TYPE DESIGN INFORMATION PAGE last updated on Sat Jun 22 20:30:38 EDT 2024







[This 100 billion Zimbabwe bank note from 2008 is set in Arial]


[Ben Archer]

Educational and reference site run by Ben Archer, a designer, educator and type enthusiast located in England (who was in Auckland, New Zealand, before that). Glossary. Timeline. Type categories. Paul Shaw's list of the 100 most significant typefaces of all times were recategorized by Archer:

  • Religious/Devotional: Gutenbergs B-42 type, Gebetbuch type, Wolfgang Hoppyl's Textura, Breitkopf Fraktur, Ehrhard Ratdolt's Rotunda, Hammer Uncial, Zapf Chancery, Peter Jessenschrift, Cancellaresca Bastarda, Poetica.
  • Book Publishing&General Purpose Text Setting: Nicolas Jenson's roman, Francesco Griffo's italic, Claude Garamond's roman, Firmin Didot's roman, Cheltenham family, Aldus Manutius' roman, William Caslon's roman, Pierre-Simon Fournier's italic, Ludovico Arrighi da Vicenza's italic, Johann Michael Fleischmann's roman, ATF Garamond, Giambattista Bodoni's roman, Nicolas Kis' roman, Minion multiple master, Unger Fraktur, John Baskerville's roman, Lucida, Optima, Bauer Bodoni, Adobe Garamond, Scotch Roman, Romanée, ITC Stone family, Trinité, ITC Garamond, Sabon, ITC Novarese, Charter, Joanna, Marconi, PMN Caecilia, Souvenir, Apollo, Melior, ITC Flora, Digi-Grotesk Series S.
  • Business/Corporate: Akzidenz Grotesk, Helvetica, Univers, Syntax, Courier, Meta, Rotis, Thesis, Antique Olive.
  • Newspaper Publishing: Times Roman, Bell, Clarendon, Century Old Style, Ionic, Imprint.
  • Advertising and Display: Futura, Robert Thorne's fat typeface roman, Vincent Figgins' antique roman (Egyptian), Memphis, Fette Fraktur, Avant-Garde Gothic, Deutschschrift, Peignot, Erbar, Stadia/Insignia, Penumbra, Compacta, Bodoni 26, WTC Our Bodoni.
  • Prestige and Private Press: Romain du Roi, Golden Type, Johnston's Railway Sans, Doves Type, Walker.
  • Signage: William Caslon IV's sans serif, Trajan.
  • Historical Script: Snell Roundhand, Robert Granjon's civilité, Excelsior Script.
  • Experimental/expressive: Mistral, Beowolf, Dead History, Behrensschrift, Eckmannschrift, Neuland, Element, Remedy, Template Gothic.
  • Onscreen/multimedia: Chicago, Oakland, OCR-A, Base Nine and Base Twelve, Evans and Epps Alphabet.
  • Telephone Directory publishing: Bell Gothic.

Link to Archer Design Work. [Google] [More]  ⦿

101 Editions
[Carolina de Bartolo]

Founded by Carolina de Bartolo, 101 Editions is the San Anselmo, CA-based publisher of the book Explorations in Typography: Mastering the Art of Fine Typesetting and its iOS companion app. 101 Editions also offers full-service creative direction for a wide range of visual communications. It specializes in contract publishing, typographic consulting and custom typefaces.

Explorations in Typography Mastering the Art of Fine Typesetting is both the title of a 2011 book and the name of a web site by Carolina de Bartolo and Erik Spiekermann. The site is worth a visit, as users can "set" their own text. Their own blurb: [The book] is a vast collection of beautiful typesetting examples. Page after page, a brief article by Erik Spiekermann has been set in hundreds of different ways in hundreds of different typefaces, creating an extended visual taxonomy of typesetting that allows you to learn by looking. With complete type specifications on every page and examples set in hundreds of typefaces (many from the FontFont library), the aggregate effect is an ersatz type catalog as well as an extensive resource of typesetting ideas.

Her typefaces include Txt101 (2014: a fresh typeface for mock text and borders, designed in collaboration with Chiharu Tanaka at Psy/Ops).

Carolina graduated from the School of Design at Carnegie Mellon University. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

27 TTC Fonts

Nick Shinn ran an interesting project in his 2009 class at Humber College in Toronto. In the 1950s, Toronto built a subway system [which is run by the TTC, the Toronto Transit Commission], with comprehensively modernist architecture. As part of the program, a geometric, all-caps typeface was designed (anonymously), for use in signage [read Joe Clark's article about the type and its history]. Nick Shinn's course began with digitizing the original drawings, to introduce the technicalities of font production in FontLab, and then proceeded with students producing their own designs for a matching lower case. The 27 students each produced a typeface. The results are here: Alex Plociennik, Andrea Luis, Andrew Clanahan, Andrew Hodge, Chris Bacchus, Cornelius Quiring, Craig Steffan, Daniel Marcus, Dan Mitchell, Danny Wu, Darren Ray, David Spindler, Gurchan Birdi, Jackie Saik, Joe Beausoleil, Katie Short, Mag Ciemiega, Michael Cirillo, Michael Lao, Michael Neto, Nick Seeger, Nik Firka, Orlena Chan, Piotr Dymura, Scott Krysa, Tiffany Delve, Todd Haskins. [Google] [More]  ⦿

A Case For Type Design Education
[Patrick Griffin]

An article by Patrick Griffin in Applied Arts Mag, 2010. Patrick makes the point that type design should be taken seriously as a subject. [Google] [More]  ⦿

A Treatise on Font Rasterisation
[Freddie Witherden]

The title of this informative article is A Treatise on Font Rasterisation With an Emphasis on Free Software. It explains font hinting, anti-aliasing, subpixel rendering and positioning, and gives a survey of the state of the art, and pays special attention to X11 and Unix. The following Unix tools are discussed: Freetype, Fontconfig, Cairo, Qt and Xft. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Aasawari Kulkarni on Helvetica

In an article entitled Why We Need to Stop Advocating Helvetica as the Best Typeface (February 2021), Aasawari Kulkarni writes: Every good typeface---in my opinion---has been designed with the intent, to be used to fulfill a certain purpose. That might be one of the answers to the question why do we need more typefacesâ (if not the ultimate answer to the question). Living amidst a thousand fonts then, why do we still keep spotting and using just a few "normal" ones time and time again? Why do we keep falling on Helvetica's (and its counterparts') back for safety, like going back to an ex merely for the sake of familiarity and comfort? We put hours into making full proof concepts and sketches for our designs, spend waking nights selecting the perfect color pallets, making original forms. And yet when it comes to tying it all together, we simply select a beautiful, no-nonsense, Swiss typeface from our back pocket of the many Helvetica-like typefaces. There is no way we can go wrong with that. But must "not going wrong" be the only ultimate aim for a designer? We have been taught to keep things simple, to use proportions that work, and use forms that are comfortable, agreeable to all. And using Helvetica-like typefaces reinstates this need to be conventionally correct. It also helps that these fonts complement the rest of our careful considerations. As Jen Wang says in Helvetica, Modernism and the Status Quo of Design, "Although design contributes to the culture it perpetuates and reflects upon, it is seen as the stage for the message, not as part of the message itself." Even today, many Neue fonts masquerading as rebrands and brand refreshes are plastering on to thick layers of, excessively prim, Swiss, barren walls of redundant, monotonous design. To me, this looks like a missed opportunity, to not let type do the talking, beyond just the words it has been set in; to not let your type choices truly elevate your design on top of that indistinguishable wall. Why would you paint the town all in yellow when there are in fact a thousand different colours that could be more appropriate for different parts of the town?

References: Jen Wang: Helvetica, Modernism and the Status Quo of Design, Dangerous Objects, Medium, 8 December, 2016. Peter Bilak: We don't need new fonts, 8 Faces Magazine, issue 3, 2011. [Google] [More]  ⦿

About fonts

Short intro to fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

About fonts (Indiana U)

Intro to fonts for students. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Access Factory

US-based design outfit. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Acrobat Reader 7

Reactions by typophiles to Acrobat Reader 7, released in December 2004. Good news: It includes Myriad and Minion Pro (for free). Bad news: read on. Grant Hutchinson writes: "Every release since 4.0 has been bigger, slower and more bloated with creeping featuritis to the point of disfunction. Meh, indeed. Do yourself a favor... download version 7, install the free fonts and turf the rest." The general feeling is to hang on as long as possible to the Acrobat Reader 3 and 4 versions. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Acute Systems

Font software company that offers a nice intro to the font formats, and sells conversion software such as Crossfont, Wrefont and TransMac. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Adam Twardoch
[Zielona gruzińska katapulta]

[More]  ⦿

Adobe Type Topics

Discussion of font technology at Adobe. News bits. Links. Visit it often! [Google] [More]  ⦿

Adobe's designers

Adobe's designers highlighted. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Adrian Täckman

[More]  ⦿


Association for Font Information Interchange. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Agate is an old size type of approximately 5.5 points, a size that mattered for small print such as in newspapers. In newspaper advertising, fourteen agate lines made one inch of matter. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Agfa -- Monotype Sackers

The Sackers family (Monotype, and before that Agfa) is a vintage typeface family. Its members:

As a whole, this is an elegant but curious collection. There are few clues as to its origins, which may be a bit louche because we can easily recognize Engravers Gothic in the Sackers Gothic, for example. All typefaces look like they originate in the 19th century, and started probably out as engraved (copperplate) lettering.

View the sackers typeface family. See also here. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Associazione Italiana Progettazione per la Communicazione Visiva, located in Italy. It has a publishing branch. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Airtable: List of type foundries

A 323-strong list of type foundries. It is quite useless considering that Linotype, FontShop, Adobe, Production Type and Monotype are absent. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Alain Hurtig

Great pages about typography (in French). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Alan Fletcher

Alan Fletcher (1931-2006) once said, A typeface is an alphabet in a straightjacket, Inhibition is a nail in your head, and A person without imagination is like a teabag without hot water. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Albert-Jan Pool

[More]  ⦿


A modern font family with Didot influences published by Monotype in 1910. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Aldine Italic: Fourier Analysis

Planar Fourier analysis of a text set in Aldine italic, based on Alex Chirokov's FFT plugins. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Alexander Overdiep
[Collegium Graficum]

[More]  ⦿

Alexander Phemister

[More]  ⦿

Alisa Flahert on kerning, leading, tracking

Alisa Flahert (Rexburg, ID) gives great examples of good and bad kerning and leading, using Monotype Bodoni as a prototype example. Behance link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

All Good Things Typography
[Kevin Woodward]

Dead link. Archive (FontPool), history of type, type classification (by Matthias Neuber and Morton K. Pedersen), page layout guide, type choice guide, logo type guide, mixing type guide, Windows software guide, Mac type software guide, glossary. By Kevin Woodward. [Google] [More]  ⦿

All in the Font Family

Fonts in web pages: tips by Eric A. Meyer at Case Western University. [Google] [More]  ⦿

All Type

Brazilian type site. Links. Museum. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Alois Studnicka
[Czech Design and Typography (studio experimentalniho design)]

[More]  ⦿

Alphabets and Writing Systems

A bit of history on writing systems. Links to many ancient scripts. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Alphabettes is a showcase for work, commentary, and research on lettering, typography, and type design, organized by and for women. The original group of 98 that started the site: Alessia Mazzarella, Alice Savoie, Alisa Nowak, Amy Papaelias, Andrea Tinnes, Annica Lydenberg, Aoife Mooney, Bianca Berning, Barbara Bigosinska, Caren Litherland, Chavelli Tsui, Danielle Evans, Denise Gonzales Crisp, Catherine Griffiths, Catherine Schmidt, Dana Tanamachi, Diana Ovezea, Dyana Weissman, Elena Abertoni, Elena Veguillas, Elizabeth CareySmith, Emilie Rigaud, Emma Laiho, Erin Ellis, Erin McLaughlin, Hendrika Makilya, Indra Kupferschmid, Isabel Urbina Peña, Isabella AragĂŁo, Jeannette Weber, Jen Mussari, Jessica Hische, Jillian AdelJulia Sysmäläinen, Kali Nikitas, Karolina Lach, Kathleen Sleboda, Kimya Gandhi, Ksenya Samarskaya, Laura Meseguer, Laura Serra, Laura Worthington, Lila Symons, Lily Feinberg, Linda Hintz, Linda Kudrnovska, Liron Lavi, Liza Enebeis, Luisa Baeta, Lynne Yun, Maria Doreuli, Mariko Takagi, Marina Chaccur, Marta Bernstein, Martina Flor, Mary Catherine Pflug, Mary Kate McDevitt, Meghan Arnold, Michelle Perham, Moeko Yamaguchi, Nadine Chahine, Nadine RoĂźa, Naomi Abel, Nicole Dotin, Nicole Phillips, Nina Stössinger, Nora Gummert-Hauser, Petra Cerne Oven, Pilar Cano, Pooja Saxena, Rathna Ramanathan, Roxane Gataud, Ruxandra Duru, Sandrine Nugue, Sara Soskolne, Sarah Maxey, Shauna Lynn Panczyszyn, Shelley Gruendler, Shoko Mugikura, Sibylle Hagmann, Slávka Paulikova, Sol Kawage, Sol Matas, Sonja Hernandez, Sonja Knecht, Sonja Stange, Spike Spondike, Susanne Dechant, Tiffany Wardle de Sousa, Tania Raposo, Ulrike Rausch, Verena Gerlach, Veronika Burian, Victoria Rushton, Wendy Xu, Xandra Zamora, Zeynep Akay. [Google] [More]  ⦿


In 1944, American Type Founders (ATF) introduced Alpha-Blox. Quoting Jennifer Farrell, this is an impressive system of both solid and linear shapes that could be combined to create all manner of typefaces, ornament and pattern in 1- or 2-colors. The design possibilities were endless and limited only to the imagination of the printer/designer.

