeste Peney ⦿ Figaro: by Carolina Wasiljew ⦿ Fiji: by Andrés Rosenberg ⦿ Filografía: by Cecilia Billoch ⦿ Filoseidología Ponzettiana: by Alejandro San Pedro ⦿ Finola: by Ivana Pazos Boullón ⦿ Fits Neo Gotik: by Ludmila Lara ⦿ Foster: by Augusto Menestrina ⦿ Fractus: by Federico Zrycki ⦿ Frakfurt: by Emanuel Gerber ⦿ Fran: by Iris Santana ⦿ Frappé: by Magdalena Sifredi ⦿ Furh Modern: by Carolina Pernet ⦿ Giambattista Illuminame: by Verónica Grandjean ⦿ Girak: by Sebastian Sanchez ⦿ Gloomy: by Alicia Lee ⦿ Gluttony: by Jimena Zazas ⦿ Good Folks: by Ruth Miller ⦿ Goodfortune: by Giuliana Grippo ⦿ Guilvant Font: by Florencia Mendez ⦿ Gurkaf: by Wozniak ⦿ Haarp: by Micaela Diaz ⦿ Headache Gothic: by Daniela Rascovsky ⦿ Heavyink: by Esteban Estomba ⦿ Holga: by Paola Mathieu ⦿ Homesick: by Georgina Di Francesco ⦿ Humekoy: by Brenda Diaz ⦿ Ignea: by Ma. Lucia Tissino ⦿ Incriptus: by Joaquín Lavori ⦿ Iota Font: by Ana Paula Santander ⦿ Irontail Gothic: by Brian Aldave ⦿ Isolda: by Stefania Orsini ⦿ Italgraph: by Johanna Sosa ⦿ Jocelyn: by Fabián Mariño ⦿ Jockimo: by Astrid Bauckhage ⦿ Joker: by Sofía Arhancet ⦿ Juana: by María Juana Sibolich ⦿ Junior: by Milagros Barros Tomé ⦿ Kilo: by Leandro Di Pascuale ⦿ Kilogramica: by Ma. Soledad Garcia Rodriguez ⦿ Kimborni: by Mauricio Dias ⦿ Kowgui: by Laura Di Candia ⦿ Kramer: by Mercedes Moltedo ⦿ Kraut: by Marcelo Granero ⦿ Kyss: by Carolina Norzagaray ⦿ Lady Elizabeth Grant: by Sabrina Lopez ⦿ Lang Font: by Fernanda Cinzano ⦿ Lashing Candy: by Sabrina De Mestre ⦿ Last Nk: by Anabela Willie ⦿ Latter Serif: by Marcia Garibaldi ⦿ Leguin: by Marcela Fernandez ⦿ Look Font: by Clara Severo ⦿ Lucha Unicase: by Lucia Guisado ⦿ Lucky Type: by Paula V. Hernandez ⦿ Madox: by Nadia De la Cruz ⦿ Manuale: by Juan Eduardo Nápoli ⦿ Marea: by Andrea López ⦿ Marinera: by Facundo Rodríguez ⦿ Marteaux: by Martín Canal ⦿ Mavera: by Fernando Escobares ⦿ May Gothic: by Aylen Marzo ⦿ Mecánica: by Ángeles Gonzalez ⦿ Melba: by Daniela Scarone ⦿ Mifont: by Bianca Trezza ⦿ Milk Shake: by Camilo González Lowy ⦿ Minoris: by Gabriela Calvo ⦿ Monia: by Lucas Di Prisco ⦿ Nai: by Ignacio Sottano ⦿ Nemesya: by Danila Gallardo ⦿ Neo Scriptum: by Renata Caballin ⦿ Newpress: by Julieta Pisani ⦿ Norton Gothic: by Juan Rodríguez Cuberes ⦿ Noville: by Cecilia Álvaro ⦿ NüĽ Font: by Nadia Menotti ⦿ O Merinda: by Ana Cordani ⦿ Oblong: by Gabriela Palmieri ⦿ Odysea: by Lisandro Mansilla ⦿ Old Glyph: by Gerardo Sanchez ⦿ Old Magazine: by Ulises Faggiani ⦿ Olden Zebra: by Noelia Romero Mendoza ⦿ Olivia: by Diana Mora ⦿ Onirik: by Agustina Borsani ⦿ Oriental Condensed: by Leonardo Barilari ⦿ Orondas: by María Carolina Espinosa ⦿ Patova: by Anabella Mazzuca ⦿ Peperina: by Cristina Alvarez ⦿ Picolina: by Lucia López ⦿ Pochoclo: by Daniela Shinzato ⦿ Poster Bondi: by Juan LLorens ⦿ Qhanqa: by Juan Martinez ⦿ Queen: by Claudio Guzmán ⦿ Read Praz Std: by Emiliano Agnetti ⦿ Recrearte Italic: by Fabbro ⦿ Requiem: by Daniel Fernandez ⦿ Robertha: by Dominique Raed ⦿ Rypher: by Flavio Martínez ⦿ Sabayon: by Cecilia Kimsa ⦿ Saint Firulet: by Florencia Baldini ⦿ Salmuera: by Fernanda Moench ⦿ Schrag Pech: by Carolina Melul ⦿ Schynus Regular: by Ma. Belén Toledo ⦿ Serenity: by Carla Llinas ⦿ Sergo: by Ma. Florencia Garcia ⦿ Siesta: by Luciana Sanchez Guerrero ⦿ SirFont: by Florencia Marascio ⦿ Sixfingers: by Matias Seisdedos ⦿ Sleepy: by Marcelo Di Carlo ⦿ Slender: by Silvana Lopéz Devito ⦿ Sofia: by Esteban Simone ⦿ Staralfur: by Natalia Lee ⦿ Tagua: by Lucía Estévez ⦿ Taipu: by Alejandro Alarcón ⦿ Tangerine: by Carolina Grosso ⦿ Techi: by Ricardo Kim ⦿ Templetype: by Guillermina Astorga ⦿ Tomato Soup: by Ma. Florencia Iglesias ⦿ Tomp Regular: by Tomas Rafael Palazzo ⦿ Tormes: by Adrián Cattalini ⦿ Trovattore: by Paula Do Souto ⦿ Unique: by Hernán Fraga ⦿ Urbano: by Florencia Cambera ⦿ Vade Retro: by Evelyn Von Eckenbrecher ⦿ Vennezia: by Karina Haasz ⦿ Verjilius Augusteus: by Andrés Apud ⦿ Vesper: by Alejandra Montalbetti ⦿ Vicario: by Carolina Carballo ⦿ Vikinga: by Martín Kazaniets ⦿ Vittandaj: by Elizabet Correa ⦿ Wayne Bruce: by Juan Francisco Adriani ⦿ Wedding: by Marisol Lucero ⦿ Wide Drops: by Laura Espeso ⦿ Wynox: by Herrera Broner Lucila ⦿ Xixo Xixo: by Adolfo Gregorio Acosta ⦿ Zephora: by Florencia Basile ⦿ Zerdai: by Rodrigo Oturakdjian. [Google] [More] ⦿
In 2009, Ikea, which had been using Ikea Sans and Ikea Serif, switched to Verdana for its signs. Freely distributed by Microsoft, the typeface allows Ikea to use the same font in all countries and with many alphabets. An Ikea spokesperson adds: It's more efficient and cost-effective. Plus, it's a simple, modern-looking typeface. But the verdict by typographers is unanimous---this is a bad choice. One person even started a wiki page called Verdanagate. Excerpts from their reactions:
From Westport, CT, Ilene Strizver is the founder of The Type Studio. She consults on type, designs type and writes about typography and visual communication. She co-designer ITC Vintage (1996) with Holly Goldsmith. She was the Director of Typeface Development for International Typeface Corporation (ITC) where she developed more than 300 text and display typefaces with type designers such as Sumner Stone, Erik Spiekermann, Jill Bell, Jim Parkinson, Tim Donaldson, and Phill Grimshaw. Her essay on spacing and kerning. Essay on rags (ragged lines), orphans (short last lines) and widows. She published "Type Rules! The designer's guide to professional typography". [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
On 20 February 2003, 23 people gathered in Heidelberg and decided to create the International Font Technology Association (IFTA) [see also here]. Its goals: (1) To develop and publish standards, industry recommendations, and developer resources. (2) To facilitate cooperation and information exchange between font, tool and software developers. (3) To provide a point of contact between the type business and related standards organisations, e.g., Unicode, World Wide Web consortium. <.....> My comments: It is great to try and come to an agreement on a decent font format. I hope that IFTA has visionary thinkers on its team, not limited by short-term industrial interests or driven by market considerations. There are a few minor bugs right from the start, like the membership fee [not again!] and the mention of "an intellectual property policy" [I fail to see the relationship with font formats]. The board should consist, in equal representation, of software experts, industrial typographers, individual type designers, type users, publishers, brainy visionaries, and type historians. It seems to be initially biased towards type technocrats, but that can all change. In any case, good luck to this worthwhile initiative! [Google] [More] ⦿
Swiss organization which in the type world is best known for its simple monoline rounded typeface Isonorm proposed in 1980. The font is appropriate for drafting and architectural purposes, as well as for technical charts and graphics. This typeface was digitally implemented by many, including:
A punctuation mark to convey surprise and exclamation and wonder at the same time (as in ?!), which was introduced by Martin K. Speckter in 1962 in an article written for TYPEtalks Magazine. Quoting Jim Richardson: "American Type Founders issued a metal typeface in 1966 called Americana which included the INTERROBANG. Remington Rand included the key as an option on its 1968 typewriters, commenting that the INTERROBANG "expresses Modern Life's Incredibility." In 1996, a New York art studio designed variations of the mark for each of the fonts in its computer library." The Interrobang can be found in Wingdings2, for example. [Google] [More] ⦿
Michael Babcock's hot metal type collection. He made Bradley Combo Ornaments (2001) by digitizing samples from the Nov. '74 Kingsley/ATF "Fonted Ornaments and Typographic Accessories" sheet. Free. [Google] [More] ⦿
Berry, Johnson and Jaspert write: [Mergenthaler Linotype 1926; Linotype (London); Monotype] Ionic was originally another name for Egyptian and seems to have been first used by Stephenson Blake in a specimen around 1830. It has been revived as a suitable newspaper type. With its strong serifs it has been found to be legible in small sizes. It has short ascenders and descenders and greater differentiation of colour than in the parent Egyptian. It has some features resembling the modern face, such as the spur on the G, the tails of Q and R, the large eye of the e and the ear of the g. The italic in the lower case is very like the modern face. Linotype Ionic was introduced in 1926 in the New York Herald Tribune, and Intertype later cut their version of Ideal for the New York Times. There is also The Monotype Corporation's version of Ionic. [Google] [More] ⦿
Irene Scala is a fellow typophile and graduate of The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, where she had the opportunity to study with educators such as Paul Rand, Lou Dorfsman, and Milton Glaser. After earning a B.F.A. from the Cooper Union, she went on to postgraduate study at The Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem. She now lives in New York City, where she is associated with Designing with Type: Designingwithtype.com is a web site devoted to the art and appreciation of typography. It offers a unique typographic resource for students, educators, and professionals, showcasing talent from around the world. Originally created by James Craig as a supplement to his popular textbook Designing with Type specifically for his Cooper Union students, it has grown to include contributions presented by fellow educators and designers to embrace a wider audience.
In 2006, James Craig and Irene Korol Scala published the blockbuster book Designing with Type, 5th Edition: The Essential Guide to Typography (published by Watson-Guptill).
For her PhD at UFPE (in Recvife, Brazil) and USP (in Sao Paulo, under Priscila Farias), Isabella Ribeiro Aragao researched Funtimod (Fundição de Tipos Modernos, est. 1932), the largest and first industrial scale type manufacturer in Brazil with national reach. Considered an important Brazilian type foundry, it used to import matrices from European countries, especially Germany, to fabricate the modern types. Examples of their typefaces include Memphis Meio Preto (1960s), which is similar to Rudolf Wolf's iconic slab serif typeface, Memphis. At ATypI 2015 in Sao Paulo, Isabella Ribeiro Aragao and Priscila Farias reported on their research into Funtimod. [Google] [More] ⦿
Type designer (b. Minneapolis, MN, 1962) at SIL International, UK since 1991, and an ex-M.A. student in type design at the University of Reading. He has worked on non-Latin typefaces, as well as his own extended Latin design, Gentium (2002). [Download from places such as OFL and FreeBSD]. Gentium Plus supports a wide range of Latin, Greek and Cyrillic characters. It was developed between 2003 and 2014 by J. Victor Gaultney (main designer), Annie Olsen, Iska Routamaa, an Becca Hirsbrunner.
Papers by him include Multitudinous Alphabets: The design of extended Latin typefaces (2001), The influence of pen-based letterforms on Devanagari typefaces (2001), Balancing Typeface Legibility and Economy, Gentium---A Typeface for The Nations, Problems of Diacritic Design, and "Problems of diacritic design for Latin script text typefaces" (2002). The last one is a must-read.
Projects in which he is the main or only designer include SIL Dai Banna Fonts, SIL Tai Dam Fonts, SIL Greek Font System, SIL IPA Fonts, and SIL Encore Fonts. At ATypI 2004 in Prague, he spoke about the technical problems with East European type. In 2008, he published Gentium Basic and Gentium Book Basic, each in four weights, but essentially limited to Latin, and added them to the Google Font Directory link.
At ATypI 2010 in Dublin, he spoke about sculptural letterer Arnold Flaten (1900-1976). Speaker at ATypI 2011 in Reykjavik. Speaker at ATypI 2013 in Amsterdam: Open and collaborative font design in a web fonts world. Speaker at ATypI 2017 Montreal.
Author of Bad Words: The Case Against Decadent Fonts (2005), a well-written but controversial piece about the silly (and dangerous) use of theme fonts. Read the condescending reaction of typophiles here. [Google] [More] ⦿
Typographic aficionado who contributes links to the St. Bride Printing Library in London. This page has links to the main type sites on the web.
I can't resist this wonderful short autobiography of Jef, and I do not want to translate it, because it would lose its punch: Jef Tombeur, ex-vagabond professionnel&auto-stoppeur en Europe, au Moyen-Orient et en Amérique du Nord depuis l'âge de 15 ans, s'est rapidement tourné vers le journalisme par désoeuvrement. Vendre à la criée The International Times et The Black Dwarf à Londres, puis Le Monde à Strasbourg, l'y incita. Laissant tomber facs et école de journalisme, il contribua à rédiger, composer, gérer l'hebdomadaire franco-alsacien Uss'm Follik (Issu du Peuple), ce que facilitèrent ses origines bretonnes. Repéré ensuite à Belfort, Niort, Reims, devenant progressivement grand reporter et de moins en moins pigiste pour Libération et d'autres. Chef de desk à l'Agence Centrale de Presse, il en diffusa la dernière dépêche puis retourna à la rue et aux facultés. Ayant traduit divers auteurs anglophones au passage, tel Tom Coraghessan Boyle (cf. www.tcboyle.net), il s'est de nouveau passionné pour la typographie, en devenant le seul journaliste spécialisé français (notamment pour Création Numérique ou Pixelcreation.fr). Envisage de devenir chômeur en fins de droits et propagandiste plénipotentiaire pour Phil Martin en Afrique avant d'avoir atteint, prochainement, si possible, 55 ans. Localisé fréquemment chez Ali (bar La Gitane, près de Strasbourg-Saint-Denis, Paris) ces temps derniers.
Jens Kutilek studied Communication Design in Braunschweig. After graduating he founded the web design agency Netzallee. He works at the font technology department at the Berlin office of FSI (FontShop International) since 2007. Jens Kutilek had a small typology page proving that Arial is not Helvetica, Courier is not Courier New, and Times-Roman is not Times-New Roman. That page disappeared. His typefaces:
Github page with many of his unfnished typefaces. Github page with free programming and system fonts such as Arimo, Clear, Cousine, Droid, Fira, Material Icons, Noto, Open, Roboto, Source, Special Elite, Tinos, and WinJS Symbols. [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
During the 1850's, the Dickenson Type Foundry in Boston stole a typeface from a foundry in France, redesigned the M and modified the N, and named it Gothic Shade. American Type Founders (ATF), a business trust created by the merger of 23 type foundries (including the Dickenson Type Foundry) was established in 1892. With the merging of these foundries, came the merging of their catalogs. And with that came Jim Crow, the American Type Founders' 1933 and 1949 re-casting of the Dickinson Type Foundry's type of the 1850s, Gothic Shade. It has also been called Tombstone. Additional sizes were cut by Los Angeles Type Foundry.
Jim Parkinson (Parkinson Type Design) explains the gradual development of his grotesque typefaces, from the custom headline font Newsweek No. 9 to Banner, Antique Condensed (Font Bureau), ITC Roswell and finally, Balboa and Balboa Plus. In his own words:
Balboa took its sweet time evolving. In 1985, Roger Black was at Newsweek magazine in New York. He was going to do a total redesign of the magazine, Roger had me redesign the logo, and help him fashion a headline font for the magazine. Roger wanted the font to be based on Stephenson Blake's Grotesque No. 9. But he wanted it heavier, way heavier. There was one crazy afternoon during the development of that font when Roger and I were at drawing tables in my tiny Art Room. My office has always been called The Art Room, and it was always the extra bedroom in whatever house I was living in. I was at one drawing table furiously drawing bolder letters, and, as fast as I could draw them, Roger, at the other drawing table, was rubber cementing the comp letters into dummy headlines. Each time he finished a headline, he would look over at me and bark, Bolder. BOLDER. I can still hear him today, Bolder. BOLDER. Eventually we found the right weight and made Newsweek No. 9. I drew it in pen and ink. It was digitized by some company in New Jersey. That was my introduction to the Grotesque letterforms.
About a dozen years later, I found myself working at the San Francisco Chronicle, trying to make digital fonts for the paper. The Executive Editor was a crusty old dude. He had fond memories of the 1950s when San Francisco had a half dozen dailies, all competing to attract readers. Back then, the old editor had had dozens of rack cards printed to scream for attention from atop newspaper racks in the city. The cards were butt-ugly, badly typeset, free of any trace of design, and unintentionally comical.
Still, the old fellow had deep affection for his rack cards and saved them as souvenirs. When he became aware there was a guy in the building designing digital type, he decided the strange wood type from the rack cards would be the Chronicle's first digital font.
The type on the rack cards was old woodtype. The letter weights were so uneven that I am sure characters from other fonts had been mixed in. I turned to an old ATF typeface called Condensed Title Gothic No. 11 to use as my model. I called the result Banner. It was a bomb proof headline gothic. No frills.
By the early 1990s I was working my favorite parts of the Grotesque into other typefaces. I like the endings of the round strokes and I worked them into Antique Condensed No. 2. The thing that I found distracting about the Grotesques was the flat-tire shape of the round characters. Droopy. Finally I combined the character shapes of Banner with the Grotesque details I used in Antique Condensed to make ITC Roswell. And ITC Roswell begat Balboa. [Google] [More] ⦿
Joan Marti Mas
Joe Clark: Type in the Toronto subway
Joe Clark tells us about the typeface used in the Toronto subway: The Toronto subway has a typeface all its own. You can compare it to a few other fonts, but no other typeface is exactly the same. And, for 50 years, pretty much the only place you found it was on permanent, virtually indestructible wall signage. The typeface, in its original form, is a geometric sansserif in upper case only, with ten numerals, ampersand, period, and apostrophe, and an arrow (though a few other arrows are found on period signage). The typeface is often misidentified at Gill Sans, a typeface that will later become important in TTC typographic history. Even highly expert designers have misidentified the typeface as Gill. Vaguely comparable typefaces are Verlag, Bernhard Gothic, Metro, Neutraface, and Eagle. [...] By all accounts, no one alive today knows who designed the Toronto subway typeface. The original drawings (TTC 1960) do not credit an artist. (Since the drawings are dated 1960.12.12, they were drawn after the first installation of letters on a subway wall. That makes the absence of credit even more surprising; it may mean the designer had already been forgotten six years after the subway opened.) The subway typeface does not have a name, although the TTC claims (2007a) it is known internally as the Station font. That name has not taken root with transit fans outside the TTC. No stable name for the typeface in common use apart from "the TTC font." [Google] [More] ⦿
Steingruber (1702-1787) was the son of a master mason from a place called Wassertrüdingen an der Wörnitz, near the town of Dinkelsbühl. After an apprenticeship in which he worked on constructing palaces at Mannheim and Rastatt, he came to work at the Brandenburg court at Ansbach in the service of the margrave Friedrich Carl Alexander. He was soon appointed court and public surveyor, and was later made principal architect of the board of works. Besides completing many building projects, Steingruber expounded on his architectural theory in his books Architecture Civile (ca. 1748) and Practica Bürgerlicher Baukunst (Practical Course in Civil Architecture, 1763). He is the creator of the Architectonisches Alphabeth, so called because each capital is in fact a floorplan of a building. [Google] [More] ⦿
John D. Berry
John Walters (Eye Magazine) wrote this about Spiekermann in February 2011.
When I went to Berlin a couple of years ago, in preparation for Eye 74, our Berlin special, I kept running into Erik Spiekermann. Not literally, though I did later spend a pleasant evening in the company of Erik and his wife Susanna. But I quickly realised that I couldn't avoid encountering Erik and his legacy. For a start, nearly every person I met had some connection to him: either they had collaborated with him, or worked for him, or they'd been taught or otherwise encouraged by Erik early in their career. And even people who didn't know him very well, or who had never met him, seemed to have an opinion about him. They knew him as a designer, as a typographer, as a type evangelist and as a writer---chiefly on the subject of typography, but with opinions about every other subject: politics, society, culture, art, music and so on. Also, quite apart from all the people I met, there were traces of Erik everywhere I went, on the subway, in the signs and the many different civic and commercial public projects that bore the stamp of one of his design practices, or that used one of his typefaces.
So that is why we called the Eye 74 piece "Six degrees of Erik Spiekermann". We devoted a gatefold information graphic to all the connections that he had made throughout his career, spanning the years since 1979, when the company that would become Meta was founded, to the present-day activities of Edenspiekermann. Like Kevin Bacon, Erik seemed to connect anyone who was anyone in graphic design, visual communication, branding and typography. Yet if our world were Hollywood, Erik would perhaps be more like Steven Spielberg than an actor like Bacon.
Erik is both a generalist and a specialist. The first time I ran into him, at an international typography conference, he asked me how I could stand to be surrounded by so many nerds? He knows how designers and typographers think, in the most minute detail, because that is the way he thinks, too. Yet he is managed to lift his head above the cubicle that all too often restricts the graphic design world, and look dispassionately at commerce and government and charities, taking the time to understand how they think, too. I have daily reason to be grateful for Erik's advice, since his ideas about the Rundbuero, expressed in Unit Editions' book Studio Culture, helped me make some changes in the way I organise my own office.
William Owen described Erik (in Eye 18) as a "consummate pluralist", while also taking on Erik's own definition of himself as a "typographic designer", who designs "from the word up", a phrase later used for a slim volume on Meta's work. William also noted that Erik "valued work of a kind he could never or would never want to do." But that is not surprising. It is almost the definition of a anyone with a rounded interest in culture and the world at large: you don't have to sing opera to value Nixon in China, nor do you have to paint in oils to appreciate art.
I think it is Erik's ability to work and show curiosity at both micro and macro levels (and all points between) that makes him a good writer, as well as a good designer. His writing is clear and to the point, whether in a column for Blueprint magazine or in an email containing directions to his house. Even if he had done little else, the book he wrote with E. M. Ginger, Stop Stealing Sheep & Find Out How Type Works (2nd Edition), would be an international calling card of huge proportions, since it's one of the few genuinely informative, entertaining and readable books about type written in the past few decades.
When I first watched the DVD of Gary Hustwit's Helvetica, whose extras section includes an extended interview with Erik, I was amused to hear him say how much he liked being an "unknown designer". Today's ceremony seems an odd place to talk about Erik's lack of recognition. Yet he was making an important point about the role of design---graphic design, type design and typography in particular---in civic life. As Erik explains in that documentary, neatly diverting the director from too many questions about a typeface he doesn't much care for, a nation's culture, the stuff that surrounds us, is made of good architecture and building, good food and cafes and supposedly nerdy things like the small type in timetables for public transport, or the signs in stations, or the little details that make your iPhone work intuitively.
Erik gets a kick out of being the unknown author behind some of this stuff, even when the money is terrible, and he has to fight the system---the conventional way of doing something---to make things just a little bit better. Few people might notice, or remark out loud that the timetable has acquired more legible, readable type, or better navigation, but as Erik would say, "That is the point." Many designers get a kick out of making things better, or finding a solution, or being part of the team that did that, whether their name is on the finished product or not. So I think we could regard this prize as one that Erik can share, just a little bit, with all the unknown designers out there, who play their part in making our lives better, our small print more legible.
Around the time I became editor of Eye, we published an updated version of Ken Garland's "First Things First", calling on designers to examine their priorities. The new manifesto included these sentences: "Unprecedented environmental, social and cultural crises demand our attention. Many cultural interventions, social marketing campaigns, books, magazines, exhibitions, educational tools, television programmes, films, charitable causes and other information design projects urgently require our expertise and help." Erik was one of 33 designers who put their names to "First Things First 2000", and that statement sounds just as relevant today---throw mobile devices and social media into the mix and it still holds good.
I agreed to come here on the strict understanding that the Designpreis would not signify or herald any slowing down on Erik's part. He still works at a furious pace. He even has a proofing press in his house, where heâ€™s cooking up plans to combine digital and analogue, making plates with a laser cutter. And in addition to all the usual client work, he is publishing a series of booklets of writings that he likes, and more little red books of his own work---the thoughts of Chairman Erik.
These thoughts are worth sharing. Erik is concerned about nerdy details, yet he loves to construct the big picture. He is a great advocate of design's role in civilised society, all the boring, behind-the-scenes stuff, but he is also quick to spot what is new and cool, and to champion and mentor young talent---the new Edenspiekermann scholarship is a significant addition to this aspect of Erik's life and work. For all these reasons, Erik is a worthy recipient of whatever awards get thrown his way---and they won't go to his head. [Google] [More] ⦿
José María Gosálbez Ruete
José Ramón Penela
Juan Carlos Grafico
Juan Carlos Pacheco
Juan Pablo De Gregorio Concha
Kai F. Oetzbach
Kerning: A survey
Sebastian Kosch surveys existing kerning methods in 2019 as part of his research for his own Google-supported method called YinYangFit. A verbatim excerpt:
I cite Joerg Knappen: Kindersley's "optical kerning": for the purposes of kerning, each character is replaced by a circle placed at the center of gravity of that character; the radius of the circle is determined by the fourth moment of the character (that is, the fourth root of the sum over all black pixels of the fourth power of their distance from the centre). On the UKTUG trip to Kindersley's studio, I tried to extract the reason why the fourth, as opposed to third or fifth or whatever, moment is used; the reason is apparently that it "looks right". [Google] [More] ⦿
The story of Korinna, a slightly art nouveau typeface designed by Berthold in 1904. Korinna and Korinna Bold were cut by Intertype in 1934. In 1974, Ed Benguiat and Victor Caruso created ITC Korinna, and made the design more popular. Ed writes: The goal was to keep the style and personality of the original German typeface, but make it more applicable to current tastes. The ITC Korinna font family doesn't fade into the background, and I like that. There was no italic design in the original, so I sat down for a month or two and just drew it and then decided to call it Korinna Kursiv rather than italic. I thought it sounded better!
A typeface cut by Wagner & Schmidt, Leipzig, in 1936-1937 meant for headlines. This Bauhaus-influenced design was owned by Stiftung Werkstattmuseum für Druckkunst, Leipzig. For a digital revival, one could use Kristall H MfD Pro (2019, Elsner & Flake). Kristall Now Pro (2019, Elsner & Flake) is a text family that revives Kristall Grotesk Buchschrift by Johannes Wagner GmbH, 1937. [Google] [More] ⦿
La Unión de los Tipógrafos
Chilean typographical and type design society. The site has announcements and discussions. It was founded by the Peruvian typographer Victorino Laínez in 1853 in Santiago. Presently, the motors behind this society are Felipe Cáceres and Conrado Muñoz. [Google] [More] ⦿
Quote by Günter Gerhard Lange in baseline on Helvetica: "If you look at it psychologically what you get is a picture of a pygmy script! It's like a human being with a large upper body and short arms and legs, in brief a Swiss Appenzeller mountain dog! As a typeface this "Appenzeller" stinks to high heaven because young people today are 1.9 meters tall, 2 meters with VAT, and it will be difficult to find a lad who prances around the area like a country bumpkin. Good heavens, they've probably forgotten him! He's standing still." [Google] [More] ⦿
The Last Resort font is a collection of glyphs to represent types of Unicode characters. These glyphs are designed to allow users to recognize that an encoded value is one of the following: a specific type of Unicode character; in the Private Use Area (no private agreement exists); unassigned (reserved for future assignment); one of the illegal character codes. Apple's LastResort font was first included in Mac OS 8.5 in 1998, for the benefit of applications using Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging (ATSUI). It is also used in Mac OS X. In 2001, for the second release of OS X, the Last Resort font design was revised to include the border text and was re-digitized, and extended in 2002 by Michael Everson of Evertype, who continues to update it with each new release of Unicode. Apple has now made the Last Resort font available for free download from the Unicode website. Wiki entry. [Google] [More] ⦿
McGrew writes: Latin is a general name for a number of typefaces which originated in the 1880s or earlier. Most of them were made by various foundries, sometimes under other names. Some had little or no apparent design relationship to each other. ATF's Latin Antique No. 520 was Marder, Luse's Latin Antique No. 12O. Other founders had it simply as Latin Antique, though BB&S originally called it Latin No.5. It is a wide, medium-weight typeface with very small, rounded serifs, and lacks the curlicues of Latin Modern or Modern Antique. Latin Bold Condensed is now the most common name of the most prominent survivor of this group, but most recent fonts were imported from England, although ATF had at least two sets of matrices in its vaults for many years. ATF formerly made the typeface as Modern Antique No.2, originating at Cincinnati Type Foundry. BB&S in its later years called the same typeface Latin Modern, but earlier had also called it Latin Antique. Inland simply called it Latin series. From whatever source, it is a bold, compact display face, characterized by heavy, triangular serifs. The strokes of several lowercase letters terminate in pointed curlicues. In the 1950s or 1960s, fonts imported from Stephenson Blake achieved some popularity; this is the source of the specimen shown here. Latin Condensed, Extra Condensed, Elongated, and Compressed are much narrower versions of this design, though a little lighter and with fewer curlicues. The New York Times has used a version of Latin Condensed for news heads for many years. In its 1898 book, ATF applied the name "Baskerville" to Latin Condensed! Light Modern has curlicues and long triangular serifs but is much lighter, while Latin Expanded (formerly called Guard) is the same but wider. ATF called the latter design Lightface Celtic No. 40, shown in 1886 by Marder, Luse, while Keystone had a similar Keystone Expanded, and Linotype had Celtic No.1. The BB&S Latin Lightface is a much lighter version of Latin Antique; it was formerly called Light Latin. Latin Oldstyle Bold has the least relationship to other Latin typefaces. It was formerly known as Modern Title, and before that Monarch, shown in 1893 or earlier; ATF called the same typeface Eastman Oldstyle. Also see Emperor. [Google] [More] ⦿
Freelance computer illustrator in Pacifica, CA. Author of "Creating Great Web Graphics". Some free art. Designed a few typefaces of her own, mostly licensed to NIMX Foundry: Scat, Scat Dingbats, Jitterbat (1994), Jitterbug (1994), Holiday Mix, and Faces. Other typefaces include Spud Dude, Beebop (2009, a sixties party font), and NIMX Nature Mix (NIMX, 1995).
A MyFonts webfonts feature article. The summary: Layering text adds depth and visual interest to headlines, mastheads and other large display type on your site. There are plenty of fonts that are specifically designed for this technique. Font families designed for this technique will typically have two or more versions of the font, such as a shadow, fill, outline or a texture. It is especially important that the fonts all have the same metric values, because making manual tweaks to spacing and kerning is hard enough in DTP applications; in CSS, it is virtually impossible. The typefaces below all work right out of the box. The basic principle of this technique is that it takes two identical lines of text, applies a different version of the font to each (such as an outline and a fill version) and then layers one above the other. [Google] [More] ⦿
Character set for the typeface used by Le Monde and designed by Jean-François Porchez in less than three months. It was used by Le Monde from 1994 until 2005. In 2002, the headlines were replaced by a typeface designed by Lucas De Groot (but Porchez did not like that) and in 2005, finally, the text typeface was replaced by Carter's Fenway, done earlier for Sports Illustrated. [Google] [More] ⦿
Lesek Bielski (b. 1960) specializes in the design of visual identification systems, posters, graphic signs and graphics. In 2017, he participated in the Bona project, which set out to revive and extend Andrzej Heidrich's old typeface Bona. Mateusz Machalski contacted him for advice on the revival project. The resulting typeface families were published by and are available from Capitalics. The centerpiece is the warm and wonderful text typeface Bona Nova. It is supplemented by the extreme contrast typeface family Bona Title and the inline typeface family Bona Sforza. Participants in the project also include Leszek Bielski, Ania Wielunska and Michal Jarocinski. Google Fonts link for Bona Nova. Github link for Bona Nova. [Google] [More] ⦿
Juan Pablo De Gregorio Concha is the Chilean designer (b. 1978) of the hip Bodoni typeface Isbel la Romana (2002). Alternate URL. Creator of Chúcara (2003), a typeface developed as part of his thesis for the School of Design of the Catholic University of Chile. His blog, Letritas, has many interesting technical type discussions. His other blog is Garabatitos. I especially like his article on the logical decomposition of letter forms. [Google] [More] ⦿
In the late 19th century, Central Type Foundry from St. Louis, MO, published Letter Combinations in one of its catalogs. It has a number of basic geometric shapes that typesetters could combine into modular typefaces, a time-consuming process. But it is not unlike the digital modular software programs like FontStruct that let users work with a palette of basic shapes. [Google] [More] ⦿
A project in cognitive sciences at the University of Indiana, headed by Gary McGraw, John Rehling and Douglas Hofstadter, and active from about 1992 until 1994. A lot of it is captured in McGraw's PhD thesis.
They state: "The specific focus of Letter Spirit is the creative act of artistic letter-design. The aim is to model how the 26 lowercase letters of the roman alphabet can be rendered in many different but internally coherent styles. The program addresses two important aspects of letterforms: the categorical sameness possessed by letters belonging to a given category (e.g., `a') and the stylistic sameness possessed by letters belonging to a given style (e.g., Helvetica). Starting with one or more seed letters representing the beginnings of a style, the program will attempt to create the rest of the alphabet in such a way that all 26 letters share that same style, or spirit." Fonts created in this manner include Standard square, Double Backslash, Hint Four, Zigzag, Snout, Bowtie, Weird Arrow, Sabretooth, Sluice and Flournoy Ranch. [Google] [More] ⦿
A discussion on the typography of numbers on shirts, by Dutchman Sander Neijnens, a Tilburg-based Dutch graphic designer (b. Valkenswaard, 1957) who drew a character in the September 11 charity font done for FontAid II. Specializing in numbers on athletic shirts, and displeased with the sameness of the letters in classical typefaces like ITC Machine or Superstars, he proposes serifed numbers, which were used by the soccer team Willem II from Tilburg in 2002-2003. A new athletic number design, King III, is in the works. He created Hia (a stencil typeface for use on doors and fences), Streep (horizontally striped letters for fences), and Klinker (based on street tile patterns).
A great source of typographic images collected since 1980 by Rob Saunders, who is based in San Francisco. A visual treasure trove, well-documented. Rob Saunders has been collecting letterforms for over 35 years, while pursuing a career as a designer, teacher, children's book publisher, and marketing consultant. His collection contains many books and ephemera of historical and inspirational interest to type designers. He founded Letterform Archive in 2013 to share his collection with the design community. Frequent speaker at TypeCon meetings. Speaker at ATypI 2015 in Sao Paulo. [Google] [More] ⦿
Literata is a typeface designed in 2014 and 2015 by Type Together for use in Google Play Books on many different kinds of devices. As of 2015, it replaces Droid Serif (2006-2007, Steve Matteson). The project was headed by Veronika Burian and José Scaglione. The final Literata family featured two weights and matching italics including more than 1100 characters per font with Pan-European language support. It coversedPolytonic Greek (designed by Irene Vlachou, advised by Gerry Leonidas) and Cyrillic (designed by Vera Evstafieva, advised by Kiril Zlatkov).
In 2020, Literata 3, entirely free and a totally new re-design, was released. This 48-style family comes with a variable style. The designers in 2020 were Veronika Burian (Latin), José Scaglione (Latin), Vera Evstafieva (Cyrillic), Elena Novoselova (Cyrillic) and Irene Vlachou (Greek).
The hookish London 2012 logo font is almost unanimously booed by the typophiles. A typical comment: A terrible font. Reminds me of antedeluvian Viking runes. I quote a section from Simon Garfield's book Just My Type (2010, Gotham Books):
The London 2012 Olympic Typeface, which is called 2012 Headline, may be even worse than the London 2012 Olympic Logo, but by the time it was released people were so tired of being outraged by the logo that the type almost passed by unnoticed. The Logo was the subject of immediate parody (some detected Lisa Simpson having sex, others a swastika), and even the subject of a health warning--an animated pulsing version was said to have brought on epileptic fits. In the International Herald Tribune, Alice Rawsthorn observed that "it looks increasingly like the graphic equivalent of what we Brits scathingly call--'dad dancing'--namely a middle-aged man who tries so hard to be cool on the dance floor that he fails."
Like the logo, the uncool font is based on jaggedness and crudeness, not usually considered attributes where sport is concerned. Or maybe it's an attempt to appear hip and down with the kids--it looks a little like the sort of tagging one might see in 1980s graffiti. It also has a vaguely Greek appearance, or at least the UK interpretation of Greek, the sort of lettering you will find at London kebab shops and restaurants called Dionysus. [Google] [More] ⦿
Long S Code
From the ITC site: ITC Lubalin Graph is based on the ITC Avant Garde Gothic typeface. The design of ITC Lubalin Graph stemmed from a need for a flexible Egyptian alphabet that was suitable for the phototypesetting technology of the 1970s. The original roman typefaces were designed by Herb Lubalin and drawn by Antonio DiSpigna and Joe Sundwall. The oblique versions were designed by Herb Lubalin and drawn by Ed Benguiat. The condensed versions were developed in 1992 by Helga Jörgensen and Sigrid Engelman.
There are versions of this idiosyncratic slab serif typeface by ITC and Adobe. In 2013, Svetoslav Simov created a lookalike extension of Lubalin Graph called Nexa Slab. In the same style, we also find Kettering 105 (2012) and Kettering 205 by Adrian Talbot. For alternates, see APT Lubalin Graph Alternates (1997, Alan Jay Prescott).
Lucida Grande is a humanist sans-serif typeface. It is a member of the Lucida family of typefaces designed by Charles Bigelow and Kris Holmes. It has been used throughout Mac OS X user interface from 1999 to 2014, as well as in Safari for Windows up to the browser's version 3.2.3 released in 2009. As of OS X 10.10 Yosemite, the Apple system font was changed from Lucida Grande to Helvetica Neue. In OS X El Capitan the system font changed again, to San Francisco.
The typeface looks very similar to Lucida Sans and Lucida Sans Unicode. Like Sans Unicode, Grande supports the most commonly used characters defined in version 2.0 of the Unicode standard. Three weights of Lucida Grande (Normal, Bold, and Black) in three styles (Roman, Italic, and Oblique) were developed by Bigelow & Holmes. Apple released the Regular (Normal Roman) and Bold Roman with OS X. Bigelow & Holmes realeased Narrow and Monospaced versions as well.
Apart from Mac OS X, many web sites and blogs (such as Facebook) use Lucida Grande as the default typeface for body text.
Lygia Pimentel Lins (b. Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 1920, d. Rio de Janeiro, 1988), aka Lygia Clark, was a Brazilian artist and painter. She was often associated with the Brazilian constructivist movements of the mid-20th century and the Tropicalia movement. She started the Frente movement in 1954. Along with Brazilian artists Amilcar de Castro, Franz Weissmann, Lygia Pape and poet Ferreira Gullar, Clark co-founded the Neo-Concrete movement---The Neo-Concretists were interested in how art could be used to express complex human realities. From 1960 on, Clark introduced ways for viewers to interact with her (often abstract) art works.