Digital revivals of this modular typeface family include

[Google] [More]  ⦿

AlphaBot: Nikita Pashenkov
[Nikita Pashenkov]

Alphabot "is a virtual robot that is able to take the shape of any letter in the English alphabet as you type them on a keyboard. A software application written in C++/OpenGL features 12 alphabots loosely arranged in a 3D landsape that the user can traverse using arrow keys or a mouse." Dated 2000. See also here. [Google] [More]  ⦿


French typographical rules. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Alte Schwabacher

A classic form of blackletter first seen in 1472 in Augsburg where Johann Bämler created a version. It was very popular in the 16th century. Revived, e.g., by the following foundries: Drugulin/D. Stempel (1919), Benjamin Krebs (1918), Genzsch&Heyse (1835), Berthold, C.F. Rühl (1903). [Google] [More]  ⦿

American Amateur Press Association (AAPA)
[Dave Tribby]

Organization with many type pages related to letterpress, and run mostly by Dave Tribby. I quote Tribby: From its formation in 1892 (from the merger of 23 leading foundries) to its demise in the late twentieth century, American Type Founders was the dominant force in foundry type. Throughout its existence, ATF produced some of the most beautiful printing fonts. During its first half century, those typefaces were displayed in a series of substantial catalogs.

Chicago's Barnhart Brothers & Spindler foundry chose not to join the ATF combine in the 1890s. It finally became part of ATF in 1911, but continued to operate under its own name until it was closed in 1933.

Based upon Mac McGrew's American Metal Typefaces of the Twentieth Century, Maurice Annenberg's Type Foundries of America and their Catalogs, and a review of ATF type catalogs published in 1897, 1899, 1900, 1903, 1906, 1909, 1912, 1923, 1934, 1941, 1960, and 1971 (plus BB&S catalog No. 25), Tribby has compiled a spreadsheet of ATF typefaces, their identification numbers, and which page numbers they appeared on in those catalogs. He put together a similar spreadsheet for BB&S catalogs that were published in 1897, 1909, and 1925.

Excel spreadsheet.

The following PDF files were prepared from the individual worksheets in the spreadsheet file.

[Google] [More]  ⦿

American Center for Design

Nonprofit national membership organization. [Google] [More]  ⦿

American Institute of Graphic Arts

[More]  ⦿

[Cameron Moll]

Article by Artemy Lebedev on the history of the ampersand. Marcus Tullius Tiro, Ciceros faithful slave and secretary, is credited with inventing ampersand. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ana Berden

Ljubljana, Slovenia-based designer of the type design version of Monopoly, called Fontopoly (2016). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Anatomy of fonts

A Russian language page with visual illustrations of font terminology. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ann Wroe
[Handwriting: An Elegy]

[More]  ⦿


Joe Gillespie's colorful explanation of anti-aliasing. Pixel font FAQ. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Antique (McGrew's definition)

Mac McGrew writes: Antique in general is a generic nineteenth-century term applied to a variety of old type styles. A few that were given a new lease on life by Monotype and the slug machines are listed here; others were similar to the older Clarendons, Dorics, Ionics, etc. Also see Bold Antique and Bold Condensed Antique, Modern Antique and Modern Antique Condensed, and Old Style Antique, also Cushing Antique, Latin Antique, etc. Antique No.1 is similar to Bookman. Antique No.2 (Lino) is equivalent to Antique No.6 (Mono) and comes from BB&S, where it was later known as Antique Bold. Antique No.3 is equivalent to Modern Antique. Antique No. 525 (ATF) is very similar to Antique [No. 53] (BB&S) and Antique No.1 (Inland); also to Consort Light, the 1950s English revival (see Clarendon). Hansen's Antique No.1 was slightly lighter than the others. Antique Condensed comes from BB&S. Antique Extra Condensed was shown as Skeleton Antique by Marder, Luse in 1886 or earlier and by BB&S somewhat later, with many sources producing the same or very similar designs. Antique Shaded was designed by Morris F. Benton in 1910 but not introduced until 1913, when it was described as "the first of a series of shaded typefaces." It was later promoted as part of "the new gray typography." This typeface was the first one cut on a new shading machine invented by the designer's father, Linn B. Benton. When Monotype copied it, the typeface was named Rockwell Antique Shaded, to tie it in with that company's Rockwell series (q. v.), but since Rockwell is often confused with Stymie, it is perhaps natural that Antique Shaded is sometimes though incorrectly called Stymie Shaded. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Antique Olive
[Roger Excoffon]

Antique Olive is a brash humanist sans-serif typeface designed in 1959 by French type designer Roger Excoffon for an Air France logo. It was released at Fonderie Olive (Marseille, France) as a retail typeface in 1962 with further development occurring until 1968. In addition to a basic weight, Antique Olive was produced in medium, condensed, wide, bold, condensed bold, extra bold (known as Antique Olive Compact), and ultra bold (known as Nord). Its almost reverse stress disqualifies Antique Olive from use as a body typeface. It was effectively used, e.g., in the Sesame Street credits from 1969 until 1983.

Digital revivals:

  • Antique Olive (Adobe).
  • Antique Olive (Linotype).
  • Antique Olive (URW).
  • Bitstream: Incised 901.
  • Antique Oakland (Brother Industries Ltd), late 1990s.
  • Antigone (Infinitype).
  • Antigone (Softmaker).
  • Ravenna Serial (Softmaker).
  • Oliva (Autologic).
  • AO (Itek).
  • Olive (Varityper).
  • OPTI Ancienta (Castcraft).
  • Antique Olive Heavy (1992, Gary Elfring).
  • Other names used by smaller outfits: Alphavanti, Berry Roman, Gibson Antique, Olivanti, Olive Antique, Oliver, Olivette, Olivette Antique, Olivia, Provence.

Digital typefaces influenced by Antique Olive:

  • Anton Moglia's Paysage (2020).
  • Kia Tasbihgou's Propos (2018).
  • Lena Douani's Teelay Sans (2017).
  • Aero (2011, Chester Jenkins and Jeremy Mickel).
  • Aurelien Vret's Prosaic Black (2017) is a distant cousin on Antique Olive Nord.
  • Kelly Media's Antiqua 1010 (1994).
  • Zizou or Clouseau (2011), by Christian schwartz. A reworking (from memory) of Antique Olive. This was published at the end of 2013 as Duplicate (2013, with Miguel Reyes). In three styles, Slab, Sans and Ionic. Commercial Type writes: Christian Schwartz wanted to see what the result would be if he tried to draw Antique Olive from memory. He was curious whether this could be a route to something that felt contemporary and original, or if the result would be a pale imitation of the original. Most of all, he wanted to see what he would remember correctly and what he would get wrong, and what relationship this would create between the inspiration and the result. Though it shares some structural similarities with Antique Olive and a handful of details, like the shape of the lowercase a, Duplicate Sans is not a revival, but rather a thoroughly contemporary homage to Excoffon. Duplicate Sans was finally finished at the request of Florian Bachleda for his 2011 redesign of Fast Company. Bachleda wanted a slab companion for the sans, so Schwartz decided to take the most direct route: he simply added slabs to the sans in a straightforward manner, doing as little as he could to alter the proportions, contrast, and stylistic details in the process. The bracketed serifs and ball terminals that define the Clarendon genre (also known as Ionic) first emerged in Britain in the middle of the 19th century. While combining these structures with a contemporary interpretation of a mid-20th century French sans serif seems counterintutive, the final result feels suprisingly natural. The romans are a collaboration between Christian Schwartz and Miguel Reyes, but the italic is fully Reyes's creation, departing from the sloped romans seen in Duplicate Sans and Slab with a true cursive. Mark Porter and Simon Esterson were the first to use the family, in their 2013 redesign of the Neue Züricher Zeitung am Sonntag. Because the Ionic genre has ll ong been a common choice for text in newspapers, Duplicate Ionic is a natural choice for long texts. Duplicate Ionic won an award at TDC 2014.
  • Utile (2020, Kontour Type). Utile was influenced by Hermann Zapf's Optima in its flaring and by Roger Excoffon's Antique Olive in its brashness.
  • Oliver New (1995, Anastasia Babalyan at TypeMarket).
  • Filt (Martin Fredrikson Core).
  • Chalfont (2003, Alan Meeks).
[Google] [More]  ⦿


Experimental typography. Under construction. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Antonio Carusone
[The Grid System]

[More]  ⦿


The American Printing History Association. Its journal is called "Printing History". [Google] [More]  ⦿

Apple: font page

Basic font page at Apple. International fonts. Techical type page.

Find the San Francisco fonts (SF Compasct, SF Pro, SF Mono) and Apple's New York font. Github page. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Apple Fonts

Alternate URL. The history of all fonts used and produced by Cupertino, CA-based Apple. A brief summary of this:

  • Corporate fonts and brand identity
    • Motter Tektura (designed by Othmar Motter of Voralberger Graphic in 1975): before the first Macintosh, Apple used Motter Tektura to accompany the Apple logo. "According to the logo designer, Rob Janoff, the typeface was selected for its playful qualities and techno look, in line with Apple's mission statement of making high-technology accessible to anyone."
    • Apple Garamond, the new corporate font used when the Macintosh was introduced in 1984. ITC Garamond (Tony Stan, 1977) was condensed to 80% of its normal width by Bitstream, who also adjusted and hinted it. Apple Garamond was used in most of Apple's marketing. The Wikipedia comment: "Many typographers consider ITC Garamond in general, and Apple Garamond in particular, to be poorly designed typefaces. A common viewpoint is that the algorithmic scaling distorted the typeface."
    • Myriad Pro: starting in 2002, Apple began using Myriad Pro Semibold (a sans serif face) in its marketing, gradually replacing Apple Garamond. MyriadPro and MyriadApple can be downloaded here.
    • Gill Sans Regular: used in the marketing of the Newton PDA.
  • Fonts of the original Macintosh All but one of these bitmap fonts were due to Susan Kare. The fonts were originally named after stops along the Paoli, Pennsylvania commuter train line: Overbrook, Merion, Ardmore, and Rosemont. Later, under pressure from Steve Jobs, names of world cities were chosen. A number of different variants of each font were algorithmically generated on-the-fly from the standard fonts. Bold, italic, outlined, underlined and shaded variations were the most common.
    • Cairo: a bitmap dingbat font, most famous for the dogcow at the 'z' character position.
    • Chicago (sans-serif): the default Macintosh system font in System 17.6.
    • Geneva (sans-serif): designed for small point sizes and prevalent in all versions of the Mac user interface.
    • London (blackletter): an Old English-style font.
    • Los Angeles (script): a thin font that emulated handwriting.
    • Monaco (sans-serif, monospaced): a fixed-width font well-suited for 912 pt use.
    • New York (serif): a Times Roman-inspired font family. Freely avaliable from Apple.
    • San Francisco: a ransom note face.
    • Venice (script): a calligraphic font designed by Bill Atkinson.
  • Fonts in Mac OS X
    • Lucida Grande: the primary system font in Mac OS X (all versions). Lucida Grande looks like Lucida Sans, but has more glyphs. It covers Roman, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic, Thai and Greek. Many of its 2800+ glyphs were added by Michael Everson to the original collection.
    • Mac OS X ships with a number of high-quality typefaces, for a number of different scripts, licensed from several sources.
    • LastResort (designed by Michael Everson of Evertype): used by the system to display reference glyphs in the event that real glyphs needed to display a given character are not found in any other available font. Wikipedia states: "The glyphs are square with rounded corners with a bold outline. In the left and right sides of the outline, the Unicode range that the character belongs to is given using hexadecimal digits. Top and bottom are used for one or two descriptions of the Unicode block name. A symbol representative of the block is centered inside the square. By Everson's design, the typeface used for the text cut-outs in the outline is Chicago, otherwise not included with Mac OS X. The LastResort font has been part of Mac OS since version 8.5, but the limited success of ATSUI on the classic Mac OS means that only users of Mac OS X are regularly exposed to it."
    • Apple Symbols (2003-2006): a 4000+-glyph dingbat font that complements the symbols from Lucida Grande, inttroduced first in Mac OS X 10.3 ("Panther").
    • Zapfino (a calligraphic typeface designed by and named after renowned typeface designer Hermann Zapf for Linotype, based on an example he first drew in 1944): Zapfino utilizes the most advanced typographic features of the truetype format, and is partially included in OS X as a technology demo for ligatures and character substitutions.
    • Mac OS X Snow Leopard comes with four new fonts in 2009: Chalkduster (emulating chalk on a blackboard), Menlo (a monospaced family based on Bitstream's Vera Sans Mono that replaces Monaco for applications such as Terminal and code editors; see also Deja Vu Sans Serif Mono), Heiti SC and TC and Hiragino Sans GB.
  • Fonts used in other devices
    • Espy Sans: designed in 1993 by Apple's Human Interface Group designed the typeface Espy Sans specifically for on-screen use. It was first used for the Newton OS GUI and later integrated into Apple's eWorld online service.
    • eWorld Tight: a bitmap font used for headlines in Apple's eWorld. The metrics of eWorld Tight were based on Helvetica Ultra Compressed.
    • Chicago (see above): bitmap typeface used in Apple's iPod music player since 2001.