She had an influence on some type designs. A partial list:
He once said Each letter should have a flirtation with the one next to it. The story told by his son Clyde (Chromatype, Charlotte, NC) in 2010: It was a quote developed during the time of using the typositor for phototypesetting headlines. Herb Lubalin, Aaron Burns and ITC were clients of ours who often required the careful and considered placement of one letter next to the other. We had to take into account the positive and negative space between letters. This was being done in a red light safe darkroom, exposing each letter one at a time and watching it develop under a "glass" which held liquid photo developer. Being a flirtatious man, my father came up with that quote during that period which was around 1985-1986. A couple of years later he became a consultant for a few companies including Adobe in their earliest years. That quote can be found in one of Adobe's first specimen books "Adobe Type Guide, Volume 1". [Google] [More] ⦿
Make Ready is a journal featuring news and observations on letterpress, book arts, typography, design, and other delectables - slightly caramelized, with a healthy dollop of ephemera. [Google] [More] ⦿
Mac McGrew: Masterman was put on Monotype in 1909, but it originated with Hansen some time before that. It is a modification of earlier typefaces known generally as Title before type names as we know them became common, and is similar to some of the typefaces in the Engravers and Litho families (q. v.). The characters have high contrast, and lowercase has fairly long ascenders. The basic character is a plain, severe roman shape. It was popular as an early advertising display face.
Dutch typographer and graphic designer. In 2000-2001, he published a piece on the erotics of type, and reviewed the book Sex Appeal: The art of allure in graphic and advertising design (Steve Heller, Allworth Press, New York, 2000). He spoke at ATypI 1998 in Lyon on Words on screens. Ed Annink and Max Bruinsma edited the book Gerd Arntz Graphic Designer (2010, Rotterdam). [Google] [More] ⦿
Article by Douglas Hofstadter (1982). Subtitled: "Comments on Donald Knuth's article The Concept of a Meta-Font". Originally published in Visible Language, it appears with a new postscript as chapter 13 in Metamagical Themas by Douglas R. Hofstadter (Basic Books, 1985). [Google] [More] ⦿
Michael Bierut: Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Typeface
Michael Bierut on the how and why of type choices. I quote from the introduction: For the first ten years of my career, I worked for Massimo Vignelli, a designer who is legendary for using a very limited number of typefaces. Between 1980 and 1990, most of my projects were set in five fonts: Helvetica (naturally), Futura, Garamond No. 3, Century Expanded, and, of course, Bodoni. For Massimo, this was an ideological choice, an ethical imperative. In the new computer age, he once wrote, the proliferation of typefaces and type manipulations represents a new level of visual pollution threatening our culture. Out of thousands of typefaces, all we need are a few basic ones, and trash the rest. [...] My Catholic school education must have well prepared me for this kind of moral clarity. I accepted it gratefully. Then, after a decade, I left my first job. Suddenly I could use any typeface I wanted, and I went nuts. On one of my first projects, I used 37 different fonts on 16 pages. [...] Liberated from monogamy, I became typographically promiscuous. [Google] [More] ⦿
On McSweeny's site of lists, Meilan's list of World Leader Fonts:
Mid-Century Modern Typefaces
In Mike Yanega's sans serif type identification guide, the user selects characteristics for seven letters (a, e, g, G, M, R, and y) and is shown fonts that have those characteristics. [Google] [More] ⦿
In Mike Yanega's latest type encyclopedia, the user selects characteristics for 12 key letters (a, b, e, g, y, E, J, K, M, R, U and W) and is shown fonts that have those characteristics. [Google] [More] ⦿
Milo Dominik Ivir
Milo Dominik Ivir is a Croation graphic designer and type designer, born in Zagreb in 1968. He worked at the Institute of Print Technology and Planning in Berlin, and started Milo Typografik. Check his essay "Schrifttechnologien und Bildschirmtypografie". His typefaces: Agram (2000), Aramaica (1997), AvantHighBook (1997), Bonbon (1998), CorinnaHand (1999), Delirious (1998), GirlsAndBoys (1997), Gotharda (1997, a blackletterish headline face), Kaptol (1997), LexikaBold, Pianissimo (1998), Poster-Inline (1997), Poster-Outline (1997), Samantha (1997), StariGrad (1998), StephenHand (1997), Zagreb. His families: Factory (1997), FactoryBroken (1997), Klavir (1997), KlavirCaps (1997), Milo-Inline, Milo-Outline, Screen14 (1998), Screen14Bold (1998).
Miriam van der Have
It is well-known that typophiles do not like ITC Garamond. They are also not fans of Adobe Garamond. But when the two get mixed in one book, they blow all their renaissance fuses. Excerpts from some posts. MB is Matthew Butterick and CL is Chris Lozos.
MB: I was examining a paperback copy of the book "The No-Asshole Rule" in the airport. I was curious how you get a whole book out of a title that seems fairly self-explanatory. The text was set in ITC Garamond, which would be bad enough on its own, but the italic used in the text was not ITC Garamond italic, but rather Adobe Garamond italic. At that point, the book lost all credibility, because despite the title, it was clear that an asshole had been allowed to handle the typography. No-Asshole Rule: flagrantly violated. [...] To combine ITC Garamond and Adobe Garamond like this requires a willful act of perversity and disharmony. It would be easier to just use ITC Garamond italic. But here, the book designer expended time and labor to produce something even uglier.
CL: You are assuming some actual thought went into that decision. My guess is that 4th edition paperbacks that end up in airports are done "by computer" meaning humans are forbidden from taking part in the process because they require an hourly rate and health insurance. My guess is that Adobe Garamond Italic came earliest on the font menu so was selected. No one cares what poor schleps who can only buy books in airports have to suffer. After all, they are about to get crammed into a tincan with bad air and poor service where they will not only contract some dreaded disease but be late for their meeting anyway. ;-) That surely is a job coveted only by assholes. [Google] [More] ⦿
Mac McGrew describes the slab serif Modern Antique: Modern Antique and Modern Antique Condensed were adapted to Monotype in 1909 from traditional typefaces dating from about 1820, commonly known simply as Antiques or Egyptians. They were forerunners of the square serifs, but closer to romans in general appearance, and were usually used for boldface emphasis with roman types, particularly modem romans. In most sizes these two Monotype typefaces are the same set width as each other, and have the same figures and points. Otherwise they differ only in the proportions of the C2 and C 1 arrangements, being good examples of adaptations to the basic Monotype unit system. (See "Practical Design Limitations" in Introduction.) Also see Bold Antique; and Latin Modern under Latin Bold Condensed.
Mac McGrew: Modern Gothic originated with BB&S about 1897. It appears to be a modernization of older nineteenth-century gothics, although it has considerable resemblance to the much later European design, Helvetica Bold. It has the horizontal endings to curved strokes which typify Helvetica, but the more typically American double-bowl g. However, it is much more loosely fitted and not as refined as either Helvetica or the American Franklin Gothic, which originated in 1902. The entire series is called Gothic Modern in some specimens. Modern Condensed Gothic is probably the best member of this family. It was copied by Monotype at an early date, with 6- to 12-point sizes substantially modified to fit the unit system; however, unlike many early Monotype copies, display sizes are virtually exact copies of the foundry original. In 1928 Sol Hess drew a set of alternate capitals for this face, and the name was changed to Tourist Gothic (q. v.) in display sizes, 14-point and larger. This typeface is often called Franklin Gothic Condensed, but this is not correct as there is only a general resemblance. Medium Condensed Gothic Outline, cut by Triangle Type Foundry in Chicago, is an open version, without lowercase, of this face; some other sources inaccurately call it Franklin Gothic Condensed Outline (q.v.). The larger sizes of Gothic No. 13 (q.v.) on Linotype and Intertype are very similar. Monotype also has Tourist Gothic Italic, and an adaptation of Modern Gothic Italic under the name of Bold Inclined Gothic. [Google] [More] ⦿
Modern Typography is a dot com web presence organized by the London-based type designer and graphic designer, Paul Barnes (b. 1970), typophile extraordinaire. It is promised to have plenty of material for the typophile. In the 1990s, Paul Barnes worked for Roger Black in New York where he was involved in redesigns of Newsweek, US and British Esquire and Foreign Affairs. During this time he art-directed Esquire Gentleman and U&lc. He later returned to America to be art director of the music magazine Spin. Since 1995 he has lived and worked in London. He has formed a long term collaboration with Peter Saville, which has resulted in such diverse work as identities for Givenchy and numerous music based projects, such as Gay Dad, New Order, Joy Division and Electronic. Barnes has also been an advisor and consultant on numerous publications, notably The Sunday Times Magazine, The Guardian and The Observer Newspapers, GQ, Wallpaper, Harper's Bazaar and Frieze. Following the redesign of The Guardian, as part of the team headed by Mark Porter, Barnes was awarded the Black Pencil from the D&AD. They were also nominated for the Design Museum Designer of the Year. In September 2006, with Schwartz he was named one of the 40 most influential designers under 40 in Wallpaper. He cofounded Commercial Type with Christian Schwartz. Author of Swiss Typography: The typography of Karl Gerstner and Rudolf Hostettler (Modern Typography, 2000).
The crew in 2012 includes Paul Barnes (Principal), Christian Schwartz (Principal), Vincent Chan (type designer), Berton Hasebe (type designer, who worked at Commercial type from 2008 until 2013) and Mark Record (font technician). Miguel Reyes joined in 2013. Hrvoje Zivcic helps with font production.
In 2016, Monotype published its Foundation Collection (75 fonts for 490 dollars: see this PDF file) described as follows in its corporate promo: This carefully-curated type collection draws from the acclaimed Monotype, Linotype, ITC, Bitstream and other libraries to provide a strong foundation for any designer's type library. No Futura, Gill Sans, Times or Helvetica? No recent hot fonts? Luckily, the collection contains Litterbox ICG and Smile ICG. So, I would replace "carefully-curated" by "random", and "strong" by "rickety".
The fonts: Akko Pro-Regular, Akko Pro-Italic, Akko Pro-Bold, Akko Pro-Bold Italic, Ashley Inline MTStd, Avenir Next LTPro-Medium, Avenir Next LTPro-Medium It, Avenir Next LTPro-Bold, Avenir Next LTPro-Bold It, Ayita Pro, Ayita Pro-Italic, Ayita Pro-Bold, Ayita Pro-Bold Italic, Baskerville MTStd-Regular, Baskerville MTStd-Italic, Baskerville MTStd-Bold, Baskerville MTStd-Bold It, Bodoni LTPro, Bodoni LTPro-Italic, Bodoni LTPro-Bold, Bodoni LTPro-Bold Italic, Bodoni Std-Poster, Bodoni Std-Poster Italic, Cariola Script Std, Centaur MTPro-Regular, Centaur MTPro-Italic, Centaur MTPro-Bold, Centaur MTPro-Bold Italic, Charter ITCStd-Regular, Charter ITCStd-Italic, Charter ITCStd-Bold, Charter ITCStd-Bold Italic, Chicory, Clarendon BT Pro Light, Clarendon BT Pro Roman, Clarendon BT Pro Bold, Clarendon BT Pro Black, DINNext LTPro-Regular, DINNext LTPro-Italic, DINNext LTPro-Bold, DINNext LTPro-Bold Italic, DIN Next Slab Pro Light, DIN Next Slab Pro Black, Eclat, Litterbox ICGStd, Malabar LTPro-Regular, Malabar LTPro-Italic, Malabar LTPro-Bold, Malabar LTPro-Bold Italic, Neue Haas Unica Pro Ultra Light, Neue Haas Unica Pro, Neue Haas Unica Pro Italic, Neue Haas Unica Pro Bold, Neue Haas Unica Pro Bold Italic, Neue Haas Unica Pro Black, Pokerface, Schmutz Pro-Clogged, Scooter, Shelley Script LTPro, Smile ICG-Medium, Stempel Garamond LTPro-Roman, Stempel Garamond LTPro-Italic, Stempel Garamond LTPro-Bold, Stempel Garamond LTPro-Bold It, Titanium Motors Std-Oblique, Titanium Motors Std-Regular, Trade Gothic Next LTPro-Rg, Trade Gothic Next LTPro-It, Trade Gothic Next LTPro-Bd, Trade Gothic Next LTPro-Bd It, Unit Slab OT-Ita, Unit Slab OT-Bold, Unit Slab OT, Unit Slab OT-Bold Ita, William Lucas Std. [Google] [More] ⦿
Mark Simonson explains Monotype's cheap substitutes for not only Helvetica, but all the other proprietary fonts Adobe has included with PostScript. These were created at the request of Microsoft for inclusion with its PostScript clone, TrueImage, and also included with Windows and Microsoft Office. A quick list:
Morris Fuller Benton
MT Neo Didot was designed in 1904 at Monotype. With less contrast than the original Didot typefaces, it is appropriate for texts. Some suggest that the closest we have to MT Neo Didot in digital form is Peter Mohr's Fayon (2010, OurType). But Maxim Zhukov pointed out its popularity in Russia: Series No 27 (Neo Didot) had a Cyrillic version. I don't know when it was developed. A lot of books in USSR and world-wide were set in Neo Didot. Neo Didot was so popular that around 1940 its Soviet clone was developed, Obyknovennaya Novaya Garnitura (Ordinary New Typeface). It was custom-designed for the 4th edition of Lenin's Collected Works (its 1st volume was printed in 1941, and the last one, 39th, in 1967). That typeface was later released for general use. It is now offered in digital form by ParaType, under the name New Standard. That clone was by Anatoly Shchukin at Polygraphmash. Also, Maxim is referring to the Paratype version done in 1996 by Vladimir Yefimov. [Google] [More] ⦿
MToT (My type of type) provides users with a web-based typeface specimen collection. Users are able to take a typeface from anywhere on the web and catalog it for their own reference. Collections can be organized via tags, and shared with other MToT users or kept private. Examples include ITC Founder's Caslon, ASffair, and Bodoni. [Google] [More] ⦿
A list of digital versions of Gill Sans, and related digital fonts. Please note the abysmal design of Gill Sans---the lower case seems to have been borrowed from a serif typeface, and the stroke widths in general are unpredictable. The lower case a destroys the entire design---what a shame. [Google] [More] ⦿
MyFonts was a division of Bitstream Inc., located in Marlborough, Massachusetts. After Bitstream was taken over by Monotype, it changed directions. Its mission was to make it simple for everyone to find and buy fonts. In pursuit of this mission, MyFonts has pioneered new ways to search for fonts when one does not have an exact font in mind. The concept of MyFonts was born in 1999 when Charles Ying, Bitstream's Chairman of the Board, wanted to find a font for a particular project. He was horrified to discover that the only way to find fonts on the web was to know the name of the font you were looking for, or browse a flat alphabetical list. Why can't I just search for wedding fonts, he asked. This should be as easy as shopping for shoes! I should be able to point at a font in a magazine and say, Show me fonts like this. Charles reasoned that making it hard to find and buy fonts for the average computer user meant turning away 99.9% of the potential market for fonts. He called for an open marketplace, where fonts from many vendors could compete side-by-side. Charles personally hired the initial team and commissioned a site design from (now defunct) Calgary-based Fusion Media Group. MyFonts began selling the Bitstream library on March 20, 2000 through the MyFonts.com website. It now has over 80,000 fonts from about 1000 foundries. It includes WhatTheFont (was Identafont) (send scanned images to the site for automatic recognition), "Show me more like this", TypeXplorer (font space browser), type designer and foundry info. The project manager is Laurence Penney. List of designers.
Postmortem: While it remains active, MyFonts and Bitstream were acquired by Monotype in 2012. It is bleeding on both ends---high-class outfits such as Hoefler, Tobias Frere-Jones, Commercial Type and Our Type run their own shops, and the middle class is scared off by the Monotype monopoly, the business-is-more-important-than-you atmosphere, and the friendlier hunting grounds of Creative Market and similar font truck vendors. Fontacular: monthly sales specials. [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
Myriad is a large humanist sans serif family developed from 1990-1992 by Carol Twombly at Adobe with the help of Robert Slimbach and Fred Brady. Originally a multiple masters font, it continues its life as Myriad Pro (opentype) today. It is used for both text and display. Since the launch of the eMac in 2002, Myriad has been replacing Apple Garamond as Apple Computer's corporate font. Adobe states: An Adobe Originals design first released in 1992, Myriad has become popular for both text and display composition. As an OpenType release, Myriad Pro expands this sans serif family to include Greek and Cyrillic glyphs, as well as adding oldstyle figures and improving support for Latin-based languages. The full Myriad Pro family includes condensed, normal, and extended widths in a full range of weights. Designed by Robert Slimbach&Carol Twombly with Fred Brady&Christopher Slye, Myriad has a warmth and readability that result from the humanist treatment of letter proportions and design detail. Myriad Pro's clean open shapes, precise letter fit, and extensive kerning pairs make this unified family of roman and italic an excellent choice for text typography that is comfortable to read, while the wide variety of weights and widths in the family provide a generous creative palette for even the most demanding display typography.
The typophiles offer these suggestions for alternatives for Myriad in 2016: Open sans, Source Sans, Verb, FF Milo, FF Kievit, Seravek, JAF Bernini Sans, Fresco Sans. One could also add Interval Next (Mostar Design), Humanist 777 (by Bitstream), and the typeface it was originally designed to eplace, Frutiger (by Linotype). [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
National Old Style and Nabisco
Two Goudy fonts, from 1916 and 1921, respectively. Goudy wrote about them, as reported in A Half-Century of Type Design and Typography: 1895-1945, Typophiles Chap Books XIV, 1946 at pages 99 and 110:
Mac McGrew: National Oldstyle was designed by Frederic W. Goudy for ATF in 1916. It is based on lettering he had done about fifteen years earlier for National Biscuit Company, hence the name. It was moderately popular for a while for publication and advertising display work, and for titles for silent motion pictures. Compare Nabisco.
Mac McGrew on Nabisco: Nabisco was designed by Frederic W. Goudy in 1921 as a private type for National Biscuit Company, based on hand-lettering of the company name he had done about twenty years earlier. As he had in the meantime drawn National Oldstyle (q.v.) for ATF, based on the same lettering, this typeface is consciously different although retaining the same general characteristics. Several sizes were cut by Robert Wiebking. The baking company was pleased. and used it frequently for several years.
For a revival of National Oldtsyle, see National Oldstyle NF (2014, Nick Curtis). For a revival and extension to bold, semibold and italics, see Goudy National (2018, Steve Matteson. [Google] [More] ⦿
Necrocock in a Czech death metal group formed in 1992 that revels in perversity, burials and cremations. For some reason, unknown to the author, necrocock is also a tag word in typeface classification used to describe legible sans (or oddly serifed) typefaces that are a bit bumpy or shifty, as if spooked by glyph ghosts. Examples include Hubert Jocham's Versa Sans and Verse Serif, Vlad Viperov's Markofontina (2014), Richard Yeend's Burgstaedt Antiqua, ITC Biblon, Monotype's Buccardi, Tipotype's Sedan, and a large portion of Frantisek Storm's typefaces, who as a death metal activist himself, must be considered as the main representative of this genre. Storm's typefaces in this style include Academica, AndulkaSans, AnselmSans, AnselmSerif, DynaGrotesk-2014, Farao, Hercules, JannonSans, JohnSans, LexonGothic, Mediaeval, SebastianPro, and Serapion. [Google] [More] ⦿
Nike 365 is a mysterious series of Linotype and Neufville Digital fonts. These include the traditional gothic style family Trade Gothic for Nike 365 (MyFonts link) and Futura ND for Nike 365 (MyFonts link). Who, what, where, how, I have no idea! I would like to see the context, and understand why each weight of Trade Gothic costs 147 dollars, and why MyFonts lists the design date as 2012? The multiweight Futura ND for Nike 365 font from Neufville has a cryptic text: These fonts are for Nike materials only. [Google] [More] ⦿
Niko Skourtis is a graphic designer practicing in New York since earning a BFA from California College of the Arts. For his thesis, he developed an interactive program called Typograph, which earned him the SOTA Catalyst Award in 2012. [Google] [More] ⦿
Great article by Shane Wilson in the Harvard Independent on Scandinavian typography and type design. But the Scnadinavians won't like it: Wilson says that there is no such thing as a Scandinavian typographical identity. [Google] [More] ⦿
Notes on type design
An informal marker style font that comis with iOS on Apple's iPad, created by Patrick Griffin of Canada Type ca. 2009. It looks like, but differs from Filmotype Brooklyn, a Filmotype font digitally revived by Patrick Griffin for Stuart Sandler. [Google] [More] ⦿
A digital typeface family launched in 1984 by Compugraphic. The premier edition of Novus type consisted of three type families with three weights each: Draco I, Draco II, Draco III; Pictor I, Pictor II, Pictor III; and Vela I, Vela II, Vela III. [Google] [More] ⦿
Open Educational Resources for Typography (OERT) is an open educational project available to everyone who wishes to broaden their knowledge of typography, including students, teachers, and individuals interested in the subject. The project is built upon the course material prepared by Pablo Cosgaya (FADU / UBA, Buenos Aires), a set of booklets that was initiated in 1994 and which is currently organized into three sections: theoretical, historical, and practical. The project aims at expanding, updating, and editing the current material in Spanish, to translate it into English, and to publish it online under a Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike license.
The editorial team consists of Pablo Cosgaya, David Crossland, Natalia Pano and Marcela Romero.
The OERT Team consists of FADU / UBA professors Pablo Cosgaya, Magdalena Fumagalli, Verónica García, Alvaro Ghisolfo, Malena Menéndez, Natalia Pano, Inés Pupareli, Marcela Romero and Julián Villagra. [Google] [More] ⦿
Linotype had pages on the history of sans serif ("Grotesk" in German), from its inception in 1816 in England and the early versions of William Caslon and Vincent Figgins (1832), through the Akzidenz Grotesk (1900), Reform-Grotesk (1904) and Venus (1907). [Google] [More] ⦿
Words with holes, repetitive shapes, ambiguity, as listed by Nick Shinn and other typophiles: savvy, assesses, aggregate, modern, filling, banana, punctuation, filigree, graffiti, titular, boondoggle, representative, look, pool, room, marmalade, geostasis, illigitimate, assassinate, ignoble, narcissistic, atavistic, coterminous, arrogation, Yog-Sothoth, fabulous, buckety, poon, palpate, diminishing, Mississippi, syzygy, imminent, swimming, balaclava, horror-romance, Milli Vanilli, Bananarama, heavyweight, keyword, polyvinvyl, goggles, Beijing, bookkeeper, rhythm, unnecessary, aioli, teepee, minimum, oology, Hawaiian, huh, Ohio, suss, Qabalah, onomatopoeia, phlegm. [Google] [More] ⦿
Optical kerning refers to the placement of adjacent characters, not based on kerning tables. This process is useful as a final adjustment, or when neighboring characters are from different fonts. It can sometimes be automated (a very difficult thing to do!), but is often done manually. [Google] [More] ⦿
A project by two designers who list 200 of their favorite fonts. However, there is no info on those fonts--no designers are named, no links given, no downloads available, no help given. The web page does not function on my system, the type is too small, and the information content virtually nil. The two designers do not even give their own names. [Google] [More] ⦿
Orbis Typographicus is a set of twenty-nine 9x12 letterpress broadsides, designed by Hermann Zapf and printed by Philip Metzger of Crabgrass Press between 1970 and 1980. The broadsides feature quotations on art, science, nature, faith, and the human condition, from authors ancient and contemporary. The text includes poetry, prose, anagrams, and palindromes, in English, German, Spanish, French and Japanese. Hand set by Philip Metzger, the set showcases many of the typefaces of Zapf and his wife, Gudrun Zapf von Hesse.
In 2013, the web site Orbis Typographicus was set up by Joshua Langman. It features high-resolution scans, available for download, and a complete computer-searchable transcript. The web site also features an essay by Philip A. Metzger, the son of the printer, in which he shares his recollections of his father working on the project.
Enrico Bravi's 3-d type project. Bravi graduated in Graphics at the ISIA in Urbino with a thesis titled Graphica Programmata. From 1999 to 2002 he collaborated with Nofrontiere Design in Vienna. He now lives and works in Vienna, Austria. Speaker at ATypI 2005 in Helsinki. [Google] [More] ⦿
A typeface made originally in 1928 by Monotype as a copy of Rudolf Koch's Neuland, and re-published by them in 2002. It was designed by Carl Crossgrove and Steve Matteson. The display typeface Monotype Othello Shadow has not been made in digital form yet. Finally, Othello should not be confused with the Othello from American Typefounders (1896). [Google] [More] ⦿
Ulrich Stiehl compares the 48p and 36p metal versions of Palatino, as found in Kurt Weidemann's book Typos. Das grosse Buch der Druckschriften (1964, Ravensburg). For example, in 48p, the central strokes of the E and F and the bottoms of the p and q have serifs, but not so in the 36p versions. Explanation: Weidemann showed one version from before 1960, and another from after 1960, the year in which Zapf redesigned Palatino a bit. [Google] [More] ⦿
MyFonts lists the active researchers in the field of parametric fonts. Never mind that I created all my fonts using self-coded parametric systems---I will humbly reproduce their list:
When he released Borax in 2021, Canada Type's Patrick Griffin gave an insightful and slightly gonzo description of the 1970s in type design. The text below is a verbatim quote.
This font family is an ode to the typography scene of New York City and Chicago in the late 1970s, when ad agencies, design studios and typesetters used their cameras, geometry sets, drafting boards and cunning lingo to model an ideal life of consumption, and printed it all into a sleek culture everyone thought would last forever. By the time phototypesetting was peaking in the 1970s, interesting transformations in mainstream display typography were taking place. With typesetting tools having become more than capable of reconstructing and remixing the entire eras of type history in a short time, the classic workhorses were undergoing fresh scrutiny from more appreciative angles. New faces with too much personality were still being made, but high-level advertising typography was introducing classic elements back into the mix. Professional typesetters at the time were fascinated by the colour and apertures of the transitional genre, the contrast of the Didone, the delicate balance of flare-serifs, and how a magazine ad with a large enough x-height can be read from across the room. So the popular type houses began gradually scaling back on personality and producing designs with focus on classic legibility and contrast. Outfits like ITC and VGC in particular competed within that space, and from there set advertising typography on its way to quickly shed its dated ornamental skins. That formative period of a new typographic framework and perspective---particularly the early part when designers were trying to find a perfect balance between form and function within their field---was a fascinating time for type. Demonstrative designs from that era include Tom Carnese's Toms Roman and the numbered Caslon series, Dave Trooper's eponymous design, Tony Stan's not-really-Garamond, and Ed Benguiat's takes on classic American metal faces from a few decades earlier. [Google] [More] ⦿
Reflecting on the future of type in 2021, straight from Patrick Griffin's desk: The Future Of Fonts (Maybe). ...whereby the (Maybe) in the highfaluting title being the necessary contextual hand-washing, since what we're really talking about here is a tech slugger's third at-bat, and the count is 0-2. Of course the grand allusion here is to variable fonts (or variation fonts, or font variations), a technology that has been around in one form or another for almost three decades. [...] Font interpolation. The condensed version of digital font interpolation history is this: In the early 1990s, both Apple and Adobe introduced their own interpolative font technologies, respectively called GX Variations and Multiple Master. Quite a few fonts were made in both formats in the 90s, but for various reasons they never really took off with layout artists. So type designers stopped releasing interpolative fonts, though they kept using the technology in the background to build large font families. Most individual fonts in large families in use now come from some kind of interpolation under the hood. In the fall of 2016, the Open Type specification added support for variations, and since then that has been the go-to subject of presentations in pretty much every type design conference out there. Support for the stuff was duly added to both major font-building apps, and here were are now, entertain us. The 0-2 count. GX Variations failed mostly because Apple insisted the technology would only work on the Mac, which turned off the major layout design software manufacturers (Adobe, Corel, Quark) who were heavily vested in Windows at the time. The Multiple Master tech failed mostly because most layout artists were confused by it, and whatever application support was there for it proved to be spotty at best. So attempts at using interpolative fonts in the mainstream pretty much altogether stopped in the late 90s. Some, perhaps even most, font makers held on to the Multiple Master technology as an internal process to produce families, because it helped speed things up, allowed for extreme precision and more impressive output and, well, nerds like us just like to play with such tools. The third at-bat. The GX and MM technologies failed during an ancient time, when the only beast roaming the planet was the Printosaur---a time when everything was judged by its potential for print, long before the interwebs was a thing. About a dozen years after the public burial of both technologies, people got their ducks in a row about using fonts on the web. At some point a few years later, a few young webheads thought, Hey, what if web fonts can be interpolated!? And that is how you make a snowball and roll it down a hill. With this latest at-bat now, the major difference is that we are almost positive that web-driven technologies (as opposed to print-driven ones) have a much better shot at survival, even better odds at flourishing and going mainstream. Case in point: Variable fonts can now be used in Adobe Illustrator CC, and Adobe Photoshop CC. And they work quite well, within an impressively simple and efficient interface implementation. [...] So here's to the future of fonts. Maybe. [Google] [More] ⦿
Paul Baker's type-related book, right here on the web. He created Alphabet26 in 2001, an implementation of a unicase font proposal by Bradbury Thompson. Writings on "Evaluating typography and typesetting". He digitized Andromaque Uncial (1958, Victor Hammer) in 1995. [Google] [More] ⦿
Paul Beaujon was the pen name of Beatrice L. Warde. Born in New York in 1900, she died in London in 1969. A typographer, writer, and art historian, she worked for the British Monotype Corporation for most of her life, and was known for her energy, enthusiasm and speeches. Collaborator of Stanley Morison. She created a typeface called Arrighi. She is famous for The Crystal Goblet or Printing Should be Invisible (The Crystal Goblet, Sixteen Essays on Typography, Cleveland, 1956, and Sylvan Press, London, 1955), which is also reproduced here and here. The text was originally printed in London in 1932, under the pseudonym Paul Beaujon. Here are two passages:
Beatrice Warde was educated at Barnard College, Columbia, where she studied calligraphy and letterforms. From 1921 until 1925, she was the assistant librarian at American Type Founders. In 1925, she married the book and type designer Frederic Warde, who was Director of Printing at the Princeton University Press. Together, they moved to Europe, where Beatrice worked on The Fleuron: A Journal of Typography (Cambridge, England: At the University Press, and New York: Doubleday Doran, 1923-1930), which was at that time edited by Stanley Morison. As explained above, she is best known for an article she published in the 1926 issue of The Fleuron, written under the pseudonym Paul Beaujon, which traced types mistakenly attributed to Garamond back to Jean Jannon. In 1927, she became editor of The Monotype Recorder in London.
Rebecca Davidson of the Princeton University Library wrote in 2004: Beatrice Warde was a believer in the power of the printed word to defend freedom, and she designed and printed her famous manifesto, This Is A Printing Office, in 1932, using Eric Gill's Perpetua typeface. She rejected the avant-garde in typography, believing that classical forms provided a "clearly polished window" through which ideas could be communicated. The Crystal Goblet: Sixteen Essays on Typography (1955) is an anthology of her writings. Wood engraved portrait of Warde by Bernard Brussel-Smith (1950). [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
Portuguese author of Tipografia: origens, formas e uso das letras (2006, Paulo Heitlinger, Lisbon) and Alfabetos, Caligrafia e Tipografia (2010, Lisbon). Born in Lisbon, he studied nuclear physics in Germany. He lectured on communication design at the Universidade do Algarve. His pages (in Portuguese) are quite complete, with a great glossary, a beautiful section on the history of type, a mag called Cadernos de Tipografia, links to type design in the world in general, and in Brazil, Spain and Portugal in particular, and more general information on type. Font-making how to. Useful timeline of 16th century writing manuals. An absolute must. He has also created or revived a number of typefaces, which can be bought on-line.
An incomplete list of his typefaces:
Peter Bain surveys the era of photo-typography. His introduction: In the 20th century photo-typography fully displaced a 500-year-old tradition of metal type, only to be superseded itself shortly thereafter. Yet most appraisals of type technology and histories of proprietary typefounding still favor type for text instead of eye-catching display. One characteristic feature of 20th century typography was the great effort devoted to ephemera and advertising. This survey is a local view of a half-century, concentrating on display type in New York City. Since New Yorkers have been said to believe they are at the center of the planet, it is fascinating to find a time when it could appear nearly so, typographically. He goes on to explain why and how New york became the typographic center of the globe: The city in the first half of the 20th century was an established communications center for a burgeoning national market. There is ample evidence of local interest in unique letterforms. Sometime Queens-borough resident and typeface designer Frederic Goudy received a commission from retailer Saks Fifth Avenue. The successful New York illustrator and letterer Fred G. Cooper had his distinctive forms included in the same publications that featured an unrelated Windy City designer, Oswald Cooper. Architect H. Van Buren Magonigle and industrial designer Walter Dorwin Teague had both skillfully rendered capitals for print, while their Manhattan offices pursued projects in three dimensions. One of the more curious examples of this fluency in letterforms was a 1943 booklet issued by the Brooklyn-based Higgins Ink Co. The largest portion was a portfolio of thirty-two script alphabets and fictitious signatures by Charles Bluemlein, each accompanied by a handwriting experts interpretation of the admittedly invented specimens. The requirements of publicity and publishing helped drive the demand for handlettering. By 1955, one knowledgeable estimate placed over 300 professional lettering artists working in New York at both comprehensive (layout) and finished levels. It was in a landscape of album covers and bookjackets, magazine and newspaper advertising, trademarks and slogans, store signatures and letterheads, billboards and signs (created by sign artists, not usually graphic designers) that display phototype was emerging in sharp focus. This may have been the peak of market demand for lettering. [Google] [More] ⦿
Peter Baker's old English page at the University of Virginia
Peter S. Baker, an English professor at the University of Virginia, offers free TrueType and PostScript fonts. these include:
Slovakian type designer (b. 1973), who lives in The Netherlands. Bio at FontFont. Designed: FF Atlanta, FF Craft (Kafkaesque), Champollion, Collapse, Didot Sans (unpublished), Decoratica (great display font, unpublished), Desthetica (grunge, but nice!), FF Eureka, FF Eureka Sans (2000), FF Eureka Mono (2001, FontFont), FF Eureka SansCond, FF Eureka Symbols (2002), FF Eureka CE, FF Eureka Sans CE, FF Eureka Sans Office (2011), FF Eureka Mono Office (2011), Fountain Pen (free fountain pen nib dingbat font), FF Masterpiece (wacky), FF Orbital, Fedra Sans (2001, a de-protestantised version of Univers, originally a corporate font for Bayerische Rück, a German insurance company), Fedra Bitmap (2002), Euroface (1996, Typerware, a scribbly font allegedly more legible than Helvetica at 80km/h), HolyCow and The Case. Essays on typography and design. Editor of dot dot dot. He also made AccentKernMaker, a font utility. Peter Bilak now lives in The Hague, The Netherlands, at the same address as Paul van der Laan. Free dingbat font FountainPen (Mac). At ATypI 2004 in Prague, he spoke about white spaces in typography. Speaker at ATypI 2005 in Helsinki. [Google] [More] ⦿
Peter S. Baker
A late-nineteenth-century gothic sans typeface that originated with MS&J. MS&J cut it in many weights. Mac McGrew: In 1912 Monotype copied one of these, which would have been known as Bold Condensed except that the foundry designated variations only by numbers; this was No.8. As a foundry type it was notable for the number of versions available; as a single Monotype typeface it is undistinguished. ATF continued to cast the family for a decade or so after the merger in 1892, then replaced these typefaces with the News, Alternate, and Franklin Gothic families. The Monotype copy lasted much longer. Hansen's Extended Lining Gothic was a copy of Philadelphia Lining Gothic No. 14. Compare Mid-Gothic, Wide Line Gothic.
In a 2011 issue of Typo (Vol. 45), Victor Garcia makes an argument in favor of the words pictogram for a dingbat and pictotype for a dingbat font. Other terms he discusses include pictographs and iconics. [Google] [More] ⦿
Jonathan Hoefler explains the origins of the pilcrow: Like most punctuation, the paragraph mark (or pilcrow) has an exotic history. It's tempting to recognize the symbol as a "P for paragraph," though the resemblance is incidental: in its original form, the mark was an open C crossed by a vertical line or two, a scribal abbreviation for capitulum, the Latin word for "chapter." Because written forms evolve through haste, the strokes through the C gradually came to descend further and further, its overall shape ultimately coming to resemble the modern "reverse P" by the beginning of the Renaissance. Early liturgical works, in imitation of written manuscripts, favored the traditional C-shaped capitulum; many modern bibles still do. A capitulum is by no means out of place in a modern font, either: top row center is H&FJ Didot, whose neoclassical origins suggested the inclusion of a shape from antiquity. [Google] [More] ⦿
The compact sans typeface family Placard Monotype dates from 1958. It was based upon Placard by the Lange Type Foundry in Saint Petersburg, Russia. That font in turn was an adaptation of Hermes Grotesk (Wilhelm Woellmer, 1911). Digital versions were created by Monotype, Monotype again (as Placard Next, 2018, by Malou Verlomme), Softmaker (P760 Sans), Tagir Safayev / Paratype (Hermes, 1993) and Castcraft (OPTI Pilsen Bold Condensed). [Google] [More] ⦿
Wiki page on Podium Sans from which I quote: Podium Sans is the typeface used on all models of iPod with color displays. When the iPod photo was first announced Apple claimed  that the device featured a "new Myriad typeface," stating "Now in living color, it's easier to read than ever. Thats thanks in part to the clarity of the display it offers 220x176-pixel resolution and in part to the new Myriad typeface." The use of Adobe Myriad would have been the first example of Apple using the same font in branding and user interface and indeed the high-res Photoshop mock-ups clearly used the font. However, at the time few noticed that the font on the devices was missing Myriad's trademark features, such as its 'k' and 'K', its splayed 'M' and distinctive 'y'. Some of these changes, such as the straightening of the 'M', could be explained by Apple's designers simplifying the design to accommodate the small size and low resolution of the device compared to print, however other changes are harder to explain. Whether Podium Sans started life as Myriad or another humanist sans-serif font is up for debate, but Apple no longer mentions the Myriad typeface in connection with the iPod user interface. [Google] [More] ⦿
French typographical non-profit organization, run by Guillaume-Ulrich Chifflot, but now off-line. It had sections entiteled "Font user's guide', "Anatomy of a font", "Bibliography", "Intro to wood type" (Stephen O. Saxe, 1983), "Font-making tutorial". [Google] [More] ⦿
Not directly a type issue, but something I take to heart anyway: the decline in the quality of presentations due to PowerPoint. The argument here is made by one of the world's best speakers, Ed Tufte (Yale University), and the full frontal attack is in his 2003 book, The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint, available from Graphics Press. [Google] [More] ⦿
Gerrit van Aaken's essays on and dissections of some free fonts. In German. Gerrit also designed the free experimental typeface Gerrystyle (2005, 26plus-zeichen), by extreme manipulation and alteration of Aldo Novarese's Eurostile Bold (1962). At iFontMaker, Gerrit made the hand-printed Gerry Sans (2010). [Google] [More] ⦿
Laurens Leurs' page, with special attention paid to PostScript errors. It contains a database of known PostScript errors and offending commands, including tips on how to get rid of the errors (if possible). Also included is a brief history of the world's 30 most important typefaces. [Google] [More] ⦿
Substantial German web site about metal type run by Georg Kraus (Ratingen, Rheinland). It has a fantastic collection of JPG samples of old metal specimen, all precisely dated and attributed, an invaluable historic record for those who do not have access to the old specimen books. Unfortunately, Kraus passed away at the young age of 55, as reported by Rainer Zerenko, his Austrian friend: One of our typophiles, Georg Kraus, has passed away on July 22nd 2010. He was a man with character, who didn't refuse to tell his own opinion, especially if it is against the mainstream. He was a keeper of lost typefaces, a provider of vintage typespecimen; a fighter for the black art, for mankind, for his home country. He lost his last fight this July. I will always remember you, Georg. Gott grüß die Kunst. Martin Z. Schröder's obituary of Kraus. Pic. [Google] [More] ⦿
Dutch page in which the ink cartridge costs are calculated for ten popular fonts. The famous Ecofont got actually beaten by Century Gothic. The table:
The Cahiers GUTenberg and La Lettre GUTenberg are French publications dealing with all typographical matters. They are situated on the threshold between good typographical practice and the development of related software. Archives GUTenberg. Run from IRISA in Rennes. [Google] [More] ⦿
In 2002, Jared Benson and Joseph Pemberton formed PUNCHCUT in Emeryville, CA, where they "design, operate and produce Typophile, a collaborative, online typographic community."