The Apple Design team won two awards at 25 TDC in 2022, pne for SF Arabic (a contemporary interpretation of the Naskh style with a rational and flexible design; this extension of San Francisco serves as the Arabic system font on Apple platforms. Like San Francisco, SF Arabic features nine weights and variable optical sizes that automatically adjust spacing and contrast based on the point size of text. The typeface features an extensive repertoire that covers numerous vocalization, tone and poetic marks, extended vowel signs, honorifics and Quranic annotations. SF Arabic provides support across the following languages: Arabic, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Sorani, Mazanderani, Northern Luri, Pashto, Persian, Rohingiya, Sindhi, Urdu, and Uyghur) and SF Symbols 3 (over 600 new symbols including representations of devices, game controllers, health, communication, objects, and tools; it prides greater control over how color is applied to symbols, and has a variable font srtyle as well). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Apple GX fonts

This discussion walks us through the original Apple GX fonts, such as Tekton GX, Skia (Matthew Carter), Buffalo Gal (Thomas Rickner), Jam (Erik van Blokland), Chunk (Matthew Butterick) and Zycon (Font Bureau). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Archive.org: Type and Typefounding

Copyright-free type and typefounding books. Several type specimen books from the University of California Library Collection have been scanned in by Microsoft. Other libraries are participating as well. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Arial: ein Nekrolog
[Ralf Turtschi]

German article by Ralf Turtschi (Swiss, b. 1955) on the history of Arial from its genesis in 1982 as a Helvetica "clone" to its present status as most-used font. Ralf goes on to warn his readers that Microsoft is repeating history by pushing, very soon, its own Segoe, a Frutiger clone. Notable German quotes in which he performs a damning autopsy on Arial: Die Arial ist weder als Textschrift noch als Headlineschrift zu empfehlen, da fehlt einiges an Klasse. [...] Eine unausgeglichene Laufweite, also die Proportionen und der Abstand zwischen den Zeichen, gibt der Arial einem miserablen Grauwert. Das Verhältnis von schwarzen Linien und weissen Flächen lässt sie plump und charakterlos auf dem Papier kleben. Besonders hässlich sind die angeschrägten Endstriche bei a, e, s und t. Die Proportionen und die Form des t sind eine Zumutung und das a sieht wie nach einem Hagelschlag verformt aus. [...] Die Arial ist lieblos, unausgeglichen und verbeult, sie hat mir noch nie Freude bereitet. About the Segoe drama (Trauerspiel), he writes: Die Geschichte wiederholt sich hier, Die Segoe atmet den Geist der Frutiger von Adrian Frutiger, die sich in den 80er-Jahren zur Alternative der viel benutzten Helvetica anbot. Hier springt Microsoft 20 Jahre zu spät dem vermeintlichen Lifestyle nach, und statt eine eigenständige Schrift zu entwickeln, kupfert die Branchenführerin eine der erfolgreichsten und schönsten Schriften ab. Man könnte ja auch eine bestehende Schrift ordentlich lizenzieren. Ein Trauerspiel. So, why did Microsoft not properly license Frutiger from the man himself? After Adobe had to rip off Frutiger with its Myriad, now Microsoft joins the corporate theft business. Why not reward type designers properly? Fontshop joined Turtschi in his analysis. See also this brilliant piece by Fred Nader from 2003. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Arial versus Helvetica

Yet another comparison between Helvetica and its sometimes maligned Monotype "clone" [not my words], Arial. And a test to tell one from the other. Footnote: Arial is designed to compete with Helvetica, yes, but it is based on Monotype Grotesque (early 1900s) and not on Helvetica. Pic with a comparison. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Art directors versus designers

Apostrophe laments the little credit art directors get in font design, and cites Sumner Stone, Jeff Level, Alex Kaczun and Albert-Jan Pool as examples. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Graphic design students write web pages on designers and typographers such as Rodchenko, Brody, Zapf, Morison and Tschichold. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Type outfit in Dallas, TX, with some free fonts, some commercial fonts (BOSS fonts: 4000 fonts for 30 USD), and some typography essays on anti-aliasing. There seems to be a connection withComputer Support Corporation. It released at one point in 1996 a big CD of fonts called Arts&Letters, which I believe is related to Bay Animation. These were renamed fonts from elsewhere. About 100 fonts were at this site. A sampling of the free fonts: Amos-Normal, ArcherNormal, Asia-Extended-Bold, Banco-Normal, Barrett-Condensed-BoldItalic, CallimarkerItalic, Cane-StripedNormal, Cane-Hollow, CoffeeSackExtendedItalic, CraneNormal, Dominon-Normal, Enview-Bold, Glaze-Normal, Gorgio-Normal, Leo-Normal, Matterhorn, Orient2Normal (oriental simulation), PennantNormal, Plank-ExtendedNormal, RoninNormal, ShalomNormal (Hebrew simulation), Tangiers-Normal, ThreeDeeNormal, WampumNormal. The list of about 2000 fonts I am aware of, all made between 1995 and 2001, is here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ascender: Newspaper font study

An in-depth study of font usage in American newspapers, carried out by Bill Davis of Ascender Corporation in 2004. A brief summary of its findings:

  • The ten most popular typefaces are Poynter, Franklin Gothic, Helvetica, Utopia, Times, Nimrod, Century Old Style, Interstate (1993, Tobias Frere-Jones), Bureau Grotesque and Miller.
  • Many newspapers, including the top seven nationally, use custom designed typefaces.
  • The most popular foundry for newspaper design, by far, is Font Bureau. It is followed by Adobe, Linotype, ITC, Bitstream, Hoefler&Frere-Jones, Monotype and Carter&Cone.
  • The custom fonts are listed in the article. They include, for the top seven newspapers, USA Roman (a modification by Gerard Unger of his Gulliver for USA Today), DJ4Scotch (a modification of Escrow by Font Bureau for The Wall Street Journal), NY Cheltenham (by Carter&Cone for the New York Times), LA Text (by Font Bureau for the LA Times), Post Roman (by Font Bureau for the Washington Post), CustomNewsOneDN (used by Daily News, NY), and Tribune Century and Eclipse (by Font Bureau and Jim Parkinson, respectively, for the Chicago Tribune).
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Ascender: Study of Free--Shareware Web Fonts

Ascender claims to have the ultimate proof that freeware/shareware fonts are inferior to commercial fonts. Statistics are only given for 4572 freeware TTF and OTF fonts, so we don't know how they compare, but that does not deter Ascender. The findings and my comments in italics:

  • TrueType hinting tables 8.9% failed (404 TrueType fonts had improper/incomplete tables): Considering that about 8% are pixel fonts anyway, what is the big deal? And how about automatic hinting in both freeware and commercial fonts? In fact, how many fonts, commercial or otherwise, are hand-hinted?
  • Code Page 1252 character set 80.8% failed (3696 fonts missing one or more characters): Most freeware fonts are playful---they are designed for a special purpose such as a poster or an announcement of an event or a digitization of a rock band's lettering.
  • Mac Roman character set 95.9% failed (4385 fonts missing one or more characters): Same comment as above. And where are the stats for commercial fonts?
  • Trademark string 1.7% failed (78 fonts missing a trademark string): Great. Passed this test.
  • Copyright string 68.9% failed (3152 fonts missing a copyright string): I am a little dismayed that so few freeware fonts do not have this. But then again, copyright does not have to be explicitly mentioned. Copyright is born when a creative piece is published, with or without copyright statement. Also, those who do not support intellectual property rights are not motivated to include copyright strings...
  • Embedding restriction 30.3% failed (1386 fonts set to Restricted or improper fsType): What a useless item! Each font designer is allowed to set the fsType bits to anything he/she likes. Most (more than 30%?) commercial fonts have restricted fsType bits, so what? Are freeware painters not allowed to use white paint? Are freeware writers not allowed to use four-letter words?
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Association for Font Information Interchange

International non-profit professional association. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Atelier Beinert München

Atelier for design and typography run by Wolfgang Beinert. Classification of type. Roman numerals. Interesting sub-page on typographical rules for numbers. Make sure to visit his award-winning designs of calendars. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Atelier Perrousseaux

Interesting font links. In French, by Yves Perrousseaux. Jef Tombeur describes this as follows: "The Atelier Perrousseaux is a small publishing house having on its catalogue the founder's books but also books, essays, studies by the late Gérard Blanchard, Adrian Frutiger, Ladislas Mandel, François Richaudeau (a linguist) and, soon, René Ponot." [Google] [More]  ⦿

ATF: Railroad Gothic

This ATF classic headline sans was first introduced in 1906. Mac McGrew writes: Railroad Gothic is a plain, traditional form of heavy, condensed gothic, first shown by ATF early in the century, although it has the appearance of a nineteenth-century face, as some characters seem disproportionate to the others. There is no lowercase. It has long been popular for newspaper headlines, especially in the very large sizes, some of which continue to be shown in recent ATF lists. Ludlow makes the same design in some large sizes as Gothic Bold Condensed Title. Compare Headline Gothic (ATF). ATF Type adds: Railroad Gothic was the quintessential typographic expression of turn-of-the-century industrial spirit---bold and brash in tone, and a little rough around the edges. A favorite for the plain speak of big headlines, Railroad Gothic quickly gained popularity among printers. Its condensed but robust forms were likely a source of inspiration for later families of industrial sans serifs.

For revivals and extensions:

[Google] [More]  ⦿

AtMahogany Script

This script started out in 1958 as Intertype's reaction to ATF's successful script typeface Murray Hill. AtMahogany Script, or simply Mahogany Script was a Compugrapghic / Agfa typeface. Today, it is sold by Monotype Imaging. Solo called it Hallmark Script, while Linotype and Bitstream call it Monterey. Copies in the Castcraft collection include OPTI Mahogany Script and OPTI Mountain Script. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Karl-Erik Tallmo]

An article from P22 on the at-sign, written by Karl-Erik Tallmo. [Google] [More]  ⦿


ATypI, Association Typographique Internationale, is the type community's premier organization. Founded in 1957 by Charles Peignot. Its goals are

  • to promote contemporary digital fonts
  • to encourage outstanding typography and typographic design
  • to campaign for the protection of typeface designs
  • to offer an arbitration service for disputes between members
  • to influence legislators around the world
  • to run conferences
  • to publish journals, newsletters and other publications

Past presidents:

  • Charles Peignot, 1957-1968.
  • John Dreyfus, 1968-1973.
  • Tage Bolander, 1973-1977.
  • Martin Fehle, 1977-1992.
  • Ernst-Erich Marhencke, 1992-1995.
  • Mark Batty, 1995-2004.
  • Jean François Porchez, 2004-2007.
  • John D. Berry, 2007-2013.
  • José Scaglione, 2013-2017.
  • Gerry Leonidas, 2017-2020.
  • Carolina Laudon, 2020-2023.
[Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

ATypI 2001 Country delegate report

Porchez's 2001 report on the type situation in France in 2001. Report for 2000. [Google] [More]  ⦿

ATypI 2006 Type Tech presentations

ATypI 2006 Type Tech presentations in PDF format by Thomas Phinney (Adobe) and some others. More specifically:

  • Character Set Journeys. Thomas Phinney about the evolution of character sets and how they keep on expanding.
  • CSS-based font menus, Windows Presentation Foundation, and OpenType 1.5. By Thomas Phinney.
  • Advanced MM theory. By Thomas Phinney.
  • Is it okay to lie? (in a font). By Thomas Phinney.
  • Intro to SING technology. As Thomas Phinney puts it: SING is Adobe's "next big font thing," a technology for dynamically extending fonts on the fly. This PDF file is largely a copy of a 2004 presentation by Jim DeLaHunt, also at Adobe.
  • Sweeping overview of OpenType support and limitations in applications and operating systems. Talk by Jürgen Willrodt (URW).
  • OpenType feature files. Christopher Slye (Adobe) talks about OpenType feature files.
  • Adventures in Class Kerning. By Miguel Sousa (Adobe).
[Google] [More]  ⦿

ATypI: Association Typographique Internationale

The Association Typographique Internationale was created by Charles Peignot. It is interested in the development and protection of fonts, organizes an annual meeting on typography, and has a large international membership. [Google] [More]  ⦿

ATypI membership list

This list of members comes with addresses and other data. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Aura Seltzer
[Type Connection]

[More]  ⦿

Aurora Grotesk

The original Aurora Grotesk dates back to the Johannes Wagner Foundry (1912), but Paul Barnes points out that the same typeface appears under multiple names in the Handbuch der Schriftarten, 1926:

  • Akzidenz-Grotesk, Breite fette, Haas'sche Schriftgießerei
  • Aurora Grotesk, C.E. Weber (12 styles; scan by Ulrich Stiehl)
  • Edel-Grotesk, Fette, Ludwig Wagner
  • Favorit-Grotesk, Otto Weisert
  • Klassische Grotesk, Breite fette, J. D. Trennert&Sohn
  • Koloß, Breite, J. John Söhne, Hamburg
  • Krupp-Hallo, Wagner&Schmidt and then Ludwig&Mayer
  • Progreß-Grotesk, C. E. Weber
  • Siegfried-Grotesk, D. Stempel
  • Venus-Grotesk, Breite fette, Bauersche Gießerei

On the digital side, in chronological order:

Dead link by the Typophiles on this subject. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Autologic Information International

Thousand Oaks, CA-based developer of electronic prepress technologies. Active in the newspaper industry. Bought by Agfa on October 4, 2001. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Avant Garde: John Berry

John Berry muses about the quintessential seventies font, Avant Garde (Herb Lubalin) and the downfall of multiple master technology. Alex White explains its development, and how sublime it is when used as intended---all caps with lots of ligatures, crossing legs, and so forth. It was created for the cover of Avant Garde Magazine by Herb Lubalin and his group. This racy magazine (Jan 1968-mid 1971) was edited by Ralph Ginzburg (Eros). [Google] [More]  ⦿


Inland Type Foundry font made in 1904. With its tall ascenders and small x-height, and irregular edges, it is similar to Pabst Old Style (1902, Goudy). Avil was in the 1911 ATF catalog, but not in the 1923 ATF catalog. People suspect that ATF went with Pabst Old Style, and chose not to continue Avil. For a full specimen, see Sheperd in Dan X. Solo's Rustic and Rough-Hewn Alphabets: 100 Complete Fonts by Dan X. Solo (1991, Dover).