In 2012, they published the free sans typeface Amble at Fontsquirrel. Pemberton writes: In 2010 Sun licensed it for inclusion in the JavaFX SDK for mobile handsets. Any similarity to Droid stems from a similar creative brief over at Ascender Corp. [Google] [More] ⦿
Python for designers
Ralf S. Engelschall
Ralph C. Coxhead
Randa Abdel Baki is a scholar, graphic designer and artist, currently living in Beirut. She chairs the Graphic Design Department and is an Assistant Professor at Lebanese American University. Among the courses she teaches are Intro to Typography and Advanced Typography classes with an emphasis on Arabic type and layout design. Currently, her interest is on highlighting successful bilingual compositional methods, solving the challenges of Arabic and Latin bilingual type layouts. Speaker at ATypI 2010 in Dublin where she explained bilingual (Latin&Arabic) layout systems. [Google] [More] ⦿
Recognizing a Bembo
Recuperacion de la tipografia Ibarra
Designed by Two Moon Media, this 10 dollar shareware font was rated 5/10 by Typeslug. Typeslug writes: " Before you go to this site to download Big Daddy or any of their other fonts, let me warn you that they only come in enormous archives and the connection to their site is incredibly unreliable. I attempted to download Big Daddy 16 times before it worked, and it was only an 899k file. Most of the others are pushing 2mb in size. You may wonder why a shareware, truetype font comes in such a huge package, well it's because it includes three weights and four styles of the face, so you're getting 12 fonts, except that they aren't in postscript format or available for the Macintosh, so to some degree the effort is wasted. That said, Big Daddy seems to be a pretty nice font. It is a sans-serif typeface which more than fits the appelation 'grotesque'. The characters are very fat towards the bottom and taper on curves and towards the top. Even in the lighter weights the font has a heavy look, ... (etcetera)". [Google] [More] ⦿
RibbonType: Josh Nimoy
Roboto (or: Google Android Design)
John Gruber: I wouldn't call it a Helvetica rip-off (like Arial), but Android 4's new system font Roboto is definitely a lot more Helvetica-esque than Droid Sans (the old Android font) was. I'd say it's like a cross between Helvetica and DIN, but inherited more of Helvetica's genes. Here's a comparison I just whipped up between the two---each word set once in each font. (Helvetica on the top, Roboto on the bottom, in case you can't tell the difference.) I doubt most people could tell them apart, and the uppercase R is almost shameless. Definitely a better-looking typeface than Droid Sans, though, that's for sure.
Stephen Coles writes that Roboto is a Four-headed Frankenfont. Excerpts: Its parents are a Grotesk sans (like a slightly condensed Helvetica) and a Humanist sans (like Frutiger or Myriad). There is nothing wrong with combining elements of these two styles to create something new. The crime is in the way they were combined: grabbing letters---almost wholesale---from the Grotesk model, along with a Univers-inspired Y and G, welding them to letters from the Humanist model, and then bolting on three straight-sided caps à la DIN. When an alphabet has such unrelated glyphs it can taste completely different depending on the word. Fudge is casual and contemporary. Marshmallow is rigid and classical. This is not a typeface. It's a tossed salad. Or a four-headed Frankenstein. You never know which personality you'll get. For now, I can only speculate on how this beast came to be. The font files credit the design to Christian Robertson, whom I know to be a very bright professional with some decent work under his belt, including the convincing handwriter Dear Sarah and the adorable Ubuntu Titling font. Either Google tied him down and made unreasonable demands or there's something nasty in the water down in Mountain View. To be fair, I haven't seen the fonts on a phone, in person, and Google promises that they are built specifically for that medium. But I can't imagine that would erase the inherent problem with the design. There are some good shapes in Roboto, they just belong in multiple typefaces. In any event, Roboto probably won't terrorize mobile screens for very long. Helvetica and Frutiger are immortal. Hodgepodge brutes like these usually have a short lifespan. Image by Stephen Coles.
Later additions include Roboto Mono (2015) and Roboto Slab (2013). Someone posted the free derived fonts Franko and Franco, both dated 2013, in 2016 on the Open Font Library site, the names referring to the four-headed Frankenstein Stephen Coles described. Franzo (2016) is a reworking of Roboto Slab.
Rockwell is a slab serif typeface designed at Monotype in 1934 under the supervision of Frank Hinman Pierpont. Rockwell is geometric (very circular O and o) and distinct (A has a roof). Because of its monoweight stroke, Rockwell is primarily a display face. Rockwell is based on an earlier, more condensed slab serif design called Litho Antique (1910, Inland Type Foundry). Litho Antique is considered as the first geometric slab serif typeface.
This typeface is called Geometric Slabserif 712 at Bitstream, and L850 Slab, Rambault and Stafford at SoftMaker.
Professor Hersch heads the Peripheral Systems Laboratory at the EPFL. His team is exploring new paradigms in colour imaging and media, such as colour prediction, colour reproduction, artistic imaging, anti-counterfeiting and digital typography techniques. He has written extensively on pixelization and screen imaging for typefaces. See, for example, Roger Hersch, Jacques André, and Heather Brown: Electronic Publishing, Artistic Imaging, and Digital Typography (Springer Verlag, 1998). He has also worked on parametrization and modularization of typefaces, e.g., in the paper by C. Hu and R.D. Hersch, Parameterizable Fonts Based on Shape Components, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 21, pp. 70-85, 2001. [Google] [More] ⦿
Comments on Otl Aicher's Rotis by Robert Kinross and Erik Spiekermann.
About the type used on German license plates. FE-Schrift by Karlgeorg Hoefer (1914-2000) replaces the older DIN-Schrift. FE Schrift is based on the letterforms of a little known typographer (the article does not say who). [Google] [More] ⦿
Horst Enzensberger's pages on German ways of writing, and type forms. He deals briefly with these type forms: Antiqua; Bastarda; Beneventana; Buchschrift; Capitalis; Fraktur; gotische Minuskel; Halbkursive; Halbunziale; Kalligraphie; Kanzleischrift; karolingische Minuskel; Kurrentschrift; Kursive; Lateinschrift; Ligatur; Nationalschriften; Rotunda; Textura; Unziale; Urkundenschrift. [Google] [More] ⦿
Their type classification:
Great discussion on Typophile regarding Scotch Roman. We have two different opinions on the source of Scotch Roman: Linotype gives it to Richard Austin, while DeVinne credits Samuel Nelson Dickinson with modelling the first Scotch in Boston in 1837. Both sources agree that it was first cut by Alexander Wilson and Son in Glasgow. In 1839, Dickinson opened his foundry with the Scotch matrices.
Scotch is a great book and magazine typeface (short ascenders and descenders, good width, strong capitals, bracketed serifs, moderate contrast, calligraphic italics). Scotch typefaces initially come from Scottish foundries, which were popular in the United States in the late 18th century, through the Victorian era and even most of the 20th century among books, magazines, newspapers, and advertisements. It has always been more popular in the USA than elsewhere.
Scan of 6-50pt Scotch Roman from the 1912 ATF book. And of 34-60pt. Summary of some Scotch typefaces:
Scott Kim received an interdisciplinary Ph.D. in Computers and Graphic Design from Stanford University, where he was supervised by Don Knuth. At Xerox PARC he worked under Adobe founder John Warnock, and programmed images in JaM, a predecessor of PostScript. He has designed logos for Silicon Graphics and the Game Developers Conference, and designs puzzles for computer games and print. His lettering designs appear in his book Inversions, and on his web site. The inversions are about ambigrams, words written so that that they can be read in several ways, either after reflection or rotation. Recipient of the Digital typography prize at the Tokyo Type Directors Club TDC 2003 competition. [Google] [More] ⦿
Edited by Don Hosek. Type links. Complete table of contents. This publication seems to be in limbo as this Feb 24, 2003 posting by Hrant Papazian shows: "Dear Mr Hosek, Normal channels of communication have failed. The last time this happened, a post to Typo-L succeeded in getting through to you, so here I am again, trying to get a refund on Serif, which has not shipped an issue in about three years. This past September you wrote on Typo-L: "I'll give refunds to the impatient"*. I declared myself as impatient and asked for a refund. I was advised on September 26 that the refund has been issued but it would take upto two billing cycles. It's now been about four cycles, and still nothing. Could you please let me know what to expect? Is there perhaps some information I could throw at my bank?" [Google] [More] ⦿
Font recognition tools and strategies::
Shady Characters The secret life of punctuation
An on-line learning game for creating perfect Bezier shapes for letters. Created by Mark MacKay, the game presents you with a single mis-shaped character, encouraging you to adjust multiple Bezier handles until you have smoothed out its curves and corners. It can be played on a desktop, iPhone or iPad. [Google] [More] ⦿
Graphic designer in Bozeman, MT. He created some nice posters that explain the different features of typefaces as well as the classification of types: Anatomy, [continued], Modern typefaces, Old style typefaces, Sans serif, Slab serif, Transitional typefaces. [Google] [More] ⦿
Traverse City, MI-based graphic designer and photographer, who studies at Grand Valley State University. She made some helpful type posters that illustrate typeface classification. A | B | C | D | E. [Google] [More] ⦿
Brooklyn, NY-based multidisciplinary design company of New Yorker Susanne Cerha and her Norwegian husband Terje Vist. In the type world best known for their spectaculrly beautiful Flash-based web page Type Is Art, where one can interactively make art from parts of typefaces. [Google] [More] ⦿
Linotype piece on slab serif typefaces, with its own classification into Clarendons, Contemporary Text Faces, Classic Text Faces, Standard-Bearers, and Massive Display Examples. Slab serifs started in industrial England in the 19th century and are also called Egyptians.
Sofia Open Content Initiative
A discussion of the origins of the beautiful quote: With twenty-six soldiers of lead I can conquer the world. Francis Meynell in "Typography" (Pelican press, 1923) seems to place the date at around 1640. [Google] [More] ⦿
The Society of Typographic Aficionados (SOTA) was founded in 1997 by Bob Colby. One of its first presidents was Tony Di Pietro. He was succeeded by Tamye Riggs, and Deborah Gonet. [The presidents were originally called directors and then chairs.] The main activity nowadays is the organization of the annual TypeCon conference. Its current mission: "The Society of Typographic Aficionados" is an international not-for-profit organization dedicated to the promotion, study, and support of type, its history and development, its use in the world of print and digital imagery, its designers, and its admirers."
In 2018, the (entirely North-American) Board of Directors consisted of Neil Summerour (Chair), Sharon Oiga, Delve Withrington, Mary Catherine Pflug, Theresa Dela Cruz, Grant Hutchinson, Xerxes Irani, Frank J. Martinez, Erin McLaughlin, Matthew Carter, James Grieshaber, Allan Haley, Richard Kegler, and David Pankow. Interestingly, while society has a strict DMCA policy, the board has people who have a checkered past in this respect. [Google] [More] ⦿
The Society of Typographic Aficionados created the Catalyst Award in 2010 to recognize young people who have created original work in type design, type history, or other areas related to typography. Each year, the award is presented to someone who shows both current achievements and future promise in the typographic fields. The primary purpose of the award is to act as a catalyst in the career of a young person who does not yet have broad exposure in the profession. The award is presented at the annual TypeCon conference. Recipients: Satya Rajpurohit (2010), Erin McLaughlin (2011), Niko Skourtis (2012), Kyle Read (2013), Krista Radoeva (2014), Shiva Nallaperumal (2015), Roxane Gataud (2016), Ramakrishna Saiteja (2017), Frida Medrano (2018), Ruggero MagrĂ¬ (2019), and Anagha Narayanan (2020.) [Google] [More] ⦿
A famous geometric sans style started at ATF in 1936, now know as Linotype's answer to Futura. Mac McGrew writes: Spartan as produced by Linotype and ATF is equivalent to Futura (q.v.). Although it is claimed to have been derived from several similar European typefaces, the differences between it and Futura are so slight that for most practical purposes they are almost interchangeable. Linotype announced Sanserif 52 and Italic early in 1939; later in the same year these typefaces were offered as Spartan Black, along with light, medium, and heavy weights, all with italics. In 1941 ATF cut some of these typefaces; by arrangement with Mergenthaler the small sizes were cut to match. Over the following dozen years or more, additional weights and widths were drawn by Bud Renshaw and Gerry Powell for ATF, and by Linotype staff designers. Renshaw's Spartan Medium Condensed, drawn in 1953, is wider than the corresponding typefaces in other families. In 1955 Linotype announced Spartan Bold, "the latest member of the Spartan family; slightly larger on the body than Spartan Heavy and more compactly fitted." Spartan Extra Black is heavier than the comparable typefaces from other sources. ATF made supplementary Advertising Figures, Decimal Figures, and Fractions for several weights of Spartan. Spartan Circuit and Spartan Circuit Heavy are 1964 adaptations of the design by Linotype for Teletypesetter use, requiring modification of character widths. Compare Erbar Bold. Also see Classified Display, Tempo Alternate, Twentieth Century.
Digital descendants abound:
German site concerned with typography, type news, interviews, links, and discussions, and masterfully managed by Peter Reichard (Offenbach) and Christopher Lindlohr (Frankfurt). It was active from 2002 until 2012. Peter designed the cute dingbat font PixelheadHandmadeBeta (2001). Pixel font links. Typosition is an on-line type-in-design mag (free, PDF format). Now also in print. [Google] [More] ⦿
Comments by Erik Spiekermann on Adobe's Futura when he had to try to get his client, Volkswagen a decent geometric typeface: "The version from Adobe is clearly badly digitized. [...] If Futura's O is supposed to look like a perfect circle, why does it look like an egg? And look at the counters in a, g, and e! Those are also supposed to be circular, not egg-shaped. So we took the typeface apart and reassembled it." [Google] [More] ⦿
StarOffice, known briefly as Oracle Open Office before being discontinued in 2011, was a proprietary office suite. It originated in 1985 as StarWriter by Star Division, which was acquired by Sun Microsystems in 1999. Sun Microsystems, in turn, was acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2010. StarOffice supported the OpenOffice.org XML file format, as well as the OpenDocument standard, and could generate PDF and Flash formats. It included templates, a macro recorder, and a software development kit (SDK). The source code of the suite was released in July 2000, creating a free, open source office suite called OpenOffice.org, which subsequent versions of StarOffice were based on, with additional proprietary components.
Proprietary components of Star Office included twelve Latin fonts and seven Asian language fonts. The Latin fonts have copyrights that refer to Agfa/Monotype or Monotype, and are dated between 1998 and 2001. The list of Latin fonts: Albany-Bold, Albany, Albany-Italic, Albany-Bold-Italic, Andale-Sans-Regular, Andale-Sans-Bold, Andale-Sans-Bold-Italic, Andale-Sans-Italic, Andale-Sans-UI, Arial-Narrow, Arial-Narrow-Bold, Arial-Narrow-Bold-Italic, Arial-Narrow-Italic, Arial-Black, Broadway, Cumberland-Bold, Cumberland-Bold-Italic, Cumberland, Cumberland-Italic, Garamond-Bold, Garamond-Bold-Italic, Garamond-Italic, Garamond, Imprint-MT-Shadow-Italic, Imprint-MT-Shadow, Kidprint, Kidprint-Bold, Palace-Script-MT, Palace-Script-SemiBold, Sheffield-Bold, Sheffield-Italic, Sheffield, StarSymbol, Thorndale-Bold, Thorndale, Thorndale-Italic, Thorndale-Bold-Italic. [Google] [More] ⦿
In 1936, Frederic Goudy received a certificate of excellence that was handlettered in blackletter and immediately stated, Anyone who would letterspace blackletter would steal sheep, and this hurt the calligrapher's feelings. Goudy's statement has been misquoted for many years as Anyone who would letterspace lowercase would steal sheep. [Google] [More] ⦿
Steve Dell teaches digital art design at Miami ad School in California. His site has an Adobe InDesign course, where one can find a beautiful type history primer, and a zipped font folder with these fonts: ACaslonPro-Italic, AGaramondPro-Regular, AJensonPro-Regular, ArnoPro-Bold, ArnoPro-Italic, ArnoPro-Smbd, BickhamScriptPro-Bold, BickhamScriptPro-Regular, BlackoakStd, GrotesqueMTStd-Black, GrotesqueMTStd-Bold, GrotesqueMTStd-BoldExtended, GrotesqueMTStd-Condensed, GrotesqueMTStd-ExtraCond, GrotesqueMTStd-Italic, GrotesqueMTStd-Light, GrotesqueMTStd-LightCond, GrotesqueMTStd-LightItalic, GrotesqueMTStd, HelveticaNeueLTStd-Bd, HelveticaNeueLTStd-Blk, HelveticaNeueLTStd-It, HelveticaNeueLTStd-Md, HelveticaNeueLTStd-Roman, MFCFranklinCornersFive-Regular, MFCFranklinCornersFive-Regular, MFCFranklinCornersFour-Regular, MFCFranklinCornersFour-Regular, MFCFranklinCornersSix-Regular, MinionPro-Regular, MyriadPro-Bold, MyriadPro-It, MyriadPro-Regular, NewsGothicStd-Bold, NewsGothicStd-BoldOblique, NewsGothicStd-Oblique, NewsGothicStd, NuevaStd-Bold, NuevaStd-BoldCond, NuevaStd-Regular. [Google] [More] ⦿
ATF writes in 1906 when it introduced Strathmore Oldstyle: Strathmore was designed by a well-known Eastern artist who has had much to do with the work on editions de luxe brought out in recent years by some of lour greatest publishing houses. He ...partly adopted a style considerably used by Spanish sculptors and artists hundreds of years ago, then considered paramount in all things pertaining to art.
Various digital revivals of the slab serif typeface Stymie (1931, Morris Fuller Benton) are shown here and here. These include: Adobe (Rockwell), Bitstream (Stymie), Elsner+Flake (StymieEF), Font Bureau (Constructa), Jeff Levine (CrownHeightsJNL and Eastport JNL (2019)), Lanston Type Company (LTC Squareface), Linotype (Stymie), Nicks Fonts (KenotaphNF), Red Rooster Collection (Karnak Pro), Scangraphic Digital Type Collection (StymieSB), Scangraphic Digital Type Collection (StymieSH), URW++ (Stymie). The green posters below are by Sean Gabay (2013).
Mac McGrew on the ATF contribution from 1931: Stymie Bold is a redesign of Rockwell Antique (q. v.), which in turn was a reissue of Litho Antique, introduced by Inland Type Foundry in 1910. Rockwell appeared in 1931, but Morris Benton redesigned it as Stymie Bold in the same year, refining some characters and generally tightening the fit. Stymie Light and Medium and their Italics were also drawn by Benton in 1931, and the series quickly became very popular. Stymie Bold Italic followed a bit later. Elongated Ascenders and Descenders for Stymie Light, Medium, and Bold are a whimsical idea borrowed from the Parsons series (q.v.). Eleven characters as shown are offered for each weight from 15-point up, but there are actually only nine different characters, with an extra band in each set to invert for p and q. The ascenders are cast to proper alignment for reasonably easy use, but the descenders must be carefully justified vertically. They were short-lived.
Monotype exercised its option to copy ATF typefaces soon after the introduction of these typefaces---too soon, in fact, because they copied Rockwell and in some literature called it Stymie Bold, and there has been confusion between the two typefaces ever since, with some Monotype users applying the latter name to the older face. The actual Stymie Bold was duplicated by Monotype about 1936.
The Monotype contributions: Monotype did its part in expanding the family. Sol Hess designed Stymie Extrabold in 1934, a year before Morris Benton drew Stymie Black. These heavy versions differ slightly from each other and from the lighter typefaces. It's a matter of opinion as to which is more compatible with other Stymies. Sol Hess and Monotype also produced Stymie Light Condensed, Medium Condensed, and Extrabold Condensed, in 1935 and 1936. Gerry Powell drew the last major member of the family in 1937, with Stymie Bold Condensed, which departs a little more than the others from family characteristics. Trials of a medium condensed version at ATF were abandoned in favor of Tower (q.v.). Along the way Powell had also engineered the production in 1936 of Stymie Light Title and Stymie Medium Title, all-cap versions of their respective weights with several sizes cast on 6- and 12-point bodies in the manner of Copperplate Gothic.