Mac McGrew: Advil was advertised by Inland Type Foundry in 1904 as "a new typeface, most excellent for fine booklet and catalog work." It follows a popular style of the day, with tall ascenders, small x-height, and irregular edges. It is very similar to Pabst Oldstyle (q.v.), but narrower. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ballfont Project

Tom White's solution to a class project at MIT assigned by John Maeda. Just a few parameters, taken from sample scribbles suffice to describe the entire typeface. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Baskerville is a transitional typeface originally designed by English type designer John Baskerville, circa 1754. Baskerville Old Face was designed by Isaac Moore in 1768. Various versions of these two type families are sold throughout the world. Some discussion here. Here is a quick overview:

  • Baskerville Original Pro (or Baskerville 10 and 120 Pro) by Frantisek Storm (2010). Based on original documents and developed and extended with great care.
  • ITC New Baskerville. George Jones designed this version of Baskerville for Linotype-Hell in 1930. The International Typeface Corporation (ITC) licensed it in 1982. At Electronic Font Foundry. Bitstream's version is called NewBaskervilleITCbyBT.
  • BaskervilleMT (1990): Monotype Baskerville (Agfa). Note: The 1989 versions floating around are called MBaskerville. Monotype Baskerville eText was published in 2013 by Linotype.
  • BaskervilleEF is the Elsner&Flake Baskerville. See also Visual Graphics Corporation.
  • Berthold Baskerville (1992, Günter Gerhard Lange), aka BaskervilleBQ. Adobe sells BaskervilleBE (1992). A version of this used to be at BSK (Babylon Schrift Kontor).
  • Baskerville AI (URW).
  • JohnBaskerville: The great 48-weight family made by Frantisek Storm in 2000 at Storm Type.
  • BaskervilleBT: Bitstream's version, 1990. Bitstream also offers Baskerville No.2BT.
  • URW Baskerville (1994), an extensive family sold by URW. They also have their own collection of NewBaskervilleItc, as well as BaskervilleOldFace.
  • Mrs Eaves (1996): Zuzana Licko's revival of Baskerville, published by Emigre in 1996. Comments here.
  • Baskerville 1757 is a family published by Timberwolf Type. It was drawn by Lars Bergquist and is directly based on Baskerville's 1757 edition of Virgil. It comes with a wonderful Baskerville Caps font.
  • Baskerville Classico is a font drawn by Franko Luin (1995, of Omnibus) and available from Linotype.
  • FrysBaskervilleBT is Bitstream's version of Baskerville Old Face, and they attribute it to Edmund Fry and Isaac Moore.
  • URW Baskerville Old Face (Stephenson Blake, vendor: URW).
  • BaskervilleOldFaceEF by Elsner&Flake.
  • Among the derived fonts, we cite these sources: BaskervilleSSi is Southern Software's family. Image Club Graphics has a set of NewBaskerville fonts. Mannesmann-Scangraphic has ShNewBaskervilITC and ShBaskervilleNr1 (1991). EFF Baskerville is available at BuyFonts.Com. Digital Typeface Corporation has BaskervilleHandcut, a 4-weight family (1991). Primafont offers Nebenan and Nuabaum (which are ITCNewBaskerville versions) and Basel. SWFTE offers Baskerton. Softmaker has a range of Baskerville fonts. Qualitype has a QTBasker family. BP Graphics has a Baskerville family.

Baskerville posters by Andrew Henderson (2010), Sara Lee (2010), Edna Marcela Pena Fajardo (2011), and Gracemarie Louis (2013).

View over 80 Baskerville typefaces. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Baskerville: metal type

Typophiles with opinions on metal versions of Baskerville, giving a nod to Monotype Baskeville, and voicing concern that the digital Baskervilles are too anemic. Wikipedia: Interest in Baskerville seems to have revived in the early 20th century, with Bruce Rogers among others taking an interest in him. [...] Not surprisingly, therefore, the type was revived for mechanical composition in the 20th century. ATF was first, followed by English Monotype in 1923, and thereafter other manufacturers (notably Linotype) followed suit. Monotype Baskerville (Series 169), perhaps the best-known of these revivals was a commercially successful type despite (or perhaps because) it was heavily "cleaned up" by the Monotype drawing office Monotype's was based on a font designed for use at a fairly large size in an edition of Terence's comedies published in 1772. ATF and Linotype used strikes from genuine punches of a smaller size type; it is not therefore surprising that different versions of Baskerville look noticeably different: they are (or may) still be 'authentic'.

Mac McGrew's discussion, mainly regarding metal Baskervilles in America: There are two distinct varieties of Baskerville in America. Both based on the types of John Baskerville, distinguished eighteenth-century English printer and typefounder, who was noted for his quest for perfection. His types are based on Caslon and other popular typefaces of the day, but are more precise and have a little more contrast, with stress more nearly vertical, making them the first transitional designs between oldstyles typified by Caslon and moderns typified by Bodoni. A consistently noticeable characteristic is the lowercase g, with its lower loop not completely closed. All versions have rather long ascenders, and present an appearance of dignity and refinement.

On ATF's Baskerville, he writes: The ATF version, which is called Baskerville Roman in foundry specimens but which most typesetters call American Baskerville, is produced from strikes (unfinished matrices) brought from Stephenson Blake, English typefounders, in 1915. In England it is known as the Fry Foundry version, and is said to have been cast from original matrices cut about 1795 by Isaac Moore as a close copy of Baskerville's own types. Small sizes to 14-point tend to be rather light and narrow, while sizes from 3D-point up have more weight and vigor. Production was discontinued about 1950, perhaps because most specimens didn't show the handsome larger sizes in sufficient detail; it was reinstated in 1957 without the sizes below 18-point. ATF Baskerville Italic was designed in 1915 by Morris F. Benton. It is a handsome typeface in itself, but has little in common with its roman mate other than adjustment to the narrowness of small sizes. It is not made above 18- point, nor-since it was reinstated-below small 18-point. Compare Century Catalogue Italic.

About Linotype Baskerville: Linotype Baskerville, said to be based on original punches which are still in existence, is much like the ATF face, but differs in details of capitals C, Q, W, and lowercase w, y, and &. It was cut in 1926 under the direction of George W. Jones, British typographer. The italic was recut in 1936 under Linotype's program of typographic refinements. Lanston Monotype Baskerville is virtually a duplicate of the English Monotype face, which is based on original letters but is more regularized and has somewhat less contrast between thick and thin strokes than the Fry and Linotype versions. It was cut in 1923 under the direction of Stanley Morison, being derived from the great primer (18-point) size of Baskerville's type, and copied by Lanston in 1931. The Intertype roman typeface is substantially the same as Monotype except for adaptation to mechanical requirements. But while the Monotype italic is considerably narrower than the roman, on Intertype the two typefaces are necessarily the same width.

Finally, McGrew evaluates Monotype Baskerville: Monotype Baskerville Italic has only the swash-like capitals JKNTYZ of the original, while both Linotype and Intertype have replaced these letters with regular characters in standard fonts, but offer a variety of swashes as alternates. Linotype, Monotype, and Intertype each provide their own versions of Baskerville Bold. All are similar, but the Monotype version is slightly heavier over all; this version was designed by Sol Hess, and is claimed to have been adapted from an original heavy typeface created by John Baskerville about 1757 and not generally known. Linotype and Intertype also have bold italics, the former designed by C. H. Griffith in 1939. (Latin Condensed was called "Baskerville" in ATF's 1898 book.) [Google] [More]  ⦿

Beatrice L. Warde

Born in New York in 1900, she died in London in 1969. A typographer, writer, and art historian, she worked for the British Monotype Corporation for most of her life, and was famous for her energy, enthusiasm and speeches. Collaborator of Stanley Morison. She created a typeface called Arrighi. She is famous for The Crystal Goblet or Printing Should be Invisible (The Crystal Goblet, Sixteen Essays on Typography, Cleveland, 1956, and Sylvan Press, London, 1955), which is also reproduced here and here. The text was originally printed in London in 1932, under the pseudonym Paul Beaujon. Here are two passages:

  • Imagine that you have before you a flagon of wine. You may choose your own favorite vintage for this imaginary demonstration, so that it be a deep shimmering crimson in colour. You have two goblets before you. One is of solid gold, wrought in the most exquisite patterns. The other is of crystal-clear glass, thin as a bubble, and as transparent. Pour and drink; and according to your choice of goblet, I shall know whether or not you are a connoisseur of wine. For if you have no feelings about wine one way or the other, you will want the sensation of drinking the stuff out of a vessel that may have cost thousands of pounds; but if you are a member of that vanishing tribe, the amateurs of fine vintages, you will choose the crystal, because everything about it is calculated to reveal rather than to hide the beautiful thing which it was meant to contain.
  • Bear with me in this long-winded and fragrant metaphor; for you will find that almost all the virtues of the perfect wine-glass have a parallel in typography. There is the long, thin stem that obviates fingerprints on the bowl. Why? Because no cloud must come between your eyes and the fiery heart of the liquid. Are not the margins on book pages similarly meant to obviate the necessity of fingering the type-page? Again: the glass is colourless or at the most only faintly tinged in the bowl, because the connoisseur judges wine partly by its colour and is impatient of anything that alters it. There are a thousand mannerisms in typography that are as impudent and arbitrary as putting port in tumblers of red or green glass! When a goblet has a base that looks too small for security, it does not matter how cleverly it is weighted; you feel nervous lest it should tip over. There are ways of setting lines of type which may work well enough, and yet keep the reader subconsciously worried by the fear of 'doubling' lines, reading three words as one, and so forth.

Drawing of her by Eric Gill. Life story.

Beatrice Warde was educated at Barnard College, Columbia, where she studied calligraphy and letterforms. From 1921 until 1925, she was the assistant librarian at American Type Founders. In 1925, she married the book and type designer Frederic Warde, who was Director of Printing at the Princeton University Press. Together, they moved to Europe, where Beatrice worked on The Fleuron: A Journal of Typography (Cambridge, England: At the University Press, and New York: Doubleday Doran, 1923-1930), which was at that time edited by Stanley Morison. As explained above, she is best known for an article she published in the 1926 issue of The Fleuron, written under the pseudonym Paul Beaujon, which traced types mistakenly attributed to Garamond back to Jean Jannon. In 1927, she became editor of The Monotype Recorder in London. Rebecca Davidson of the Princeton University Library wrote in 2004: Beatrice Warde was a believer in the power of the printed word to defend freedom, and she designed and printed her famous manifesto, This Is A Printing Office, in 1932, using Eric Gill's Perpetua typeface. She rejected the avant-garde in typography, believing that classical forms provided a "clearly polished window" through which ideas could be communicated. The Crystal Goblet: Sixteen Essays on Typography (1955) is an anthology of her writings. Wood engraved portrait of Warde by Bernard Brussel-Smith (1950). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Beatrice Warde's The Crystal Goblet

A fantastic essay by Beatrice Warde in Sixteen Essays on Typography, Cleveland, 1956. She compares typography with wine tasting. See also here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Beautiful Web Type
[Chad Mazzola]

Stockholm-based Chad Mazzola's selection of best free typefaces. Chad holds a B.A. in Philosophy from Hampshire College and has worked as a designer, product manager, and executive at technology companies in both the US and Sweden. His recommendations:

  • Serif typefaces: Alegreya, Crimson Pro, IBM Plex Serif, Inria Serif, Lora, Source Serif Pro, Vollkorn, Zilla Slab.
  • Sans typefaces: Alegreya Sans, Archivo Black, Archivo, Cooper Hewitt, FiraGO, Fivo Sans, iA Writer Quattro, IBM Plex Sans Condensed, IBM Plex Sans, Inria Sans, Inter, Jost, Libre Franklin, Manrope, Poppins, Source Sans Pro, Space grotesk, Work Sans.
  • Display typefaces: BioRhyme Expanded, BioRhyme, Fivo Sans Modern, Fraunces, Le Murmure, Messapia, Oswald, Playfair Display, Rakkas.
  • Monospaced typefaces: Fira Code, IBM Plex Mono, Source Code Pro, Space Mono.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Beginners guides to type design: Justin Penner
[Justin Penner]

A list of beginner's guide to type design resources compiled by Justin Penner:

[Google] [More]  ⦿

BEMANI fonts

A comparison of some fonts by Miffies. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ben Archer

[More]  ⦿

Ben Archer
[Gill Sans: Critique by Ben Archer]

[More]  ⦿

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin, Typefounder (1925, Douglas C. McMurtie, New York) describes Benjamin Franklin as typefounder. McGrew writes about Franklin: Prior to 1722 English typefounding was at a low ebb, and most printers in that country used Dutch types. But in that year William Caslon completed the first sizes of his new style, which quickly gained dominance over the Dutch types. This new English style was also extensively exported to other countries, including the American Colonies, where it was popular before the Revolution. In fact, the Declaration of Independence of the new United States was first printed in Caslon's types. Benjamin Franklin met Caslon in London, admired and recommended his types, and used them extensively in his printshop. F. Kerdijk penned the Dutch book Benjamin Franklin. Drukker - Postmeester - Uitvinder en Gezant, 1706-1790 (1956, Drukkerij Trio, 's-Gravenhage), a 16-page booklet that further explains Franklin's multidimensional persona. Further books on Franklin's sideline include Typophiles Chapbook: B. Franklin, 1706-1790. Franklin's interests in typography and as a printer have caused a number of typefaces to be named after him, such as the famous Franklin Gothic, but also Ben Franklin, Ben Franklin Condensed and Ben Franklin Open (metal types at Keystone Type Foundry. 1919), Franklin's Caslon (2006, P22), Poor Richard RR (named after Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard Almanack"), Poor Richard (1994, Projective Solutions: a free font), and Benjamin Franklin Antique (free font by Dieter Steffmann). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Best of 2013 lists

Besides my own best-of-2013 list in typeface design, one can consult the lists by Christoph Koeberlin (who includes his own FF Mark in his list), and Sean Mitchell's list (editor of Type release). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bethany Heck
[The Font Review Journal]

[More]  ⦿

Bibliograhy on type, fonts and postscript

Rather sloppily compiled by Luc Devroye. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bibliography on typographic fonts

Nelson Beebe's computer science bibliography. [Google] [More]  ⦿


A type activity web site of all Spanish-speaking typographers. Not updated since 2001. Located in Buenos Aires. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bill Dawson

Bill Dawson (XK9, Los Angeles) is a graphic designer who has interesting things to say about type--his Typethos series of type quotes is a must-read.