Back to supersized Stymie versions at ATF. McGrew: But there is more to the Stymie story. Shortly after the introduction of the family, perhaps as early as 1932, ATF undertook a program of producing type (Stymie continues) in extra-large sizes. Some of the Stymies were cast up to 144-point, along with a number of other designs, but even that was not enough. Stymie Compressed was cast in 288-point from drawings by Wadsworth A. Parker, head of the ATF specimen department. This is believed to be the largest complete font ever cast in regular type molds. However, apparently there never was a 288- point mold. Instead, all characters are designed to cast the long way in smaller molds, from 30-point for the I to 144-point for the W, each 288 points "wide." Round letters were virtually flush to the edges of the body-4 inches high! Fonts included capitals, figures, and ampersand, with an undersize dollar mark on 120-point body; for punctuation marks the foundry recom- mended using available sizes of Stymie Bold or Medium. One type each of all 38 characters weighed about 47 pounds, and sold originally for $28.05. The cap W alone weighed about 2 pounds! Stymie Stylus, the second largest type font, followed. It is an experimental font, with each character including lowercase cast on the minimum body with no unnecessary metal. There are five different body sizes in the one font, ranging from 96-point for lowercase letters without ascenders or descenders to 180-point for caps and 204-point for lowercase j. Like the previous face, these characters were cast sideways in smaller molds. Specimens said, "The letters justify quickly with point spacing material." This specimen has type bodies indicated for several letters. !?) were the only punctuation marks. And apparently this was the last of the giant typefaces produced. Stymie Inline Title was designed by Parker about 1931. It follows the basic Stymie Bold pattern but is cast full face, without lowercase. ATF literature lists a Stymie Open, but no specimen or other evidence of it has been found. Stymie Intaglio Figures are the Stymie Bold design reversed on black squares. Stymie Bold Open as offered by Baltimore is a copy of Beton Open from Germany, while Baltimore's Stymie Bold Open Condensed is a modifica- tion by pantagraph of the same face, offered in 1948. Stymie Shaded or Rockwell Shaded as offered by some secondary sources is Antique Shaded (q.v.). ATF offered alternate, condensed figures for Stymie Bold, but these were actually Foster Condensed (q.v.), with only a general similarity. Sixty-point Litho Antique as cast by Inland was oversize by about 5 points. This peculiarity is carried over into members of the Stymie family-even on Monotype. But in some versions of ATF Stymie, 60-point after a time was replaced by 66/60-point, wherein descenders are cast on the larger body. Compare Beton, Cairo, Karnak, Memphis. [Google] [More] ⦿
One of the classic German geometric sans workhorse typefaces made by Arno Drescher in 1930 for Schriftguss. Digital versions include:
Surfstation is Jemma Gura's web site. This is also a collective type project. Free original typefaces: Fructosa (grunge, 2000, German Olaya), Space Paraphernalia (dingbat in the making), Deuzhood (2000, by Wolfgang and Peter Bruhn), Fango (2000, German Olaya), Foodshow (1999, German Olaya), Mest (2000, grunge typeface by Errol Richardson), T-Series (2000, modern stencil typeface by Stephen Payne). [Google] [More] ⦿
The Swastika symbol
Swedish newspaper typography, 1992-1999
Peter Lofting at Apple started this "list for the discussion of text-based sources for fonts. It is intended as an open forum to arrive at as wide as possible a consensus over various text representations of font tables and data." [Google] [More] ⦿
Listing of the main commercial type foundries in the world. Their top ten at the end of 2012: b+p swiss typefaces, Colophon Foundry, Commercial Type, Grilli Type, Klim Type Foundry, MilieuGrotesque, Optimo, RP Digital Type Foundry, Typotheque, Village. By 2021, they featured about 350 foundries, mainly from Europe and the Americas. For example, there are only four foundries from Russia, six from Japan and one from Indonesia. [Google] [More] ⦿
The 8 Worst Fonts In The World
Simon Garfield is a British journalist and non-fiction author. In Just My Type: A Book About Fonts (2011), he wrote a section on the eight worst fonts in the world. Written to amuse typophiles, it has some amusing passages.
The Cooper Union School of Art is a famous design (and type design) school in New York City. Starting in the fall of 2010, the Continuing Education Department of The Cooper Union, in conjunction with the Type Directors Club, offers a Certificate Program in Typeface Design, called Type @ Cooper. The faculty in 2010 included Jesse Ragan, Ken Barber, Stephen O. Saxe, Roger Black, Mark Jamra and Christian Schwartz. In 2019, the teachers were Karen Charatan, Ewan Clayton, Andy Clymer, Cara Di Edwardo, James Edmondson, St&eacue;phane Elbaz, Hannes Famira, Berton Hasebe, Daniel Morris, Jean François Porchez, Jesse Ragan, Christian Schwartz, Sara Soskolne, Sumner Stone, Alexander Tochilovsky, and Just van Rossum. Cooper Union Typography is a jump site for many typographic treasures. [Google] [More] ⦿
The Coueignoux system
Nicolas Fabian writes: In the Coueignoux system, custom software combines predefined graphic component parts to form finished characters. This concept was the basis of his doctoral thesis "Generation of Roman Printed Fonts" in 1975 at MIT. In addition to synthetic type generation, Dr. Philippe J. M. Coueignoux also did original research on Perspective Mapping of Planar Surfaces, Texture Mapping, Anti-Aliasing, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), and other advanced graphic subjects. [Google] [More] ⦿
The Design Cubicle
The Digital Past
Article by New York-based calligrapher and type specialist Paul Shaw. It talks about the main events in the timeline of digital type (but forgets to mention Computer Modern, does not stress Metafont enough, and omits any mention of the work of Bezier and de Casteljau on Bezier curves), and ends by formulating a strategy for increasing the price of type. [Google] [More] ⦿
Extensis Community Blog discussing the decision by Microsoft to drop Times New Roman font in 2006-2007 as the default font and to replace it by a sans serif, Calibri across Microsoft Office. In support, we have opinions like: Times New Roman was, is an anachronism chosen without much care, a font that represents the blandness and lack of brio in business-speak. In support, some people point to the US State Department's decision in 2004 to replace Courier 12 by Times New Roman 14, and to the good design of Times New Roman. Several people blasted Microsoft for replacing a serif typeface by a sans typeface as the default. There was support for Microsoft's contribution to fonts that work well on screen. [Google] [More] ⦿
The Evolution of Type
Discussion of some typographers by Terri Stone. Included are Jeremy Tankard, Josh Darden, Jonathan Hoefler, Tobias Frere-Jones, Carlos Segura, Tim Glaser, Just van Rossum and Erik van Blokland. [Google] [More] ⦿
The Faces of Microsoft
The Font Review Journal
The Font Review Journal was created by Bethany Heck, a design director and typographic enthusiast who specializes in multi-typeface systems. The Font Review Journal is home to reviews and analysis of typeface designs both new and old. The site is aimed at designers who want to discover new typefaces to add to their arsenal, or those who want to learn to appreciate old favorites on a deeper level. [Google] [More] ⦿
The choice of Garamonds is confusing, and so is the name Garamond when associated with typefaces. In fact, the most faithful of all garamonds is not even called Garamond. So, here is a brief overview.
The Grid System
Great discussions of and links to the grid system, the basis of good typography. From the web site: Made popular by the International Typographic Style movement and pioneered by legends like Josef Müller-Brockmann and Wim Crouwel, the grid is the foundation of any solid design. The Grid System is an ever-growing resource where graphic designers can learn about grid systems, the golden ratio and baseline grids. Created by Antonio Carusone, graphic designer and author of the design and typography blog AisleOne. Special thanks to Duane King for his help and wisdom. [Google] [More] ⦿
The Helvetica Killer
Bruno Maag gives an interview for Creative Review in 2010 in which he purges all Helvetica cells from his system. He also announces the creation of a new sans family by Ron Carpenter at Dalton Maag, Aktiv Grotesk (2010)---first he kills Helvetica, and then he creates another lookalike sans family. Excerpts: it is vanilla ice cream. In my whole career in typography, starting with my apprenticeship, I have never used Helvetica. Being a Swiss typographer, it's always been Univers. [...] Univers was released in 1956 by Deberny&Peignot, a small French foundry. Helvetica was released a year later with the full might of the Linotype marketing machine behind it. Linotype stuck it on every single typesetting machine they could and took it round the market, particularly around the New York advertising scene. And there was little Deberny&Peignot with no marketing budget. It's a fluke of marketing that Helvetica now is this incredibly popular typeface. [...] And there are a lot of things wrong in the design of Helvetica once you start going in to the detail. I can appreciate why a lot of designers like Helvetica compared to Univers - Univers has a starkness about it, it's cold. Maybe because of the antique-ness of Helvetica it has a certain charm that Univers lacks and at the same time has this neutrality, so I can see why people go for it, but if you start analysing it and going into the nitty gritty it is quite a horrendous font. It's quite poorly crafted and has become completely overused. [...] Some of the character forms in Helvetica are very ambiguous because they are so uniform. In the movie, [Erik] Spiekermann says it very well, that they are like soldiers on parade and that is detrimental to legibility. People just use Helvetica because they have heard of it, it's on everyone's computer and everyone else uses it. [...] I do find it an inferior typeface. I would choose Univers every time - it's crafted better, the proportions are better, it is a modern typeface that doesn't pretend to be something it isn't which Helvetica does.
Reaction by the typophiles is swift: Some agree, most disagree partially. William Berkson compares Univers and Helvetica [Univers on top] and sums it up like this: Note how Helvetica is wider and set tighter, and Univers is narrower, and set looser. Compare the word "love" in "Handgloves" and you see the power of Helvetica. But this same quality of being "fat in the middle" as Erik Spiekermann put it in the movie, and tightly spaced, makes it horrible in text. I think it has limited use, and is so overused and wrongly used that it makes me scream, but to deny its obvious virtues it seems to me to undermine the real case against its widespread use. Univers is way better in text, but then I think Frutiger and Avenir are still better.--And I think that sans in general are limited in how good they can be for extended text. Personally, I never liked the aesthetic of Univers-too cold. But I was surprised by the warmth and attractiveness of the examples of hot metal Univers in Frutiger Typefaces: The Complete Works. It has real charm there, and is said to be Frutiger's favorite version by far. Univers Next is an effort of Frutiger and Linotype to capture that, but I don't know how well it succeeds.
The Linotype machine is a line casting machine used in printing. Along with letterpress printing, Linotype was the industry standard for newspapers, magazines and posters from the late 19th century to the 1960s and 70s. The name of the machine comes from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once, hence a line-o'-type, a significant improvement over the previous industry standard, i.e., manual, letter-by-letter typesetting using a composing stick and drawers of letters. The machine revolutionized typesetting and with it especially newspaper publishing, making it possible for a relatively small number of operators to set type for many pages on a daily basis. Before Mergenthaler's invention of the Linotype in 1884, no daily newspaper in the world had more than eight pages. [Google] [More] ⦿
The main type mistakes
Article by Paul Shaw that starts out like this: There is a commonly held belief that Helvetica is the signage typeface of the New York City subway system, a belief reinforced by Helvetica, Gary Hustwit's popular 2007 documentary about the typeface. But it is not true-or rather, it is only somewhat true. Helvetica is the official typeface of the MTA today, but it was not the typeface specified by Unimark International when it created a new signage system at the end of the 1960s. Why was Helvetica not chosen originally? What was chosen in its place? Why is Helvetica used now, and when did the changeover occur? To answer those questions this essay explores several important histories: of the New York City subway system, transportation signage in the 1960s, Unimark International and, of course, Helvetica. These four strands are woven together, over nine pages, to tell a story that ultimately transcends the simple issue of Helvetica and the subway. [Google] [More] ⦿
The Offices of Kat Ran Press
Beautiful pages on typography by Michael and Katherine Russem, Syracuse, NY. They also print, and sell type ephemera. Of particular interest is a collection of images of postage stamps created by type designers. [Google] [More] ⦿
The story of Bembo
Bembo's story told by Joel Friedlander (1948-2021) in 2009. He recalls that Bembo is first and foremost an oldstyle typeface [bracketed serifs with a curved connection between serif and stem; the axis drawn through the thinnest part of the round letters leans to the left]. Aldus Manutius and Francesco Griffo created Bembo in 1496 for use in Pietro Bembo's book, De Aetna. Friedlander goes on: The design of Bembo was a clear attempt to bring the humanist script of the finest scribes of the day to the printed page, without slavishly following the more formal lettering of the day. It would later serve as the chief inspiriation to Claude Garamond, among others. Typefaces based on his work include Poliphilus, Cloister Old Style, Aetna, Aldine, Griffo Classico, Dante, and Adobe Minion. [Google] [More] ⦿
The TDC Medal is awarded to those who have made significant contributions to the life, art, and craft of typography. The recipients: Hermann Zapf (1967), R. Hunter Middleton (1968), Frank Powers (1971), Robert Leslie (1972), Edward Rondthaler (1975), Arnold Bank (1979), Georg Trump (1982), Paul Standard (1983), Herb Lubalin (1984 (posthumously)), Paul Rand (1984), Aaron Burns (1985), Bradbury Thompson (1986), Adrian Frutiger (1987), Freeman Craw (1988), Ed Benguiat (1989), Gene Federico (1991), Lou Dorfsman (1995), Matthew Carter (1997), Rolling Stone Magazine (1997), Colin Brignall (2000), Günther Gerhard Lange (2000), Martin Solomon (2003), Paula Scher (2006), Mike Parker (2011), Erik Spiekermann (2011), Gerrit Noordzij (2013), David Berlow (2014), Louise Fili (2015), Zuzana Licko (2016), Gerard Unger (2017), Fiona Ross (2018), Wim Crouwel (2019), Ruben Fontana (2020).
The Tragicomedy of Digital Fonts
A poignant article from November 2021 by Frank Adebiaye, after Hoefler sold out to Monotype. Frank gives a bird's eye view of the recent past in digital typography, with Monotype as the villain in the drama. He begins with: Digital fonts are born and killed off over and over again. Due to Windows domination on desktop computers, for most people, Arial, designed in 1982 and released as a TrueType font in 1992 is the typical digital font. It was already a mockery of Helvetica, born in 1957. He reminds us of the popular Comic Sans, Times New Roman (1932), once celebrated but now a bland typeface, and Microsoft's Calibri, now also about to be superseded. Google and Monotype got their hands on the Droid fonts, and the Open Sans and Noto superfamilies that have taken over web typography.
He writes: Monotype was saved from bankruptcy by making Arial for Microsoft, preventing the latter from paying huge royalties for Helvetica, then a Linotype asset. Linotype was eventually acquired by Monotype in 2006, so both Arial and Helvetica are Monotype assets now. But Arial and Helvetica are not the same typeface, Arial seems to be a kind of displacement of Helvetica, sharing mostly the same metrics but borrowing its shape from something much older. Google launched Roboto in 2011---a monstrosity or Frankenfont according to type curator Stephen Coles., borrowing from Helvetica, Univers, Myriad, FF Din among others. In 2014, Google developed an improved and more accepted version of Roboto. Today, Noto and Roboto are the leading actors in today's digital font tragicomedy, according to Frank.
On to the Montserrat story: Montserrat is also an informative case. From a practical point of view it is an efficient and sufficient substitute for Gotham. Despite its popularity Gotham mostly missed the webfont explosion because of licensing hassle, and the Hoefler&Co pricing strategy for the web. So Montserrat came up and filled that void. However, it seems that Hoefler&Co made some link-building using the Montserrat name to attract customers. If Montserrat is a substitute for Gotham, then Gotham is also a substitute for Montserrat. Anyway, now it is probably too late, I am afraid, Gotham is a Monotype asset, superseded on the web like many Monotype iconic assets are now.
The Type Club of Toronto
The Type Club of Toronto is headed by Brian Maloney, who is the Club's Director. The aim of the Club is to "promote typography." It hold events four to six time per year with with one or two presenters, usually at the Arts&Letters Club at 14 Elm Street in downtown Toronto. It was founded by Rod McDonald and Martyn Anstice. [Google] [More] ⦿
Also called Graphion's Online Type Museum, or earlier, Graphion, a site by Michael sanbon that disappeared in 1999. Subsections:
The typography of code
Hamish Macpherson discussed and illustrated his five favorite fonts for showing programs, after discussing the pioneering code font, Courier (1956, Howard Kettler for IBM).
This web site presents one reference glyph and basic information for each of the world's writing systems. It is the first step of the Missing Scripts Project, a long-term initiative that aims to identify writing systems that are not yet encoded in the Unicode standard.
The Missing Scripts Project is a joint effort of Atelier National de Recherche Typographique (ANRT), Nancy, France, Institut Designlabor Gutenberg (IDG), Hochschule Mainz, Germany, and the Script Encoding Initiative (SEI), Department of Linguistics, UC Berkeley, USA. [Google] [More] ⦿
The Yale Typeface
Typeface specially designed in 2004 by Matthew Carter for Yale. It is free for all units at Yale University. From the press release: Yale is inspired by the late fifteenth-century Venetian typeface that first appeared in Pietro Bembo's De Aetna, published by Aldus Manutius. [...] In 1929, Stanley Morison of the Monotype Corporation in England led a project to revive Aldus's De Aetna face. The resulting typeface, Bembo, proved to be one of the most widely used and highly regarded book typefaces of the twentieth century. It continues regularly to appear in Yale publications. Unfortunately, the more recent photocomposition and digital versions of Bembo lack the vigor, weight, and formal integrity of either the De Aetna typeface or of the original Monotype version of Bembo. Matthew Carter's Yale recovers the strength of the Aldine original, and updates it by sensitively simplifying the basic letterforms and their details. Aspects of the vigor and "color" of the well-known typeface Galliard, an earlier Carter design, are also evident in the new Yale face.
The fonts include YaleAdministrative Roman, YaleAdministrative Italic, Yale Design Roman, Yale Design Italic, Yale Small Capitals, Yale Web Small Capitals, Yale Street and Yale Street Aligning Figs. later additions include YaleNew, Yale Display, and Mallory (a companion font designed in 2015 by Tobias frere-Jones).
The Typographic Desk Reference (Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE, 2009) is Theodore Rosendorf's useful reference guide of typographic terms and type classification. There is a foreword by Ellen Lupton. The much larger Second Edition (2015) is coauthored wit Erik Spiekermann. Theo Rosendorf is based in Decatur, GA. [Google] [More] ⦿
Three chapters in the development of Clarendon---Ionic typefaces
Essay by Mitja Miklavčič on the history of Clarendon and Ionic, written at the University of Reading in 2006. Figures/scans by him: Construction of Egizio Italic by Nebiolo, a comparison between Egyptian, roman and ionic. [Google] [More] ⦿
Pelle Anderson writes about the use of typefaces in Swedish newspapers (in Swedish). This article has interesting statistics, showing the demise of Times in the 1992-1999 period in favor of Nimrod (by Robin Nicholas, Monotype) and Century (Morris Fuller Benton). [Google] [More] ⦿
Times New Roman
Times Roman and Times New Roman
Charles Bigelow on the Times trademark. "Times" refers to the typeface produced for "The Times" by Monotype. Yet, it was trademarked by Allied Corporation (ex-USA parent of Linotype), as Bigelow explains: "During WWII, the American Linotype company, in a generous spirit of Allied camaraderie, applied for registration of the trademark name "Times Roman" as its own, not Monotype's or The Times', and received the registration in 1945. In the 1980's, all this was revisited when some entrepreneurs, desirous of gaining the rights to use the name, applied to Rupert Murdoch, who owned The Times; separately, a legal action was also initiated to clarify the right of Monotype to use the name in the U.S., despite Linotype's registration. The outcome of all of the legal maneuverings is that Linotype and its licensees like Adobe and Apple continue to use the name "Times Roman", while Monotype and its licensees like Microsoft use the name "Times New Roman". " [Google] [More] ⦿
Times Ten (Adobe, 1988-1990) was the house font used by the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. It has an Adobe version with Greek, called Times Ten Greek Upright (1988-1991). The full family can be found here. [Google] [More] ⦿
Meeting in Buenos Aires in 2001 to celebrate the 15th anniversary of the magazine tipoGráfica. An extraordinary delegate report by Rubén Fontana was published at ATypI. I cite things I will be quoting for the rest of: In Latin America, we propose to socialise this vast, historic fund of knowledge, by means of an approach to variations of what we know and by learning through the discovery of that which we do not know. Like air, like water, the knowledge itself, like ideas, typography is a social asset that provides people with equal opportunities. A veritable universal heritage. [...] Seven hundred people attended the three-day sessions of tipoGráfica buenosAires, typography for real life. Many travelled from the interior of Argentina, while others arrived from Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Uruguay and other Latin American countries. [...] Typography must perforce be available to everyone since it is an ingredient inherent to communication. [Google] [More] ⦿
Colombian type cartel consisting of Manuel Eduardo Corradine, Carlos Fabián Camargo, John Vargas and César Puertas. The site is run as a blog and has several type education videos. In Spanish. Alternate URL. [Google] [More] ⦿
Titania is a typeface that was issued by Haas'sche Giesserei before 1906. It was also cast by Berling and by Bertrand (as Grasses modernes). Societa Augusta had a related typeface, Titania chiara (before 1914). It was also cast by Trennert.