At [T-26], he designed Megahertz (1998, techno family) and Leger (monoline minimalist sans family). Klingspor link. Behance link. XK9 link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Bill Troop and quality of type

Bill Troop on the sad quality of modern type. Text posted on Typographica, February 25, 2003. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bitmap, PostScript, and TrueType Fonts Compared

Comparison at Apple. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bjoern Karnebogen

Author of the (German) thesis Type and Image (2003). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bob Caruthers: Type 1

A one-page introduction to type design. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bob Giampietro

An article about Koch's Neuland from the perspective of black Americans. [Google] [More]  ⦿

bobASSOCIATES Design Consultants

Design studio. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bodoni (Dave Farey)

Dave Farey's great essay on the history and implementations of Bodoni. All Bodoni typefaces published today have genetic material from Giambattista Bodoni's original. Below are various implementations:

  • ATF/Monotype Bodoni, originally designed by Morris Fuller Benton in 1907, and used by Monotype in the 1930s. Linotype's version. Adobe's version. Ultra weights sold by URW as Bodoni No 2. Libre Bodoni (2014, a free font family by Pablo Impallari and Rodrigo Fuenzalida) is based on Benton's Bodoni.
  • Bodoni Modern (R.H. Middleton, 1930s, for the American Ludlow foundry). See his 1936 Bodoni Campanile, sold by Bitstream as Modern 735. URW offers Black and Stencil weights.
  • Bauer Bodoni (Heinrich Jost, 1926). Dave Farey argues for its delicacy but still calls it a bastard. Neufville has the original design, with Linotype, Bitstream, Adobe and URW offering derivatives.
  • Berthold Bodoni Antiqua (1935), a descendant of ATF Bodoni, resurrected in the 1970s by Günter Gerhard Lange. This was continued by Karl Gerstner in the 1980s and is available as IBM Bodoni from URW. See also the URW version of Bodoni Antiqua.
  • Berthold Bodoni Old Face was designed in 1983 by Günter Gerhard Lange
  • WTC Our Bodoni designed by Massimo Vignelli in 1989 for the World Typeface Corporation. For display only. Related to the ATF version.
  • FF Bodoni Classic (FontShop, 1994). Designed in a two-year period by Gerd Wiescher, this is the first Bodoni version that tried to stick closely to Bodoni's original drawings. Farey complains that the italics are not tilted enough though. Check also Wiescher's FF Bodoni Classic Handdrawn (1997).
  • ITC Bodoni is another faithful interpretation developed by Sumner Stone, Holly Goldsmith and Jim Parkinson. These come in 6, 12 and 72 point ranges and form an extensive extremely useful family. Versions sold by URW and Linotype.
  • Bodoni Old Fashion by URW.
  • Bodoni Classico, designed by Franko Luin at Omnibus.
  • FB Bodoni: just two digitizations based on Benton's 1933 Ultra Bodoni Extra Condensed, by Richard Lipton in 1992. Clearly, for display only.
  • URW Bodoni.
  • Linotype Gianotten: Created by Antonio Pace in 2000, this typeface is said to go back directly to the Bodoni Museum in Parma.
  • Ambroise, Ambroise Firmin (condensed) and Ambroise François (2001, extra condensed), 30 fonts in all, are splendid fonts named after Ambroise Didot by their creator, Jean-François Porchez. Many say that they are closer to Bodoni than to Didot--just look at the question mark, but Porchez based his work on late style Didot's published around 1830.

View various Bodoni Antiqua / Bodoni Old Face typefaces. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Alexander Phemister]

Bookman is due to Alexander Phemister (1860) and Chauncey H. Griffith (1936), and is an ATF face. Mac McGrew: Old Style Antique [No. 560] was the typeface on which Bookman was based. It was cast by a number of founders, of which Keystone continued to cast it into this century. Also see Stratford. Other pre-digital foundries that did Bookman include Ludlow, Linotype and Miller&Richard. ITC Bookman was designed in 1975 by Ed Benguiat. Other digitizations include Book PS (Softmaker), Bookface, Bookman BT (Bitstream), Revival 711 (Bitstream), BM (Itek), Brooklyn (Corel), and Antique Old Style. See also Bookman-like typefaces.

Some images below by Alex Delgado. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bram de Does

Bram de Does was a type designer born in Amsterdam in 1934. He died on December 28, 2015. At Enschedé in Haarlem, which he joined in 1958, and for which he worked most of his life, he designed Trinité (1978-1981) and Lexicon (1990-1991). Enschedé write-up. Author of Kaba Ornament Deel I - Vorm (De Spectatorpers, 2002), De Kaba Ornament in Vignettes Borders and Patterns (2006, De Buitenkant) and Kaba Structuren (De Buitenkant), which present the Kaba ornaments that de Does designed at enschedé in 1987 just before its closure in 1990.

Trinité won him the prestigious H.N. Werkman Prize in 1991. Mathieu Lommen and John A. Lane published Bram de Does Boektypograaf & Letterontwerper Book Typographer & Type Designer (Amsterdam, 2003). Mathieu Lommen published Bram de Does: letterontwerper & typograaf / typographer & type designer in 2003 at De Buitenkant.

In 2003, a 53 minute Dutch documentary was made: Systematisch Slordig: Bram de Does - Letterontwerper&Typograaf (Coraline Korevaar/Otto de Fijter, Woudrichem). That video is also at Vimeo and here. A collection of many of his drawings is at the University of Amsterdam. Part of this collection (e.g., the development of Lexicon) has been scanned in and placed on the web. Details on his fonts:

  • Lexicon is discussed in the book by Bram de Does and Mathieu Lommen, Letterproef Lexicon. The Enschedé Font Foundry (1997, Amsterdam). Lexicon was produced by Peter Matthias Noordzij. It was first used for the new edition of the Groot Woordenboek der Nederlandse Taal (the Standard Dutch Dictionary, or the Dikke Van Dale as we say in Belgium). For a digital descendant of Lexicon, see Lucas Sharp and Connor Davenport's Eros (2017).
  • Trinité according to Wikipedia: Trinité was originally designed for phototypesetting machines. In 1978, the printing office Joh. Enschedé replaced their phototypesetting machines (with Autologic machines), for which they wanted to adapt Jan van Krimpen's typeface Romanée. The company consulted with De Does, who was against it. He feared that Romanée would lose its character in the translation from metal movable type to phototype, specifically because Romanée was not a single font but several versions for each pointsize, which would not be possible to preserve in phototype. He considered commissioning a new typeface, specifically designed for the new technology, a much better idea. Although it was not his intention, Enschedé invited him to design this new typeface. [...] Trinité was originally published as an Autologic typeface in 1982. However, at the end of that decade, when De Does had already left the firm, Enschedé once again switched typesetting machines (this time the digital Linotronic system) and only kept the old one because of Trinité. Being an important business asset for the firm, they commissioned De Does and Peter Matthias Noordzij (the designer of PMN Caecilia) to produce digital PostScript fonts of Trinité, using Ikarus M. To distribute the typeface, Noordzij proposed starting a small-scale digital type foundry, The Enschedé Font Foundry (TEFF), on which they released Trinité in 1992.
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Brian Hoff
[The Design Cubicle]

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Brian Maloney
[The Type Club of Toronto]

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Bruno Maag
[The Helvetica Killer]

[More]  ⦿

Cabrillo: Basic Design Concepts

Looks like course notes on typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Caecilia and TheSerif

Jan Middendorp explains the similarities between Matthias Noordzij's Caecilia and Lucas DeGroot's TheSerif by tracing them back to Gerrit Noordzij's teaching. No plagiarism here, he says: Caecilia is a text font, and TheSerif is for shorter texts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Call it what it is
[John Downer]

Great article by John Downer on the various categories of historical revivals. He classifies them as follows:

  • "Revivals/Recuttings/Reclamations": Closely based on historical models (metal type, hand-cut punches, etc.) for commercial or noncommercial purposes, with the right amount of historic preservation and sensitivity to the virtues of the original being kept in focus-all with a solid grounding in type scholarship behind the effort, too.
  • "Anthologies/Surveys/Remixes": Closely based on characters from various fonts all cut by one person, or cut by various hands, all working in one particular style or genre-like a medley or an overview done more for the sake of providing a "sampling" than for the sake of totally replicating any one single cut of type.
  • "Knockoffs/Clones/Counterfeit": Closely based on commercial successes (of any medium) to belatedly muscle in on part of an unsaturated market, often by being little more than a cheap imitation of what has already been deemed by experts as a legitimate revival. "Me Too" fonts, or "Copy Cat" fonts, as they are called, tend to focus on opportunism rather than on originality. These don't rate as revivals because they don't revive.
  • "Reconsiderations/Reevaluations/ Reinterpretations": Loosely based on artistic successes (of any medium) as a kind of laboratory exercise, often without much concern for their immediate or eventual commercial viability.
  • "Homages/Tributes/Paeans": Loosely based on historical styles and/or specific models, usually with admiration and respect for the obvious merits of the antecedents-but with more artistic freedom to deviate from the originals and to add personal touches; taking liberties normally not taken with straight revivals.
  • "Encores/Sequels/Reprises": Loosely based on commercial successes (of any medium) as a means of further exploring, or further exploiting, an established genre; milking the Cash Cow one more time.
  • "Extensions/Spinoffs/Variations": Loosely based on artistic or commercial successes (of any medium) for only rarely more than minor advancements in a tried, popular, accepted style; akin to previous category.
  • "Caricatures/Parodies/Burlesques": Loosely based on prominent features of the model, often with humor or satire as the primary objective, but quite often also with humor or satire as an unexpected effect.
This piece is wonderful and timely. The only category missing is that of the "scanned type": a digital typeface created from a scan of the original typeface as a digital and historical record, without any attempt to modify or interpret. Scanned type is usually created hastily, often by type historians or type addicts to illustrate documents, and sometimes by typographers commissioned to quickly create certain designs. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Cameron Moll

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Joe Clark from Toronto on the sad state of online captioning typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Carl Crossgrove

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Carolina de Bartolo
[101 Editions]

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Carolyn Brown
[Sofia Open Content Initiative]

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Caslon analytics profile

Font link page. Also an intro to typography in general. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Caslon: Mac McGrew's take

Mac McGrew describes the situation of Caslon in the era of metal type. All text below is quoted. Caslon is "the oldest living typeface," having survived in almost exactly its original form since every character was hand-cut by William Caslon more than 250 years ago. Virtually the same design is still available, along with a myriad of imitations, derivatives, and attempts at improvement. Altogether, they form a number of families, for there is little or no compatibility between many typefaces which now bear the name Caslon. In fact, Caslon is perhaps the hardest set of types to group into reasonable categories; therefore some of the following classifications are arbitrary.