In the phototype era, Titania appeared at Berthold. Aldo Novarese did a related typeface, Floreal Haas (1983), for Haas'sche Giesserei.
Digital versions: Titania (1993, Rick Mueller), Klarissa (2000, Dieter Steffmann; with Contour and Shadow styles), Titania (2001, Dieter Steffmann; with Outline and Shadow styles), Karissa (Bright Ideas), EFN Mellotron/Melody (2004, Eurofonts), Athenia/Athenian (Thomas Harvey). [Google] [More] ⦿
Wolfgang Beinert's piece in German on the Trajan all-caps alphabet (without H, J, K, U, W, Y, Z) created by Syrian engineer Apollodoros from Damaskus for the Roman Emperor Marcus Ulpius Traianus (53-117). The Trajan Column near the Basilica Ulpia in Rome dates from 113. People inspired by the elegant lettering include Fernando Ruano, Vespasiano Amphiarea, Wolfgang Fugger, Geoffroy Tory, Albrecht Dürer, Francesco Torniello, Luca Pacioli, Damiano da Moile, Leonardo da Vinci, Felice Feliciano, Claude Garamond, Jan Tschichold (see his book Meisterbuch der Schrift, Otto Maier Verlag, Ravensburg 1952), Günter Gerhard Lange (see his book Die römische Kapitalschrift, Jahresgabe der Typographischen Gesellschaft München, München 1983), and Carol Twombly (who made a digital font called Trajan at Adobe in 1989). [Google] [More] ⦿
A series of one to 2-hour videos and interviews related to typography and type design. In Portuguese or Spanish, this is organized by dooType (Eduilson Coan and Gustavo Soares). Videos by or about Jackson Alves, Rodolfo Franca, Elaine Ramos, Gustavo Greco, Alceu Nunes, Paulo Chagas, Daniel Coutinho, Felipe Luize, Samia Jacintho, Allysson Lucca, Fabio Lopez, Claudio Santos, Daniel Souza, Niko Fernandez, and Crystian Cruz. [Google] [More] ⦿
Twelve sources of inspiration
Sean Hodge reviews sources of inspiration for type designers. I can imagine that these tips could form the basis of a course in type design.
Tyler Brulé is the founder of Wallpaper, a mag for art, design, lifestyle, interiors and fashion. He also founded the snobbish mag Monocle, whose typography was discussed by Stephen Coles. It only features Helvetica and Plantin.
Coles: I am convinced that Monocle, now 2 years old, has almost single-handedly given new life to Plantin. The early 20th century relic is suddenly appearing in other magazines and brands after years of relative obscurity. It's not just a copycat trend. With its solemn tone, paper-conserving width, and large x-height, Plantin has definite merit as an alternative to Times and other magazine text typefaces. Monotype recently released Pro versions of the fonts with small caps, fractions, and both text and lining figures built in. But David John Earls replied to that: Lovely design, unfathomably bad and pretentious content. What a waste of Plantin. [Google] [More] ⦿
Type Camp takes place in exotic or secluded places, and lets a small (<20) group of participants interact and learn from type design or typography pros, at an all-inclusive weekly cost of 2,500 US dollars, or registration costs of the order of 100 to 500 dollars. Past instructors have included Shelley Gruendler, Marian Baantjes, Tiffany Wardle, Stephen Coles, Jan Middendorp, John Hudson, Laura Worthington, Eric Scheichelbauer, Kevin Larson, Dyana Weissman, Jay Rutherford and Richard Kegler. In 2011, Type Camps were planned in Rome, California, Weimar, and India. [Google] [More] ⦿
Type Crime: Rated R
Advertised as Mark Jamra's Portland, ME-based digital type foundry and an academic resource. There is an extremely useful research directory, a great jump point for learning about type and its history. The site also has useful articles such as Jamra's article on optical image support and his article on form and proportion in a typeface. Mark Jamra (b. 1956) lives in Portland, Maine, where he designs type and teaches letterform and graphic design at the Maine College of Art. He did postgraduate work at the Basel School of Design, Switzerland, 1980-83, then worked for URW in Hamburg (where he lived for 12 years), and set up Jamra Design there. He left Germany in 1995. Fonts by Jamra:
View Mark Jamra's typefaces. Brief bio. Speaker at ATypI 2006 in Lisbon. FontShop link. Speaker at ATypI 2018 in Antwerp on the topic of a multi-script type system for Africa. [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
A hot take is a "piece of deliberately provocative commentary that is based almost entirely on shallow moralizing" in response to a news story. It is "usually written on tight deadlines with little research or reporting, and even less thought". So here are some hot takes by some type designers published in 2022 at Typedrawers:
Type Design Resources: Justin Penner
Type Designer and Punchcutter
Michel Bujardet's open list has been created as an electronic way to continuing the spirit found by participants at the TypeCon 98 conference, in Westborough, Massachusets, where type designers met in a relaxed setting, to discuss their hopes, concerns, and projects. The archives. [Google] [More] ⦿
Type Designs by Nicholas Fabian
The informative home page of Nicholas Fabian, who died in April 2006. Check out his gorgeous fonts, like Fabius Art Deco and Fabius Durer. Also nice discussions of typographical issues such as TrueType versus PostScript. And pages on the history of type. He also sold Ugarit fonts. Early masters of type design. Alternate URL. [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
Type Directors Club is an international organization for all people who are devoted to excellence in typography, both in print and on screen. Founded in 1946, today's TDC is involved in all contemporary areas of typography and design, and welcomes graphic designers, art directors, editors, multimedia professionals, students, entrepreneurs, and all who have an interest in type: in advertising, communications, education, marketing, and publishing.
Past presidents of this New York-based organization include James Montalbano and Mark Solsburg.
Type Foundry Directory
The Type Foundry Directory is a curated index of type foundries by Matthew Smith of Morning Type. Lots of missing foundries including all major ones: FontShop, Monotype, Linotype, Bitstream, Adobe, Production Type, Canada Type, and basically all Indonesian, Japanese and Chinese type foundries. [Google] [More] ⦿
Type Generator is a very interesting software project by Dutchman Sibe Kokke. It generates fonts based upon a set of parameters such as contrast, x-height, point positioning and curves, a bit in the style of metafont, and was developed with the help of tools like Drawbot and Robofab. Sibe Kokke is also the designer of experimental typefaces such as The King (pixel family), Mullerpier (grunge), Glue Print (grunge) and Arab (Arab type simulation in Latin handwriting). Sibe obtained a Masters in type design at KABK. [Google] [More] ⦿
Experiments in computational typography at MIT's Media Lab by John Maeda and his group, including Peter Cho. John Maeda's award-winning poster at the 1997 Tokyo Type Directors Club competition. [Google] [More] ⦿
Dead link. The Type Museum was started by Matthew Desmond in 2007 as a sort of type wiki. The site disappeared a few years later. Themes included
Type Worship is the official blog of 8 Faces magazine. Featuring inspirational typography, beautiful lettering, reviews, interviews with leading designers, and exclusive content from the coveted bi-annual publication. Curated by Jamie Clarke (London) with Elliot Jay Stocks.
Over four years and across eight issues they interviewed 64 world-renowned designers and asked them for their favorite fonts. These designers were Erik Spiekermann, Jessica Hische, Ian Coyle, Jason Santa Maria, Jos Buivenga, Jon Tan, Bruce Willen, Nolen Strals, Martin Majoor, Ale Paul, Stephen Coles, Tim Brown, Nick Sherman, Rich Rutter, Veronika Burian, José Scaglione, Ellen Lupton, Frank Chimero, Steve Matteson, Mark Caneso, Vincent Connare, Yves Peters, Jason Smith, Phil Garnham, John Boardley, Craig Mod, Kris Sowersby, Doug Wilson, Nadine Chahine, David Brezina, Silas Dilworth, Neil Summerour, Jonathan Hoefler, Tobias Frere-Jones, Mark Simonson, Trent Walton, Keetra Dean Dixon, Peter Bilak, Gerry Leonidas, Mark MacKay, Simon Walker, Dan Rhatigan, Seb Lester, Nina Stössinger, Grant Hutchinson, Mike Kus, Eric Olson, Nicole Dotin, Michael Bierut, Tomas Brousil, Georg Salden, Hannes von Döhren, Phil Baines, Ken Barber, Rudy VanderLans, Zuzana Licko, Elliot Jay Stocks, Jeremy Leslie, Jan Middendorp, Robert Slimbach, Steven Heller, Fiona Ross, Erica Jung and Ricardo Marcin. The top 25 fonts coming out of this poll are, in order [with quotes and discussion taken from Jamie Clarke's piece]:
TypeArt Foundry (or: Digiteyes Multimedia TypeArt Foundry)
TypeArt is the commercial foundry of Lloyd Springer (Vancouver), est. 1992. His typefaces from before 2003:
The 2003 collection includes Natalian, Amusement, and Finders. MyFonts link. In 2007, MyFonts started selling his fonts: Amnesia, Bellamie, Bighead, Bossman, Boxcar, Buffalo Joe, Charbonne, Courier Ragged, Dead Zone, Dear John, Deviant Plain, Deviant Strain, DimeOtype, Disorder, Double Hitter, Double Vision, Dream Lover, Eastside, Eucaliptus, Eye Doctor, Falcon Brushscript, Falcon Casual, Frankenstein, Frontline, Golden Age, Golden Days, Horror Show, Junglemania, Keystoned, Label Gun, Letterstitch, Letterstitch Plain, Letterstitch Script, Liteweit, Miracolo, Outlaw, Prints Charming, Reerspeer, Romanstone, Saltzburg, Sidewalker, Silverscreen, Spaced Out, Starship Command, Steelyard, Strangelove, Sundance, Superhero, Tapeworm, Time Machine, Tolstoy, Typochondriac, Venus Envy, Verbal Cues, Writing Machine, Xheighter Condensed.
The team at Typecache consists of Taro Yumiba (an interactive designer/editor), Akira1975, Shohei Itoh (engineer), Shinsuke Okamoto (engineer), and James Chae. They write: Typecache.com is an online index for type foundries and font sellers, and showcases their collections of type. As typographic literacy grows, the site will hopefully be a useful resource for designers, art directors, and type enthusiasts.
Typeface is not a Font
Checking if a name already exists for a typeface? By far the best way is my own search engine. But after reading the discussion on Typedrawers (see also here), one could also check Lars Schwarz's Fontdata (which failed on some test fonts I threw at it) and Identifont (it too failed on my test set). [Google] [More] ⦿
Quoting Mark Simonson: The physical embodiment of a collection of letters (whether its a case of metal pieces or a computer file) is a font. When referring to the design of the collection (the way it looks) you call it a typeface. [Google] [More] ⦿
List of all (metal) typefaces available for sale from these six US typefounders:
Typefaces---a free tutorial
Unsure what this is. The International Type Index is a free project from a non-profit organisation. The objective is to build a searchable database of all fonts from all foundries, from all the world, to the benefit of both users AND authors. As a non-profit project, TypeIndex.org is 100% user-built : the font database grows through submission of missing foundries, fonts, and reviews. Well, there you have it. There is type news, a type handbook, downloads of free fonts, links to commercial fonts, and a type museum. [Google] [More] ⦿
Dead link, kept here on purpose for historical completeness. TypeNeu had type news for professionals. Originally founded in January 7, 2008 by digital designer Emil Olsson, it thrived for a while. In 2008, he was joined by Andreas Pihlström. Some years later, the site died. [Google] [More] ⦿
TypePhases (was: vigital tipografia)
Joan Marti Mas' dingbats and fonts. Joan Mas is a Catalan type designer, illustrator and graphic designer in Palma, who offers free and commercial fonts. His free fonts include Cu-tbo-rough (2004, handwriting), Dalicanya (2004), Pero Jefe (2004), Corbatins (2004), Cartelia (2004), Carusses (heads), Ataques, Scroonge (grunge), Tooman (tribal dingbats), Kinky Boots (2004), Viatge Quimic (2004, psychedelic face), Kool Aid Acid Text (2004), CU-TBO (2004, comic book family), Psychopaths (2002), CapsBats (2002), Plantiya (1999), Illustries (2000), Illustrisms (2000 and 2012: vintage scanbats), Amano (handwriting, 2000), DeskSpace dingbats, Bruegheliana, Fazzes, Whimsies (2000), Defora (grunge), Antypepatics (great facial caricatures, some even Picasso-esque), Honcho, Ataques, Taques au gogo, Scroonge, Lletraparits, Collbats (named after the cartoon artist Josep Coll, 1924-1984), Homoningos (2002-2004, human figures), Viatge Quimic (2002, lettering based on ideas of Austrian designer Alfred Roller from the early 20th century), Mandicho (child's hand), Sinky (comic book), Tipejos (human figure outlines), Embrush.
Commercial fonts: Merry Mob (2020), Genteta I, II and III, Absurdies (mad men dingbats), The Joy of Reading (2001), Fontorio (handwriting), Simpa (handwriting), Entestats (2004, dingbats of heads), Incipials 1, Deaf Crab, Racana, Emplomada, Phalopha, Feedback, DaMarka, Bizarries, Brrrush, Threedee, Capsbats 1,2&3 (very original: human heads with things in them), Manualita (handwriting), Ombres 2&3. He (note: Joan is a man's name in Catalonia) also has a sub-page on font creation and typography. [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
Fantastic German collection of web pages with a glossary of sorts. More an encyclopedia of typography, really. By Karen Wegehenkel, Technical University of Dresden. Has a good bibliography of type books as well. Link died. [Google] [More] ⦿
Typo Knowledge Base (tkb)
A type portal managed by teachers and students at the Fachhochschule Aachen, Germany, in German. The page contains the basic rules of legibility and good typography. There is a historic timeline, a list of famous type designers, a list of famous typefaces, a timeline of the great typefaces, anatomy of a letter (glossary), lecture notes, and font downloads of fonts that were developed in the courses of K.F. Oetzbach. The latter include Fegron (Marcel Feiter) and Unperfekt, Semiperfekt and Sansperfekt (Niels Vollrath). Finally, there are many useful book reviews. The site was started by K. F. Oetzbach, André Berkmüler, Natascha Dell and Simon (Burschi) Becker. There are about 25 people participating in the growth of this type portal. K.F. Oetzbach is the codesigner in 2005-2006 with Natascha Dell at Fontfarm of several fonts. [Google] [More] ⦿
Wonderful and useful archive, beautifully presented by the most generous of fontaholics, Petra Heidorn, a.k.a. CybaPee. Includes nice type art. The web presentation and the categorization are exemplary. Dingbats are used in a creative way to spice up things, and CybaPee juggles Paint Shop Pro like no one else. The growing archive is especially strong for decorative, blackletter, alchemy, Xmas, Celtic, and display fonts. The newest sub-page features Asian fonts (that is, Asian-style Roman letters). These pages are perfect: enjoy them! [Google] [More] ⦿
Terrence Chouinard's pages: Typocurious is an archive of print-based typographic material culled from the teaching files once owned by Alexander S. Lawson and Archie Provan, his colleague at the Rochester Institute of Technology School of Printing. Its biweekly posts will be direct transcriptions of previously published material, supplemented with accompanying images when possible, introduced with a few brief sentences when necessary, and conclude with a link to a pdf for our readers' downloading pleasure. Requests for material on certain topics are welcome. As this material is culled from the teaching files of Professors Alexander Lawson and Archie Provan, there is an abundance of type specimens, promotional material, and fistfuls of information on Goudy&Dwiggins. Otherwise, selection of the material will be based solely on the interests¤t research of the moderator. Great biographies of type designers.
In 2012, Typocurious was pronounced dead by its founder: The future of typocurious.com is uncertain. It may be dumped upon the internet scrap heap completely or its content may be folded into the upcoming reiteration of ithacatype.com. All its pre-gobblety-gook content is safe on the laptop, but I haven't the time, patience or love to care for typocurious anymore. [Google] [More] ⦿
Frank commentary and commercial type news, compiled by David Earls. As he states: "Typographer.com only covers commercial typeface releases and very carefully selected others." Archives. [Google] [More] ⦿
British outfit with extremely annoying web pages with moving things, small print, hidden buttons, and pop-ups that take over your screen. After reading all their stuff, I still don't know what they are up to, except that they are interested in on-screen typography. The members include Nicky Gibson, Fred Flade, Dionne Griffith, Richard Ho, Mike Reid, Pete Everett, Fred Wheeler, Ghazwan Hamdan, Phil Bulley, Chanuki Sereshine, Punyd Sakharet and Frances O'Reilly. Sorry for the misprints, because I could not read some of the characters in the names. [Google] [More] ⦿
Typographic Collaboration (or: Typophile.com)
Executive Creative Director and Punchcut Founder. Typophile.com is run by Jared Benson, who is Jonathan Hoefler's webmaster since 1999, from San Francisco. Incredible web pages! Jared designed Review Beta, Yakuza (Japanese letters), Benson Caps (pixel font), Benson Linear (pixel font), Pixeltrap (2003), Bitmuni (2003, based on San Francisco MUNI train windows: a fantastic creation!), Trinary (2003, a crazy bar-coding typeface invention), Benson Nonlinear (another font for small point sizes), Freiburger (2003, based on a scan from from D.B. Updike's Printing Types, Vol 1, pg. 87. This was the type used for the first Bible printed in France: Freiburger, Gering and Kranz, Paris 1476) and Academic. At FontStruct, he created the Singularity family in 2009. Typophile.com is a general information site on type with essays, discussions, tutorials, examples, beautifully organized. On April 8, 2002, Jared spilled hs coffee on one of the most interesting places in the type world with this message: While we encourage healthy debate and meaningful discussion, posts containing inflammatory remarks and/or personal attacks will be deleted in their entirety by the board moderator. [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
Typography site maintained by Jean-Christophe Loubet Del Bayle. Has sub-pages on Bertham, Bookman, Chelthenham, Clarendon, Copperplate Gothic, Garamond, Garamond ITC, Garamond No3, Goudy Mediaeval, Goudy Old Style, Goudy Sans, Granjon, Optima, Sabon, Stempel, Collection Claude Garamond, Collection Frederic Goudy. [Google] [More] ⦿
A fantastic tutorial on typography for HTML and web pages (in German). It deals with selections of quotes and apostrophes in many languages, the minus sign, the hyphen and dash, spaceds, the colon, the dieresis, numbers, and scientific and financial units. [Google] [More] ⦿
Typography for Mobile Devices
Typolis (German version)
"Schrift, Typografie und Gestaltung" is a general typographic site kept by Michi Bundscherer. Alternate URL without Shockwave. Michael Bundscherer made these fonts with iFontMaker: TabletSans, TabletTimes. [Google] [More] ⦿
TypoPRO is at once a repository of free fonts and a site that offers recommendations. Started in 2013, it is continuously updated by its founder, Dr. Ralf S. Engelschall (Munich, Germany), b. 1972. Dr. ret. nat. Dipl.-Inf. Univ. Ralf S. Engelschall is the the founder of the popular Open Source software organizations Apache Software Foundation, OpenSSL, OpenPKG and OSSP. He is an active developer in Apache, FreeBSD and GNU software development projects. He studied computer science at TU Munchen (class of 1999) and obtained a PhD in computer science from the University of Augsburg in 2018.
In 2020, TypoPRO consisted of 1613 individual fonts or 182 hand-picked font families. He provides this table of his favorite fonts in the collection:
From Mac McGrew, about this metal type family by ATF, 1915: Typotabular Gothics are a group of typefaces on 6-point body specially cast to a minimum number of set widths, from two to four widths per font. Introduced by ATF in 1915. Designs include two sizes of Lightline Gothic with lowercase for one of them, one size of Monotone Gothic, and several other plain gothics, as follows:
Typotheque is an initiative of Peter Bilak and ui42 out of Bratislava (Slovakia), and later, The Netherlands: Typotheque is an Internet-based independent type foundry. It offers quality fonts for PC and Macintosh platforms in standard European character set and in CE (central european) character set. All fonts have full (european) character sets, are thoroughly tested and manually kerned.