  • The original Caslon. Prior to 1722 English typefounding was at a low ebb. and most printers in that country used Dutch types. But in that year William Caslon completed the first sizes of his new style, which quickly gained dominance over the Dutch types. This new English style was also extensively exported to other countries, including the American Colonies, where it was popular before the Revolution. In fact, the Declaration of Independence of the new United States was first printed in Caslon's types. Benjamin Franklin met Caslon in London, admired and recommended his types, and used them extensively in his printshop. Caslon's types have gone through several periods of decline and revival. In America they died out by about 1800, and had little or no further use for nearly sixty years. In 1858, Laurence Johnson, a prominent Philadelphia typefounder, visited London and arranged with the successors to William Caslon to duplicate the Caslon types. There are several accounts of how this was done; some say Johnson had fonts specially cast, from which he made electrotype matrices. Another account says he had strikes--unfinished matrices--made from the original punches, while a third account says he obtained the original matrices. The latter account is most unlikely, but the other two possibilities are interestingly credible. Many of the mats still available at ATF, successors to Johnson, are electrotypes-but then, mats wear out anyway, and are commonly replaced by electrotyping existing virgin cast type when patterns or punches are not available. If strikes were finished in this country-the usual process of accurately fitting them for width and position on the type body--this would allow for the fact that some sizes, especially in the 14- to 24-point range, are more loosely fitted here than in England. Otherwise there is virtually no difference between the American and English versions, except for later additions such as dollar mark and various swash letters--the latter are discussed later. Johnson simply called the typeface Old Style, as family names were a later development. When Johnson's foundry merged with MacKellar Smiths&Jordan foundry, the typeface was designated Original Old Style, to distinguish it from other typefaces in the same category. MS&J was part of the great merger that formed ATF in 1892, and the typeface became Old Style No. 71. When ATF's first specimen book was being prepared in 1897, the advertising manager. Henry Lewis Bullen, renamed the series Caslon Old Style. Later "No. 471" was added, the "4" designating typefaces obtained from MS&J. Meanwhile, a prominent New York printer, Walter Gilliss, had promoted the adoption of Caslon for setting Vogue magazine, a fashion and art journal which was started in 1892, and the typeface quickly returned to popularity. A. D. Farmer&Son copied the typeface under the name Knickerbocker Old Style. But this was the time when standard alignment was being heavily pro- moted, necessitating the shortening of descenders. Inland Type Foundry, St. Louis, advertised its own version of Caslon Old Style in 1901, with the claim. "We have obtained the sole right from the originating house to manufacture this series in the United States. Inland is the only type foundry which casts this typeface on standard line. ..." This meant that they had considerably shortened the descending letters; they had also redesigned the italic extensively. ATF countered with CaslonNo. 540, with similarly shortened descenders but essentially the original roman and italic designs otherwise. Several other foundries, including BB&S, Hansen, and Keystone, produced similar Caslons. One of the most noticeable features of Caslon is its lack of uniformity from one size to another. This is due to the fact that all the original characters were cut by hand, before the invention of precise mechanical systems for enlarging and reducing drawings. In Caslon 540, each size is the equivalent of the next larger size of 471, including some obsolete odd sizes. Thus 14-point 540 is equivalent to 18-point 471,18 to 22, 20 to 24, etc. The difference is primarily in the descenders, very unattractively shortened in some sizes of 540; lining figures replace the hanging style, and a few other slight changes have been made. The additional large sizes are an attractive generalized design. To overcome objections to the wide fitting of some sizes of Caslon Oldstyle No. 471, ATF brought out Caslon Oldstyle No. 472 in 1932; the design is identical but it is fitted more closely. It is made only in 18-, 22- and 24-point sizes. In the specimens shown here, notice the small caps shown with Caslon OldstyleNo. 471, for which they are made up to 36-point-one of the very few typefaces to include such letters above 14- or 18-point. Most of these appear to be cut separately, rather than being regular caps of a smaller size. Long-s characters and combinations have also been made for Caslon Oldstyle roman and italic by ATF and Monotype, and for Caslon No. 540 roman by ATF; they are called Quaint Characters.
  • Swash versions of the Caslon Oldstyle Italic capitals J, Q, T, and Y, also lowercase h with the final stroke turned inward, were the only forms shown in Caslon's original specimen sheet, although other similar swash letters were made for Dutch types at least a century earlier. Later, plain versions of these letters were added, and both forms are included in some fonts. About 1920, Thomas M. Cleland designed a dozen swash letters to be used with Caslon Oldstyle Italic No. 471, and a dozen more were designed in 1923 for Curtis Publishing Company, perhaps by another designer. These were cast in regular molds, with some letters having long, delicate kerns. By 1927 most of these letters, plus a few others, were being made for Caslon Italic No. 540. These were cast with mortises where necessary, greatly reducing the problem of breakage. Thereafter the larger sizes of Caslon No. 471 Italic were also adapted to mortise molds. Lowercase swash letters e, k, v, w, andz are part of the swash font for both 471 and 540 italics. Vowels are also cast on smaller bodies to fit within the mortises. Compare Scotch Open Shaded Italic. About 1927 an ATF specimen said, "The five largest sizes of CaslonItalic No. 540 are the equivalent of 60-, 72-, 84-, 96-, and 120-point Caslon Oldstyle Italic No. 471. Some of the Swash Capitals are cast on these bodies and long descenders cast on these larger bodies will be ready shortly, which will give the full effect of the popular No.4 71 Italic." No evidence has been found that this was ever completed. In the specimen of Caslon Oldstyle Italic No. 471 Swash shown here, these characters are shown on the first line; these are made in all sizes of the face. Caslon Italic No. 540 includes-only in sizes from 36-point up-many of these letters plus the I and U shown separately; fullface letters in this series are cast on the next larger body and thus are identical to 471. Incidentally. the swash J in these fonts is identical when inverted to the pound sterling mark furnished with English fonts. Ludlow True-Cut Caslon Italic also includes many of the 471 swash letters. Monotype Caslon Old Style Italic No. 3371 includes some of the same, plus the W shown separately. Monotype Caslon Old Style Italic No. 4371, which was copied from Stephenson Blake's Caslon Old Face in the 42- to 72-point sizes, has a different set of swash letters as shown on the latter part of the second line. Linotype Caslon Old Face Italic has a similar set of swash letters, only some of which are shown in the specimen. Linotype Caslon Italic (not Old Face) has no swash letters but the otherwise identical Intertype typeface does, as shown, including the peculiarly reversed T, which was later corrected. Also note the swash letters shown with some following Caslon italics. Caslon Italic Specials are swash letters of a completely different sort, designed by Carl S. Junge in 1924 for BB&S, for use with that foundry's Caslon Italic and various similar typefaces.
  • Monotype produced an adaptation of Caslon to its mechanical restrictions as early as 1903, when Sol Hess drew English Caslon Old Style No. 37 at the request of the Gilliss Press in Boston. (Two years later Monotype adopted a new set of matrix and other mechanical improvements which required redesigning nearly all its typefaces.) Display sizes of this typeface were also drawn by Hess, presumably adapted from the original English face, as the italic has several swash letters similar to the English version. Otherwise display sizes of this roman and italic are very similar to Inland Type Foundry's short-descender adaptation of the original Caslon. On Linotype and Intertype. Caslon No.4 is essentially the same. Monotype also has Inland Caslon Old Style No. 137, presumably adapted from the Inland typeface mentioned above, but the italic seems identical to that of No. 37. Linotype has a copy of Caslon No. 137 under that name. About 1915 Monotype cut yet another version of Caslon Old Style-No. 337, designated "MacKellar Caslon" in some early literature because it is closer to the original typeface associated with that foundry. Display sizes are virtually an exact copy of No. 471. Composition sizes are well adapted, though necessarily modified to fit the standard arrangement; they are made with short descenders on standard alignment, but were the first Monotype typeface with alternate long descenders. Oddly, all three Monotype Caslons---37, 137, and 337---are the same set width---letter for letter---in all keyboard sizes made, which means that any given character is precisely the same width from one typeface to another in any composition size. In addition, 12-point No. 337, which with long descenders must be cast on 13- or 14-point body, is essentiallythe same size and width as 14-point of the same face. Sizes of this typeface above 36-point were later copied from Stephenson Blake's Caslon Old Face and called Caslon Old Style No. 437, as previously noted. Linotype and Intertype have Caslon and Italic, similar to Caslon No. 540 and cut about 1903; long descenders are available in place of the regular short descenders, making a fair approximation of Caslon Oldstyle No. 471; this Caslon Italic in 18- to 30-point sizes is more regularized as shown, similar to Caslon Light Italic. Linotype also has Caslon No.2, a copy of Monotype Caslon No. 37, also with alternate long descenders; and the previously mentioned Caslon No. 137, cut in 1936. For greatest authenticity, Linotype went back to the English original in 1923 for its Caslon Old Face; the roman is almost indistinguishable, but the italic is necessarily modified considerably. Most smaller sizes have both long and short alternate descenders avail- able. Intertype offers the same face, roman only, in 18- to 30-point. Ludlow's True-Cut Caslon and Italic, cut in 1922 and 1928 respectively, are close copies of Caslon Oldstyle No. 471 and Italic.
  • Several attempts have been made to regularize Caslon and improve its so-called faults, but these have generally lost much of the character of the face. and have seldom achieved widespread use. They include
    • Recut Caslon (Inland 1907).
    • Caslon Lightface (Keystone 1910-12).
    • Clearface Caslon (Robert Wiebking for Western 1913), etc., all with italics and some with condensed versions; Caslon Lightface Italic is non-kerning.
    • New Caslon, introduced in 1905 by Inland, was the most successful of these attempts. In addition to eliminating irregularities, the aim of this typeface was to strengthen the design so that under modern printing conditions it would more closely resemble the effect of the original Caslon when printed heavily on dampened rough paper, as was commonly done in the eighteenth century. The italic followed in 1906. In 1919 ATF (successor to Inland) reversed the descender-shortening trend with the design by Morris Benton of long descenders, oldstyle figures, and italic swash characters as American Caslon; otherwise this typeface and New Caslon are identical. New Caslon was adapted to Linotype and Intertype as Caslon No.3, which some users call Caslon Bold, although it was not intended to be a bold face. However, in 18-point and larger, Caslon No.3 and Italic are copies of Caslon Bold rather than New Caslon.
    • Condensed Caslon is a modification of New Caslon, by Inland in 1907; it was inherited by ATF and copied by Monotype, both of which gave it the same series number (the only such incidence); printers often but incorrectly call it Caslon Bold Condensed.
    • Caslon Extra Condensed is also derived from New Caslon, sometime between 1912 and 1917.
    • Caslon Catalog, with heavied hairlines, was designed by Robert Wiebking for his Advance Type Foundry in 1913 under the name of Caslon Antique (not to be confused with a later use of this name); it was also shown by Laclede, and was renamed when BB&S acquired it.
    • Caslon Medium and Italic, as the name implies, are somewhat heavier versions, offered by BB&S as Modern Caslon and Italic about 1924---the roman at least was shown by Western Type Foundry in the mid-teens. However, the italic appears to be identical to Ludlow's Caslon Light Italic, also credited to Wiebking but advertised as early as 1922; it was the first typeface cut for Ludlow's development of italic matrices which permitted kerning designs without the fragility of the kerns on single types. Strangely, though, Ludlow Caslon Light (roman) matches Caslon Clearface.
    • The newest Caslon was designed in 1965, when ATF commissioned a "beefed up" version of Caslon No. 540, by Frank Bartuska. The result was Caslon No. 641, an arbitrary number. It is a handsome face, reflecting the best of 540, but without the latter's variations from one size to another. It also includes all the ancillary characters of ATF's later creations as shown, including percent and pound marks, a variety of quotation marks, and center dot, hyphen, and dash in two positions to center on caps or lowercase. An italic was started but never completed. This typeface has considerable similarity to Caslon Medium, for which ATF still had mats when the new typeface was commissioned.
  • Boldface Caslons have been made by several sources.
    • The most popular Caslon Bold was introduced by Keystone Type Foundry in 1905, followed by Italic in 1906 and Condensed and Extended versions about 1911; this is the version made by ATF and in regular widths by Monotype. Monotype keyboard sizes (including large composition to 18-point) are modified considerably to fit standard arrangements, but the only apparent difference in display sizes is the redrawn T and g shown separately in the specimen alphabet and the addition of ligatures and diphthongs on Linotype and Intertype.
    • Caslon No.3 matches ATF Caslon Bold from 18-point up, although smaller sizes match New Caslon.
    • Hansen's Caslon Fullface and Caslon Fullface Condensed were close copies of Caslon Bold and Caslon Bold Condensed, differing most apparently in the characters shown (A Gas, condensed AG), but Hansen's Caslon Fullface Italic matches New Caslon Italic.
    • A somewhat different Caslon Bold series is made by Ludlow.
    • A Caslon Black series by BB&S, from Western Type Foundry in the mid-teens.
    • Caslon Adbold, originating with Keystone in 1913, is characterized by heavier strokes throughout; Extended and Extra Condensed versions followed in 1915 to 1917; all were patented and presumably designed by R. F. Burfeind.
    • Heavy Caslon was issued by Inland in 1906 or earlier; Ludlow copied it as Caslon Old Face Heavy in 1925 and Intertype in 1937. Ludlow has a companion italic, while Intertype's italic is a sloped roman design. See Caslon Shaded.
  • Caslon Openface was originated by BB&S in 1915, where it was first called College Oldstyle. It started out as a reproduction of a delicate 18th-century French typeface known as Le Moreau le Jeune, by the foundry of G. Peignot&Son, but in the American version some strokes are heavier. In a later ad, BB&S said, "Placing it in the Caslon group of types is taking a liberty, but it assuredly 'belongs.' " Actually it has somewhat more affinity for the Cochin types.
  • Caslon Shaded was adapted by ATF from Heavy Caslon in 1917, by W. F. Capitaine. Caslon Shadow Title was adapted from Caslon Bold by Monotype about 1928. Compare Cameo, Cochin Open, Gravure, Narciss.
  • Caslons in name only.
    • Caslon Antique and Italic were designed by Berne Nadall and brought out by BB&S in 1896-98 as Fifteenth Century (XV Century in one early announcement) and Italic. Although they aren't really representative of types of that time, being a poor copy of a crude early typeface cut about 1475 in Venice, they have become popular for the simulation of supposedly quaint American types of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Disregarding the usual practice of increasing the proportionate width of a typeface as the size decreases, Caslon Antique maintains uniform proportions in all sizes, and thus appears narrow and cramped in small sizes. Caslon Antique is also the original (1913) name of Advance Type Foundry's Caslon Catalog, mentioned earlier, while in the early 1920s Laclede Type Foundry applied that name to "a brand-new, entirely machine-cut typeface of Old Style Antique," a duplicate of the Advance face.
    • Caslon Old Roman is discussed later under its original name, Old Roman.
    • Caslon Text originated with William Caslon in 1734. Inland Type brought out a reproduction of it in 1899 as part of their agreement with the Caslon Type Foundry in England. It later became the property of ATF, and was copied by Linotype. Being handcut originally, it shows the expected varia- tions from one size to another, but some characters show decidedly different forms in some sizes. See Cloister Black and Engravers Old English, which are derived from this face.
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Caslon: Wikipedia

Excerpts from the wiki page on Caslon: Caslon refers to a number of serif typefaces designed by William Caslon I (1692-1766), and various revivals thereof. Caslon shares the irregularity characteristic of Dutch Baroque types. It is characterized by short ascenders and descenders, bracketed serifs, moderately-high contrast, robust texture, and moderate modulation of stroke. The A has a concave hollow at the apex, the G is without a spur. Caslon's italics have a rhythmic calligraphic stoke. Characters A, V, and W have an acute slant. The lowercase italic p, q, v, w, and z all have a suggestion of a swash. [...] Caslon's earliest design dates to 1722. Caslon is cited as the first original typeface of English origin, but type historians like Stanley Morison and Alfred F. Johnson, a scientist who worked at the British Museum, did point out the close similarity of Caslon's design to the Dutch Fell types cut by Voskens and other type cut by the Dutchman Van Dyck. [...] Nicols writes: "he (Caslon) cut the beautiful fount of English which is used in printing Selden's Works 1726. Nicols describes this character as far superior over comtemporary Dutch founts used in English books at this period. Rowe More does not give any comment on this. Dutch founts were in use by several printers in England at that time. The Oxford University Press used the "Fell-types", character cut by the Dutch typefounder Voskens. The Cambridge University Press had received in January 1698 some 52 series of alphabets from Holland, all cut by Van Dyck. But even before that in 1697 thay used the Text-sized roman and italic of Van Dyck in an edition of Gratulatio Cantabrigiences. Character of Van Dyck and Voskens is found also in: William Harison, Woodstock Park, Tonson, 1706. Although Nicols attributes this character to Caslon, the fount used in Seldens Works is actually cut by Van Dyck. The italic is identical to the Van Dycks Augustijn Cursijf fount in specimen sheets issued in 1681 by the widow Daniel Elzevir. This woman had bought the type foundry of Van Dyck after Van Dyck died. The roman in this book, is a Garamond. This fount is used in the first volume and in the greater part of the second volume, It is found in a specimen sheet of the Amsterdam printer Johannes Kannewet, in accompagny with Van Dyck's Augustijn Cursijf. The only thing known about this Kannewet is that he was a printer, not a typefounder. This specimen-sheet is preserved in the Bagford-collection in the British Museum, and can be dated 1715 or earlier because Bagford died in 1716. There is no reason to suppose anything is added on a later date to this collection. The roman is named: Groote Mediaan Romyn. This fount is also found on a specimen sheet of the widow of Voskens. Therefore it can be assumed to be the work of Voskens. The earliest use of it at Amsterdam is 1684. The earliest use of a roman and italic cut by Caslon can be identified in books printed William Bowyer in 1725, 1726 and 1730. The founts cut by Caslon and his son, were close copies of the Dutch Old typeface cut by Van Dyck. These founts were rather fasionable at that time. The alternative founts they cut for text were a smaller, rather than a condensed letter. The Caslon types were distributed throughout the British Empire, including British North America. Much of the decayed appearance of early American printing is thought to be due to oxidation caused by long exposure to seawater during transport from England to the Americas. Caslon's types were immediately successful and used in many historic documents, including the U.S. Declaration of Independence. After William Caslon I's death, the use of his types diminished, but saw a revival between 1840-1880 as a part of the British Arts and Crafts movement. The Caslon design is still widely used today. For many years a common rule of thumb of printers and typesetters was When in doubt, use Caslon. [Google] [More]  ⦿


A quaint and spindly typeface from VGC, sometimes known as Chevalier or Chivalry. Digital versions, all basically equivalent:

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Chad Mazzola
[Beautiful Web Type]

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Character design standards

Microsoft's page on character design standards. Subpages on Uppercase, Lowercase, Figures, Spaces, Diacritics, Punctuation, Monetary symbols, Math symbols, Symbols. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Charles Bigelow
[Times Roman and Times New Roman]

[More]  ⦿

Charles Bukowski

Henry Charles Bukowski (b. Andernach, Germany, 1920, d. San Pedro, CA, 1994) was a German-American poet, novelist, and short story writer. His writing was influenced by the social, cultural, and economic ambience of his home city of Los Angeles. Typefaces styled after Bukowski's work: Bukowski (2014, Ingi Kristján Sigurmarsson), Buk (2017, Jefferson Camargo). Dedicated web site.