Typotheque also offers its own type utilities: AccentKernMaker and FontAgent. In 2000, with Stuart Bailey, Peter Bilak co-founded art and design journal Dot Dot Dot. Along with Andrej Kratky he co-founded Fontstand.com, a font rental platform. Peter is teaching at the Type & Media postgraduate course at the Royal Academy of Arts, The Hague.
Free fonts: Remix Typotheque and RaumSüd.
Commercial fonts: Fedra Sans (2001, 30 weights), Holy Cow (2000), Champollion (2000), Eureka (2000), Eureka Phonetik (2000), Eureka Arrows (2000), Eureka Glyphs (2000), Jigsaw (Light and Stencil, 2000, by Johanna Balusikova), Fedra Mono (2002), Fedra Bitmaps (2002), Fedra Serif (2003, 48 weights, with a characteristic shy female A, toes pointing inwards), Fedra Serif Display (2006) and Fedra Arabic (2006) .
Greta (2006-2007, Greta Text and Greta Display) is a newspaper type family designed initially for the main Slovak newspaper, SME. Greta Text won an award at TDC2 2007. It is also being used by the Sunday Times (along with Sunday Times Modern by Emtype and Flama by M. Feliciano). Greta Symbol (2012) is a 10-style 1200-glyphs-per-style superfamily of symbols commonly used in newspapers, magazines and online publications. Finally, Greta Mono (by Peter Bilak and Nikola Djurek) saw the light in 2015. Codesigner with Daniel Berkovitz of Greta Sans Hebrew (2015), which won an award at TDC 2016 and was released in 2017. Greta Sans supports Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Armenian, Arabic, Hebrew, Devanagari, Thai and Hangul. Greta Sans was designed by Peter Bilak, produced together with Nikola Djurek. Irina Smirnova designed the Cyrillic version. The Latin part has been published in 2012, the Cyrillic and Greek in 2015. In 2015, Greta Sans was recognised by the Tokyo TDC. The Arabic version was designed by Kristyan Sarkis and published in 2015. Greta Sans Devanagari was published in 2017, designed by Hitesh Malaviya at ITF under the supervision of Satya Rajpurohit. The Thai version was designed by Smich Smanloh from Cadson Demak, and published in 2019. This Hangul version was designed by Sandoll designers Yejin We and Jinhee Kim, and directed by Chorong Kim.
In 2008, Peter Bilak, Eike Dingler, Ondrej Jób, and Ashfaq Niazi created the 21-style family History at Typotheque: Based on a skeleton of Roman inscriptional capitals, History includes 21 layers inspired by the evolution of typography. These 21 independent typefaces share widths and other metric information so that they can be recombined. Thus History has the potential to generate thousands of different unique styles. History 1, e.g., is a hairline sans; History 2 is Peignotian; History 14 is a multiline face; History 15 is a stapler face, and so forth.
Collection of over 90 articles on type design by by Stuart Bailey, Michael Bierut, Peter Bilak, Andrew Blauvelt, Erik van Blokland, Max Bruinsma, David Casacuberta, Andy Crewdson, Paul Elliman, Peter Hall, Jessica Helfand, Steven Heller, Roxane Jubert, Emily King, Robin Kinross, Rosa Llop, Ellen Lupton, Martin Majoor, Rick Poynor, Michael Rock, Stefan Sagmeister, and Dmitri Siegel.
In 2011, he created Julien, a playful geometric display typeface loosely inspired by the early 20th century avant-garde. It is based on elementary shapes and includes multiple variants of each letter. It feels like a mix of Futura, Bauhaus, and geometric modular design.
Julien (2012) is a playful geometric display typeface loosely inspired by the early 20th century avant-garde.
Karloff (2012, Typotheque: Positive, Negative, Neutral) is a didone family explained this way: Karloff explores the idea how two extremes could be combined into a coherent whole. Karloff connects the high contrast Modern type of Bodoni and Didot with the monstrous Italians. The difference between the attractive and repulsive forms lies in a single design parameter, the contrast between the thick and the thin. Neutral, the offspring, looks like a slab face. They were made by Peter Bilak, Nikola Djurek and Peter van Rosmalen.
Lumin (2013) is a family that includes slab-serif, sans serif, condensed and display typefaces, and no attept is made to make them uniform in style.
Lava (2013) is a magazine typeface originally designed for Works That Work magazine. It was extended to a multilingual workhose typeface family. It as extended in 2021 to Lava 2.0, at which time they added a variable version of Lava that does this size-specific tracking optimization automatically---Typotheque calls it optical spacing. By 2021, Lava covered Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Devanagari, Telugu and Kannada. Typotheque collaborated with type designers Parimal Parmar, who drew the Devanagari; and Ramakrishna Saiteja, who drew Kannada and Telugu companions for Lava Latin, designed by Peter Bilak.
For Musée des Confluences in Lyon, France, Typotheuqe designed the custom sans typeface Confluence (2014).
For Buccellati Jewellery and Watches in Milan, Typotheque made the classy sans typeface Buccellati in 2013.
In 2016, Peter Bilak, Nikola Djurek and Hrvoje Zivcic published the Uni Grotesk typeface family at Typotheque. It is based on Grafotechna's 1951 typeface Universal Grotesk, which in turn is based on 1934 design by Vladimir Balthasar. Noteworthy also is the prismatic style Uni Grotesk Display.
In 2016, Peter Bilak designed the wayfinding sans typeface family November for Latin, Greek, Cyrillic and Hebrew. Its rounded version is October. November, co-designed by Peter Bilak, Irina Smirnova and Kristyan Sarkis, won two awards at Granshan 2017. November Stencil was published in 2018.
The Q Project was conceived in 2016 by Peter Bilak, and published in June 2020. Nikola Djurek produced the Q Shape 01, loosely based on the Edward Catich's basic brush strokes from his book The Origin of the Serif: Brush Writing and Roman Letters. Bilak explains: The Q Project is a game-like [modular] type system that enables users to create a nearly infinite number of variations. Inspired by toys like Lego or Meccano, Q invites you to explore its vast creative space and discover not only new solutions, but also new problems. Q consists of ix uppercase Base fonts and 35 attachments that can be added as individual layers (Q Base and Serifs). It also comes with a variable font with a motion axis (Q Mechanic), as well as three levels of basic shapes that can be combined into new forms (Q Shapes).
In 2021-2022, Typotheque custom-designed the humanist sans typeface NRK Sans for the Norwegian broadcaster, NRK.
History won an award at ProtoType in 2016.
Typo.z (was: Designiq)
Filip Blazek (alias Filip de Sign, b. 1974) writes about typography and ran Filip de Sign--Czech Graphic&Design Studio, founded in 1997 in Prague [in 2003, its name was changed to Designiq]. In 2000, he graduated from the Faculty of Arts at the Charles University in Prague. He regularly contributes to professional periodicals in the field of graphic design.
His typefaces include Pozorius, Studnicka Antikva and Duboryt. In 2013, he designed Smalt, a typeface for the street signs in Prague. He explains: Until very recently, the typefaces used on enamel street signs were drawn by hand. Unfortunately the producers introduced computers to the process which resulted in brutal degradation of the typographic quality of street signs. Two years ago, I was invited to organize a typographic workshop at the Academy of Art, Architecture and Design, Prague, and I asked a group of students to create a typeface for Prague street signs based on the letterforms used between 1890s and 1990s. The result was very impressive, so I decided to undrego the process of countless negotiations with Prague municipality. The project has a happyend: Last year, Prague mayor accepted the proposal and all street signs in the capital of the Czech Republic are required to use the students' typeface system and follow certain guidelines. No more Helvetica Condensed Bold extended to 130 percent but a beautiful typeface Smalt (Czech for enamel).
Alternate URL. Very useful pages for Central European typography, with plenty of links and practical information. Interview. Blazek's old site, still jam-packed with font information. Coauthor of Typography in practice (Praktická typografie), published by ComputerPress, 2000, 2004. Founder of Typo Magazine, which focuses on typography, graphic design and visual communication.
Speaker at ATypI 2006 on diacritics (PDF of Filip's presentation). At ATypI 2009 in Mexico City, he spoke on posters from the 1989 Velvet Revolution. Speaker at ATypI 2011 in Reykjavik. Speaker at ATypI 2013 in Amsterdam: Typeface for Prague enamel street signs. [Google] [More] ⦿
Underware is a (typo)graphic design-studio which is specialized in designing and producing typefaces. These are published for retail sale or are specially tailor-made. The company was founded in 1999 by Akiem Helmling, Bas Jacobs and Sami Kortemäki. Since 2002 Hugo Cavalheiro d'Alte is also part of the studio. They are based in Den Haag, Helsinki and Amsterdam. In 2017, they joined Type Network.
Bas Jacobs and Akiem Helmling designed Dolly (2001), a 4-font book typeface with flourishes, brushy, sturdy, Dutch. They created Sofa, a precursor of Sauna (2002; +Sauna Mono Pro), which won an award at the TDC2 2003 competition. In 2002, they made Stool for a Finnish printing house, Salpausselän Kirjapaino Ltd. Ulrika is a custom display typeface designed for Proidea Oy (a Finnish film and video production company).
In 2004, they created Auto, about which they write: Auto is a sans serif typeface which has three different models of italics, each with its own flavour. The font family consists of 3 x 24 fonts. With its three italics, Auto creates a new typographic palette, allowing the user to drive through unknown typographic and linguistic possibilities. Auto is fully loaded with both full Western and Eastern European character sets. Auto won an award at the TDC2 2005 type competition.
In 2005, Underware joined the type coop Village.
Interview in 2008.
In 2009, they published the connected script brush typeface Liza (+Text, Display, Caps, Ornaments), which has several versions for each letter.
In 2015, Bas Jacobs, Akiem Helmling and Sami Kortemäki published the stencil family Tripper Pro.
Zeitung Pro (2016) is a substantial sans family, designed for micro and macro use, with optical sizes, and a Zeitung Flex variable Opentype font to boot.
Custom types: Stockmann Sans (2012, with Kokoro & Moi: for the Scandinavian department store), Kone (2012: for the elevator company), Mr. Porter (script with a dozen alternatives for each glyph to better simulate real handwriting; it was awarded at TDC 2012 and at Tokyo TDC 2012), Stool (Headline, Thin, Grand), Sauna Mono (for the Danish Jyske Bank), Fated (fat), Ulrika (rounded and informal, slightly plump: for Proidea Ltd, a Finnish video production company), Suunto (2012; for sports watches, i.e., Suunto's Cobra2, Vyper2 and Elementum).
Underware received a prize in the TDC Tokyo Type Directorts Club 2020 awards for Grammato, a contribution in the area of animated and automated typography. Their typeface Y (2020) is an OpenType Variable Display typeface, based on higher order interpolation. It won an award at 23TDC.
In 2021, Underware released Plakato Pro, a stencil family that expanded into the neon, outline, inline, video game, grunge, kitchen tile and prismatic versions.
View Underware's typeface library. Speaker(s) at ATypI 2019 in Tokyo, where they introduce the notion of grammatography: writing with letters that are not prefabricated, but that react to the user and reader---grammatos. [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
Univers is a sans-serif type system designed by Adrian Frutiger in 1956. Both Univers and Helvetica take inspiration from the 1896 typeface Akzidenz Grotesk. Both arrived in the heyday of Swiss type design. Helvetica became more prominent, but Univers is more logical: different weights and variations within the type family were designated by the use of numbers rather than names. The original Univers type family consisted of 14 weights plus 16 variants with central European (CE) and Cyrillic character sets. In 1997 Frutiger reworked the whole Univers family at Linotype, thus creating Linotype Univers, which consists of 63 weights. By reworking the Univers more "extreme" weights as Ultra Light or Extended Heavy were added as well as some monospaced typefaces. The numbering system originally created by Frutiger was as follows:
This typeface became famous for its use on traffic signs in Czechoslovakia. It was designed in 1951 by an unknown type designer at the Czech type foundry Grafotechna.
Free download of two fonts made in 2010 and 2012 respectively, also by an unknown designer. One of these fonts claims in its metadata that the original is due to Vladimir Balthasar in 1934. In 2016, Peter Bilak reports that Indra Kupferschmid told him that Universal Grotesk is basically Kristall Grotesk (1937, Wagner & Schmidt in Leipzig). As Wagner & Schmidt morphed into the East-German type foundry TypoArt some time after 1945, Bilak conjectures that Grafotechna got its matrices from Wagner & Schmidt.
University Roman is usually attributed to Michael Daines and Philip Kelly at Letraset who designed it from 1972 until 1983. However, the origins go back much further. There are two sources that are contradictory, so I will cite both:
Implementations include University Roman (Letraset), University Roman (Tilde), University Roman (Monotype Imaging), University Roman (ITC), University Roman (Bitstream), University (Adobe), Hacky Sack NF (Nick Curtis), Finura (Dino dos Santos), and Speedball (Intellecta).
Very didactic and insightful Spanish language web site devoted to typography and its history. Pages by freelance graphic designer José Ramón Penela from Madrid. Check Penela's comparison of truetype and postscript. [Google] [More] ⦿
Urban Insect Evening (was: Nekton Design)
Grade Script, Plankton-B, Plankton Larvae, BugLight, Gracie Script, Larvae Symbold and Nekton Numbers are gorgeous grunge creations by Don Barnett. Truetype fonts at about 30 dollars per face. Beautiful web page as well.
In a publication entitled PrintWise Seven Steps to Lowering Print Costs Within 90 Days (2012), the U.S. General Services Administration recommends the use of the three toner-approved fonts, Times New Roman, Garamond, and Century Gothic. We read: The use of toner-efficient fonts can reduce toner costs by up to 30% By using more toner-efficient fonts, the government can create an average savings of $.0020 cents per page, resulting in government-wide savings up to $30 million annually. [Google] [More] ⦿
A typeface family developed for Volkswagen in 1979. It became an Adobe family, produced in 1989 and updated in 1995. The original designers were David Bristow, Gerry Barney, Ian Hay, Kit Cooper, and Terence Griffin. The latest revival is VAG Rounded Next (2018, Monotype). Developed under the direction of Steve Matteson, it has new weights and adds support for Greek and Cyrillic.
Varityper: 1946 Catalog
The Vari-Typer manual of 1946 was published by Ralph C. Coxhead Corporation, New York City. It contains a number of font specimen for the Varityper machine, predominantly typewriter-style typefaces and type for astrology, chemistry, mathematics and other specialized subjects. A small sample is reproduced here. The original PDF file was created at the University of Wisconsin. [Google] [More] ⦿
Veil of Perception
Terry Lee is a graduate of the University of Kansas. He worked for Hallmark Cards in Kansas for some time. His typefaces there include Runyan, which is based on lettering by Terry Runyan, Write Typer (typewriter emulation), and Ultra Jason, which is based on lettering by Amber Goodvin.
In 2015, he set up his own type foundry, Veil of Perception. His typefaces at his own foundry include Feverish (2017; well, this one is made by Bill LaFever for Veil of Perception), Tragicomic (2016: a comic book typeface), Occam (2016: an informal calligraphic script face) and Hadron (2016, a gothic calligraphic typeface family). [Google] [MyFonts] [More] ⦿
Started in 1967 as The Journal of Typographical Research. Now called Visual Language, it rarely publishes relevant typographical articles. The best issues are the ones from 1967-1970. [Google] [More] ⦿
Most specified fonts on web pages. In order, all over 90%: Arial, Times New Roman, Arial Black, Courier New, Verdana, Comic Sans, Courier, Trebuchet, Georgia, Impact. A bit down the list, we find Lucida Sans Unicode (74%), Palatino Linotype (69%), Sylfaen (46%), MS Mincho (34%), Batang (33%), SimSun (32%), Tunga (32%), Gautami (31%), Raavi (31%), Shruti (31%), and Andale Mono (25%), to name a few. [Google] [More] ⦿
The NeoSmart blog discusses the 2006 Vista fonts. The outcome: Calibri (sans-serif), the new default for Office 2007 where it replaces Times New Roman, got good reviews. Cambria and Constantia are solid serif fonts. People liked that Cambria comes with Cambria Math. Consolas is the new typewriter font. Corbel and Candara, both thinner sans serifs than Calibri, got some support as well. Segoe UI was disliked, and not just because it is close to Frutiger. Segoe Print and Segoe Script are script fonts that are not so easy to read. And people are raving about Nyala, John Hudson's Latin component of an Ethiopian script face. It is certainly my own favorite in the bunch. [Google] [More] ⦿
"Visual Telemetry is a collaborative partnership between Gab Gaither and Robyn A. Harton". Based in Richmond, VA. They specialize in high-quality graphics based in part on Gabrielle's fonts. [Google] [More] ⦿
Maxim Zhukov's obituary was posted precisely 40 days after Yefimov's passing. I quote from that letter:
The fortieth day of passing is widely observed in Russia, not only by the Orthodox faithful.
Vladimir Venediktovich Yefimov, the pre-eminent Russian type designer and typographic expert, known to his friends as Volodya, or Jeff, died on the 23rd of February, at the age of 62.
Vladimir was born in Moscow on May 6, 1949. He graduated from Moscow Printing Institute in 1973 with a major in graphic art and design. Vladimir began his career as a staff designer at the Type Design Department of the National Printing Research Institute (NIIPoligrafmash). His professional development was influenced by his senior fellow colleagues Mikhail Rovensky, Isay Slutsker, Lyubov' Kuznetsova, and Nikolay Kudryashov, all outstanding design professionals. From 1992 to 1998 Vladimir worked as a senior designer at ParaGraph International; in April 1998 he became one of the founders, and the art director, of ParaType, Inc.
Since then Vladimir designed more than 60 type families (more than 200 type styles), of which many are now well known, without exaggeration, to any Cyrillic user. Among them are Pragmatica (1989), Adver Gothic (1989), Newton (1990), Petersburg, Didona (1992), Octava (1966), ITC Charter Cyrillic and Kis Cyrillic (1999).
Vladimir's typefaces are widely recognized in the professional community world-wide for their superb quality. They won awards at many exhibitions and competitions, including the Certificate of Merit of the Academy of Graphic Design; the Grand Prix of the Golden Bee, Moscow International Biennial of Graphic Design; the Certificate of Design Excellence of the Type Directors Club, and others.
Vladimir taught a course in the history of type design at a number of Moscow-based design schools: Stroganov State University of Industrial Art; Higher Academical School of Graphic Design, British Higher School of Art and Design.
He authored, edited, and contributed to, many books on type design and typography, including a series "Great typefaces" (Book 1: The Beginnings. Moscow: ParaType, 2006; Book 2: The Serifs. Moscow: ParaType, 2007); Language Culture Type: International Type Design in the Age of Unicode, John D. Berry, ed. (New York: Graphis, 2002); Russian editions of Peter Karow's Font Technology: Description and Tools (Moscow, Mir Publishers, 2001), Erik Spiekermann's Über Schrift (Moscow: ParaType, 2005), Robert Bringhurst's The Elements of Typographic Style (Moscow: D. Aronov, Publisher, 2008), Jan Tschichold's The Form of the Book (Moscow: Art. Lebedev Studio, 2008).
Vladimir's mastery of design, his talks at the international typographic fora, and his multiple, productive contacts with foreign colleagues, his profound and multi-faceted erudition, his irresistible charm and charisma, have secured the international recognition of the achievements of the Russian type design school. It is not least due to his efforts that the type design and production in Russia has been revived, and has caught up with the current international level.
Vladimir was a full member of the Academy of Graphic Design (since 1995), and its Vice-President (since 2012), a member of the Association Typographique Internationale (since 1996), and a member of the Moscow Artist Union (since 1997).
Vladimir's typefaces, his books, his gentle charm and his lovely smile will remain with us forever.
"Miss at le Playa" takes through a tour of fonts used by fashion mags and fashion houses. On its cover, Vogue uses Didot Display, while Vogue Paris uses the free Exotica and Dogwood, as well as Romantiques. Chanel's logo uses Blue Highway Expanded Bold. For Jimmy Choo, it is University Roman LET, while Dior prefers Nicolas Cochin T Regular. Dolce and Gabbana play it safe with Futura SH-Dem Bold and Light. [