Some quotes:

  • Some people never go crazy. What truly horrible lives they must lead.
  • For those who believe in God, most of the big questions are answered. But for those of us who can't readily accept the God formula, the big answers don't remain stone-written. We adjust to new conditions and discoveries. We are pliable. Love need not be a command nor faith a dictum. I am my own god. We are here to unlearn the teachings of the church, state, and our educational system. We are here to drink beer. We are here to kill war. We are here to laugh at the odds and live our lives so well that Death will tremble to take us.
  • You have to die a few times before you can really live.
  • The problem with the world is that the intelligent people are full of doubts, while the stupid ones are full of confidence.
  • That's the problem with drinking, I thought, as I poured myself a drink. If something bad happens you drink in an attempt to forget; if something good happens you drink in order to celebrate; and if nothing happens you drink to make something happen.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Cheese or Font

An on-line game of guessing whether given names are cheeses or fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Chris Koelsch

Columbus, OH-based designer of some great animated letters in 2018. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Christian Robertson
[Roboto (or: Google Android Design)]

[More]  ⦿

Christoph Koeberlin

[More]  ⦿


About the Citroën corporate sans typeface. See also here. Seems like it was designed in 2008 by Serge Cortesi. [Google] [More]  ⦿


The original Clarendon is due to Robert Besley (1845). Robert Bringhurst writes: Clarendon is the name of a whole genus of Victorian typefaces, spawned by a font cut by Benjamin Fox for Robert Besley at the Fann Street Foundry, London, in 1845. These typefaces reflect the hearty, stolid, bland, unstoppable aspects of the British Empire. They lack cultivation, but they also lack menace and guile. They squint and stand their ground, but they do not glare. In other words, they consist of thick strokes melding into thick slab serifs, fat ball terminals, vertical axis, large eye, low contrast and tiny aperture. The original had no italic, as the typeface had nothing of the fluent hand or sculpted nib left in its pedigree.

Mac McGrew adds: Clarendon is a traditional English style of typeface, dating from the 1840s, the name coming from the Clarendon Press at Oxford, or, according to some sources, from Britain's Earl of Clarendon and his interest in that country's Egyptian policies. (Such typefaces were classified as Egyptians, and inspired such later designs as Cairo, Karnak, Memphis, and Stymie.) Early Clarendons were used primarily as titles and display typefaces, for which their strong and sturdy nature was well suited. They have the general structure of romans, but lack the hairlines typical of those typefaces. Being heavier, the traditional Clarendons were often used as boldfaces with romans, before the family idea provided matching boldface designs.

McGrew continues his discussion by pointing out various revivals and typefaces with strong similarities: Similar typefaces were known as Doric or Ionic, before more individualized type names became common; in fact, all three names were sometimes used interchangeably. Most foundries had versions of Clarendon, and sometimes Doric and Ionic, in the nineteenth century, but most of these typefaces were obsolescent by the turn of the century. However, a few were copied by Linotype, Intertype and Monotype, and thus given a renewed lease on life. Clarendon Medium of BB&S was formerly known as Caledonian. ATF had a similar typeface known as Ionic No. 522. Keystone showed Clarendon Condensed in 1890. Clarendon [No. 51 of BB&S was called Winchendon by Hansen, and extended to 48-point. Like many pre-point-system typefaces, some foundries adapted them to point-system standards by casting them on oversize bodies, others on undersize bodies with overhanging descenders. In the later 1950s Stephenson Blake in England revived several of these early Clarendons under the new name of Consort, which became a popular import (and the source of some of our specimens). Consort Bold Condensed is said to be the first Clarendon, of 1845. (Some added members of the Consort family are noted under Popular Imports in the Appendix.) In 1953 a new version of Clarendon was developed by Hermann Eidenbenz for the Haas Type foundry in Switzerland and later acquired by Stempel in Germany. The Haas Clarendon was copied by Linotype in 1966, in light and bold weights, and about the same time Ludlow brought out three weights of essentially the same face. This was created primarily to set the newspaper ads of a large department store, but it was a good addition to the resources of Ludlow. ATF commissioned a modernized rendition of Clarendon from Freeman Craw, and this was brought out in 1955 as Craw Clarendon (q.v.). About 1961 Monotype brought out Clarendon Bold Extended, similar to Craw Clarendon but heavier. Also see Ionic, News with Clarendon, Manila.

Poster by Elizabeth West. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Collegium Graficum
[Alexander Overdiep]

Dutch text about good typography. A nice intro. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Common Windows typefaces
[Nick Shanks]

Nick Shanks shows and compares the main Windows fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Company scorecard

Scorecard (dated February 2004, signed by Luc, to be taken with a grain of salt) for some of the main type companies, Linotype, Agfa/Monotype, Adobe, Fontshop/FontFont, URW, Bitstream, FontBureau. Criteria: (1) respect for designers (defending their rights, mentioning their names prominently in the font and in advertising), (2) honesty in advertising, (3) contributions to the art of typography, (4) web sites.

       RespectHonestyArt   Web site
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Cont Ed Typography
[Stan Schwartz]

Educational pages on typography and type design. Some links. Run by Stan Schwartz. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Convention typographique

Jef Tombeur's site on orthotypography (in French). One can buy at this site the comprehensive book by Jean Meron entitled Orthotypographie : recherches bibliographiques (2002), which has a preface by Fernand Baudin. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Commercial site specializing in Photoshop tips and links for web page design and fancy font enhancements. Go here to view fancy tricks with fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Copperplate Script Fonts

A page with some copperplate script fonts, as defined by Encyclopaedia Britannica: "formally English round hand, in calligraphy, dominant style among 18th-century writing masters, whose copybooks were splendidly printed from models engraved on copper. The alphabet was fundamentally uncomplicated, but the basic strokes were often concealed in luxuriant flourishing". [Google] [More]  ⦿

Coron's Sources of Fonts

Dead link. Stephan Baitz's informative page about Ancient Scripts and Fonts, including fantasy fonts, alien and sci-fi fonts, Blackletter fonts, uncials, runes, symbolic fonts, Indic simulation fonts, Arabic simulation fonts (such as Caliph) and exotic fonts. Lots of links are provided as well. Fonts are displayed an can be downloaded from an archive. His page looks great too. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Corporate Identity

This useful site lists information about company logos, colors and typefaces. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Coulton Thomas
[Recognizing a Bembo]

[More]  ⦿


Site about typography. Despite the slow loading, worthwhile information on type, including a glossary and a type history timeline. Incredible-flashy design, yet the authors forgot to mention their own names. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Critique of the alphabet

Entertaining, downright funny, critique of the alphabet by Marian Bantjes. [Google] [More]  ⦿

CSA Archive

Clip-art. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Curtis Post

A newspaper typeface published in 1902 by American Type Founders (ATF). Mac McGrew: Curtis Post was produced by ATF in 1902 for the Saturday Evening Post magazine of Curtis Publishing Company, but soon released to printers in general. It is based on Post Oldstyle Roman No.2, a style which previously had been handlettered for headings in the magazine. Like many fonts of the day, it contained several alternate characters and logotypes. Some specimens hyphenate the name as Curtis-Post. Curtis Shaded Italic was cut in 1910; it is uncertain whether this is the same as Post Shaded Italic. Compare the various Post typefaces.

Nick Curtis's Saturday Morning Toast NF (2001) is based on the logotype font of the Saturday Evening Post from the 20s. He writes: Saturday Morning Toast is warm, cuddly and endearing in its quirky charm. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Cyrus Highsmith
[Four parts of a typeface]

[More]  ⦿

Czech Design and Typography (studio experimentalniho design)
[Alois Studnicka]

Filip Blazek writes about typography. His own fonts include Pozorius, Studnicka Antikva and Duboryt. Alois Studnicka (Prague) seems to have designed PozoriusCESample. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Daniel Will-Harris
[Will-Harris House]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿


Darkmode refers to white type on black background. It is generally understood that for white type on dark printed matter should be bolder (than its black on white counterpart), while white text on a black screen should be thinner as the screen spews white in the reader's direction. Dalton Maag, in its presentation of its Darkmode typeface family writes: There are well-known optical and psychological effects in design which result in text presented white-on-black being perceived as larger and bolder than the same text presented black-on-white. This presents a challenge for consistent visual hierarchy on different backgrounds, especially when designing for emissive displays.

Dalton Maag's Darkmode (2020-2021) is an adaptation of an earlier font by them, Stroudley, which was created for physical signage and wayfinding: Our [Dalton Maag's] aim for Darkmode was to translate Stroudley's fundamental characteristics of accessibility, readability, and legibility to on-screen reading, digital navigation, and electronic signage. Darkmode's open counters, tall x-height, humanist proportions, and clear and distinguishable characters all contribute to a comfortable reading experience, even at low resolutions or small sizes. The Darkmode family consists of eight static weights, ranging from Thin to Black, plus a variable font (VF) file, with both weight and darkmode [on/off] axes.

Additional references include

  • A discussion of Darkmode by Nikolay Petroussenko, type designer at Fontfabric.
  • A discussion of white-on-black typography at Typedrawers (2021). Some typophiles find the darkmode issue overrated (including Jasper de Waard and Scott-Martin Kosofsky), while others point to tools that may be readily available to automatically embolden or lighten weights (such as the Offset Curve filter in Glyphs (for designers), and CSS code snippets (for users and web site designers)). Peter Constable observes however that the weight axis does not do the exact same thing as Dalton Maag's "Darkmode" axis: weight affects advance widths; "Darkmode" does not. "Darkmode" is like what is often referred to as "grade": small adjustments in stroke weights to compensate for medium or context conditions that affect apparent weight without affecting advance widths.
[Google] [More]  ⦿


About ng you always wanted to know about the en dash and the em dash. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Dave Crossland
[Font Bakery]

[More]  ⦿

Dave Tribby
[American Amateur Press Association (AAPA)]

[More]  ⦿

David Kindersley

English stonecutter (b. Codicote, 1915; d. Cambridge, 1995). An ex-apprentice of Eric Gill, he set up his own shop in Cambridge in 1939. His carved plaques and inscriptions in stone and slate can be seen on many churches and public buildings in the United Kingdom. He and his third wife Lida Lopes Cardozo, also a stonecutter, designed the main gates of the British Library.

In 1952 Kindersley submitted MoT Serif to the British Ministry of Transport, which required new lettering to use on United Kingdom road signs. The Road Research Laboratory found Kindersley's design more legible than Transport, a design by Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert, but nevertheless chose Transport. Many of the street signs in England, especially in Cambridge use Kindersley's fonts.

The book typeface Octavian was designed by Will Carter and David Kindersley for the Monotype Corporation in 1961. He also created Itek Bookface.

Kindersley was known for his letterspacing system. Author of Optical Letter Spacing for New Printing Systems (Wynkyn de Worde Society/Lund Humphries Publishers Ltd, 1976) and Computer-Aided Letter Design (with Neil E. Wiseman).

The Cardozo Kindersley workshop, which Kindersley founded and was later continued by Cardozo, publishes a number of typefaces based on Kindersley's work. They include Kindersley Street (2005, aka Kindersley Grand Arcade) which is based on Kindersley Mot Serif (1952). It was designed for the Grand Arcade, Cambridge.

London street signs that were designed by David Kindersley served as the basis of a complete lapidary typeface by Boris Kochan and Robert Strauch of Lazydogs Type Foundry, called Streets of London (2013).

Image: Stone cut alphabet from 1979 displayed in the University of Amsterdam' Special collections.

Linotype link. FontShop link. MyFonts link. Wikipedia. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

De Letter Pagina

Type site in the Netherlands. In Dutch. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Dean Allen

Dean Cameron Allen died in 2018 at the age of 51. Obituary in The Globe and Mail: It is with unspeakable sorrow that we announce the sudden passing of Dean Cameron Allen, on January 13, 2018 at the age of 51. He leaves behind his parents, James and Holly; his brother, Craig; an adoring family; longtime partner, Gail; and a legion of loving friends and admirers around the world. Renaissance man, trailblazer and autodidact extraordinaire, Dean was a person of dazzling wit, charm and erudition. Graphic designer, typographer, teacher, web pilgrim, critic, author, Weimaraner tamer, song and dance man, chef... he brought titanic intelligence, insight and humour to everything he did. And whatever room he was in, he was the weather. He was instrumental in bringing clean, elegant design and typographical rigour to the early internet. And in raising online writing to a fresh and thrilling new art form. A source of inspiration to many, he was generous with his guidance and praise. Equally at home with the bawdy as the sublime, he could wield his humour like a cudgel or dashing sleight of hand. And salvage even the most dire situation with laughter. He moved from his native Vancouver to France in his thirties, and had perfected the bise and Gallic shrug by day two. He was a loving stepfather, and gave full, raucous meaning to the term 'bon vivant'. O, combien tu nous manques. His absence is unfathomable. We miss him with every breath.

Dean used to run a site called Textism, that had Essays and opinions on typography, ca. 2000-2003, but the site disappeared some time later. It included a critical comparison of twenty great text typefaces: Jenson, Bembo, Granjon, Elzevir, Caslon, Fleischmann, Baskerville, Fournier, Bell, Bulmer, Miller, Centaur, Janson, Electra, Fairfield, Dante, Aldus, Sabon, Albertina. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Dean Allen's type tutorial

[More]  ⦿

Deborah Mitchell

Born in Caracas, Deborah is currently studying fine arts at California State University. She made a great type poster that explains typographic terminology. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Debra Adams

Author of "abcdefg" [a better constraint driven environment for font generation] (1989 Raster Imaging and Digital Typography conference, pp. 54-70), as employee of Xerox PARC. She describes an experimental system that automates the generation of letters in a font from four master characters (o, h, p and v). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Deep Font Challenge

Font identification game by Deep Creative. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Delve Fonts (was: Delve Media Arts)
[Delve Withrington]

Delve Withrington (Alameda, CA; b. 1970, Asheville, NC) studied at Savannah College of Art and Design, designed signage, print projects and web pages in addition to designing custom typefaces, worked for Fontshop, and in 2004, joined the type team at Agfa Monotype, which morphed into Monotype Imaging, Redwood City, CA. From Asheville, NC, he moved around and ended up in San Francisco. In 1996, he founded Delve Fonts in Berkeley, CA (in fact, Delve Media Arts, and later renamed Delve Fonts). He has collected a virtually complete list of books on typography. Author index. MyFonts link. Designer of these typefaces:

  • Beleren (2015). A custom typeface for the trading card game Magic: The Gathering (Hasbro).
  • Blasphemy Initials: a free (and also commercial...) spooky font.
  • Blot Test (1999): a dingbat font inspired by the work of noted German psychologist Hermann Rorschach [1885-1922].
  • Cody (1999): an informal comic book face.
  • Continuo (1996): an all caps bilined outline face.
  • Cortina (2011). A futuristic family by Joachim Müller-Lancé.
  • Delve Hand (1996-2003).
  • Eucalyptus Regular.
  • Eulipia (1997-2003): organic.
  • Helfa (2011). Delve writes: Readability is baked in with a generous x-height, fine proportions that have a medium height to width ratio, and reasonable contrast in stroke weight variation.
  • Filmotype Washington (for Font Diner). Designer unidentified.
  • Muskeg. A combination of German expressionism and brush styles.
  • Oktal Mono (2012, a rounded octagonal modular typeface by Joachim Müller-Lancé and Erik Adigard of MAD studio in Sausalito).
  • Peso (1999): an octagonal family inspired by a parking sign discovered in Guanajuato, Mexico.
  • Quara (2009): a techno sans.
  • Smith & Nephew (2003) and Smith & Nephew Cyrillic (2015), rounded sans typefaces in the style of VAG Rounded.
  • Tilden Sans (2004-2009): low contrast, large x-height.
  • Tome Sans (2020). A 10-weight sans superfamily, with a variable font option.
  • Uppercut Angle (2011). A signage typeface by Joachim Müller-Lancé. It was originally developed for the Krav Maga training center of San Francisco.
  • Ysobel (2009; winner of an award at TDC2 2010). Delve co-designed the newspaper type family Ysobel (Monotype) with type designers Robin Nicholas, head of type design at Monotype, and Alice Savoie (Frenchtype, Monotype). The sales pitch: According to Nicholas, the idea for the Ysobel typefaces started when he was asked to create a custom, updated version of the classic Century Schoolbook typeface, which was designed to be an extremely readable typeface - one that made its appearance in school textbooks beginning in the early 1900s. See also Ysobel eText Pro (2013).
His Art work often involves type. Bitstream's Type Odyssey 2 (2002) has Continuo, Blot Test, Peso, Peso Negative. In 2009, Steven Skaggs designed Rieven Uncial and Rieven Italic at Delve Fonts. Pic.

Adobe link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Delve Withrington
[Delve Fonts (was: Delve Media Arts)]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

[Adrian Täckman]

New Danish type site from Copenhagen. None of the subpages show on my browser. Adrian Täckman is one of the cofounders of e-types in Copenhagen in 1997. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Design & typo
[Peter Gabor]

Peter Gabor's type blog and type education site in Paris, started in 2005. In French and English. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Design Eva Wilsson
[Eva Wilsson]

Now Eva Wilsson and formerly Eva Grinder. Swedish designer of Mido (2007), a free medium-bold Egyptian typeface that became commercial in 2016. On her site, she offers a research paper on Egyptian type, and describes the development of Mido.

Alternate URL. Another URL. Typedia link. Another URL. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Design is History

Great pages about the milestones in design history, which often coincided with the key moments in typographic history. [Google] [More]  ⦿


By Richard Smith: "A list of fonts to help you choose a type style for your custom etched glassware." [Google] [More]  ⦿

Designing with Type
[James Craig]

Craig was the Design Director for Watson-Guptill Publications and is a member of the New York Art Directors Club, Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI), Type Directors Club (TDC), Typophiles, and a past member of the American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA). He teaches typography and design at The Cooper Union and lectures widely. Designing with Type is a growing resource for typography students and educators maintained by James Craig, author of Designing with Type: A Basic Course in Typography (1999, Watson Guptill). That book was updated to Designing with Type, 5th Edition: The Essential Guide to Typography (2006, by James Craig and Irene Korol Scala, published by Watson Guptill). Links to commercial foundries. Also check the student design subpage. [Google] [More]  ⦿


The UIUC School of Art's annotated graphic design bibliography. Dead link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Deutsche Rechtschreibung

German writing rules, by Roman Schneider and Dr. Klaus Heller. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Microsoft's page on diacritics--their alignment and width rules, and definitions in Unicode. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Die (deutschen) Mikrotypographie-Regeln

German typographical rules explained by Marion Neubauer. Continued here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Digital Sans

An early techno family from 1974 sold by Elsner&Flake. Clones include Space Gothic. The design of Digital Sans is identical to that of Sol (1973, Marty Goldstein and C.B. Smith at VGC). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Digital Typography (Don Knuth)

Don Knuth's 700-page book (1999) on typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Commercial Japanese font outfit, involved in various font activities. Their fonts are featured at and sold by P22 in the Font Pavilion CD series. Each set features several Roman and Katakana fonts in TrueType for Windows and PostScript for Macintosh. Of particular interest is the DPI72 series, all screen pixel fonts in type 1 format:

  • Eriko Tomita: 10GIRLS series (1999), JISBIT11 series (1999).
  • Takafumi Miyadima: 4030STARCH (1999).
  • Kato Masashi of FLOP Design: AMI-alp and AMI-kat (1999).
  • Masahito Hanzawa of Power Graphix: ASTROCREEP-7pt (1999), Eightball-8pt (1999).
  • Takuya Sato: BrokeBack series (1999), Pastel (1999).
  • Yuji Adachi: CODE14X (1999), DryBones7 (1999), Tempo9 (1999).
  • Taku Anekawa of Param: Dannybitman-7pt, DingBit-FreeSoul, DoshinFont.
  • Yosiro: Echo8 (1999), Riddim7 (1999), Vibes10 (1999).
  • Hideaki Ohtani of fontgraphic.com: F2-BoldScriptALP, F2-BoldScriptKT, F2-ScriptALP, F2-ScriptKT.
  • Hyperion Graphics: GIGANTIC-9 (1999), HELLFIRE series (roman, katakana, 1999), Inferno series (roman and kata, 1999), Starlight9 (1999).
  • Sasuri\245Vivs: Kyosen-TsukaenaiMappo (1999).
  • Atsushi Aoki: PointN (1999).
  • Masayuki Sato of Maniackers Design: Zerozero series (2000).
[Google] [More]  ⦿

DigitalThread Fonthaus

Font links and discussions. Book discussions. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Distinctive glyphs

Recommendations on glyphs along which typefaces can easily be distinguished. We get

  • 4 votes: agQ
  • 3 votes: R
  • 2 votes: sCGMS
  • 1 vote: eilnotAEIJ
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Distractions: Name-that-Font

Article in The PracTeX Journal, 2006, vol. 1. It has font quizzes and name-that-font tests concocted by Yves Peters, Tamye Riggs, Charles Bigelow, and Michael Spivak. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Dmitriy Horoshkin's Library

Dmitriy Horoshkin's library of Rusian books on type and typography include these downloadable texts:

  • Album of written and printed fonts, M.A. Netyksa, 1906
  • Font album of Zemsky typography, Simferopol, 1904-1910
  • Bibliography of Russian typographic fonts, V.Ya. Adaryukov, 1924
  • Bibliography of Russian typographic fonts, V.Ya. Adaryukov, 1924 (electronic book) Rab-book
  • The Art of the Book, A.A. Sidorov, 1922
  • The history of Russian ornament. Museum of the Stroganov School, 1868
  • Font file according to GOST-1947, VNITO Polygraphy and Publishing.
  • Book Proof, N.N. Filippov, 1929
  • Book font, M.V. Bolshakov, 1964
  • Brief information on printing business, P. Kolomnin, 1899
  • Typeface, T.I. Kutsyn, 1950
  • New Russian font V.Mashin, 1906
  • Model fonts of the Military Printing House, 1821
  • Samples of the writings of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1862
  • Samples of Slavic-Russian printing from 1491, 1891
  • Samples of the foundry of I. Shcherbakov in St. Petersburg, 1881
  • Samples of text machine fonts of the linotype, Leningrad, 1938
  • Samples of artistic fonts and frames, A.A. Kotlyarov, 1929
  • Piusa Bauer in Warsaw, 1888
  • Font samples (Printing and Bookbinding) Yu.A. Mansfeld, 1904
  • Font samples of the 4th printing house named after E. Sokolova, 1956
  • Font samples, General Staff of the Red Army, 1937
  • Font Samples, Graphic Workshops at Academic Publishing House, 1923
  • Samples of fonts and frames for drawings and plans, A.D. Demkin, 1924
  • Types of fonts and decorations of the printing house of I. Wilborg, B.G.
  • Samples of IAN fonts - "Our Father" and other texts in 325 languages and dialects, 1870
  • Font samples of the St. Petersburg Synodal Printing House, 1902
  • Types of typographic lithography fonts of the Siberian T-v Printing, bg
  • Samples of fonts of A.Transhel's printing house, 1876
  • Samples of fonts of the printing house of the Astrakhan provincial government, 1886
  • Samples of fonts of the printing house of the Moscow Union of Mozhaisk PEC, 1926
  • Samples of fonts of the Printing house of the Central Union, bg
  • Book Design - A Guide to the Preparation of a Manuscript for Printing, L.I. Hessen, 1935
  • Design of the Soviet book, G.G. Guillo, D.V. Konstantinov, 1939
  • Printing ornament B.1, Glagol, 1991
  • Printing ornament B.2, Verb, 1991
  • Font construction, Ya.G. Chernikhov N.A. Sobolev, 2005
  • Guide to the study of ribbon (Rondo) font, A.I. Pechinsky, 1917
  • Russian typographic font. Issues of history and application practice, A.G. Shitsgal, 1974
  • Tutorial of calligraphy and cursive writing, S. Volchenka, 1902
  • Collection of old Russian and Slavic letters, K.D. Dalmatov, 1895
  • Slovolitni O. I. Leman in St. Petersburg and Moscow, Font Catalog, 1915 (?) G. Moscow.
  • Slovolitnya O.O. Gerbek. Fonts and ornaments, 19 ?? g.
  • Collection of fonts. Compiled and published by Mikhail Maimistov, 1912
  • Modern Font, W. Toots, 1966
  • Art fonts, A.M. Jerusalem, 1930
  • Font, B.V. Voronetsky E.D. Kuznetsov, 1967
  • Font in visual agitation, S. I. Smirnov, Third Edition, 1990
  • Fonts and Alphabets, O.V. Snarsky, 1979
  • Fonts for inscriptions on drawings, M.D. Mikeladze, 1961
  • Fonts for projects, plans and maps, A.S. Shuleykin, 1987
  • Fonts and their construction, D.A. Pisarevsky, 1927
  • Fonts and type works, V.V. Grachev, B.G.
  • Typographic fonts, ONSH, ed. A.N. Strelkova, 1974
  • Fonts Development and use, G.M.Baryshnikov, 1997
  • Fonts The educational-methodical manual for cadets of LVTKU, N.A. Shashurin, 1981
  • Aesthetics of the art of font, A. Kapr, 1979

Local download (with Horoshkin's permission). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Dmitry Kirsanov

Type designer Dmitry Kirsanov (b. Orenburg, Russia, 1965) graduated from the Orenburg Art School in 1987. He worked freelance for Yuzhnyi Ural publishing company in Orenburg. After attending the Moscow State University of Printing (1996), he joined its Department of Print Design in 1997 as an instructor of typographic design and computer graphics. From 1996 on he worked at ParaGraph International, designing typefaces. Since April 1998 Kirsanov works for ParaType. His page has essays on the history of serif and sans serif, and on font matching. Would be great for an introductory course. He designed a Cyrillic version of ITC Bodoni 72 (2000, called PT ITC Bodoni, Paratype) and ITC Bodoni 72 Swash (2001). PT Mas d'Azil (Paratype, 2002) and PT Mas d'Azil Symbols are prehistoric lettering and pictorial fonrs based on images discovered in a prehistoric cave of Mas-d'Azil, France. He created Magistral (1997, based on a clean look sans display typeface of Andrey Kryukov), Venetian 301 (2003, Paratype; a Cyrillic version of Bitstream's Venetian 301, which in turn was based on Bruce Rogers' Centaur, which in turn goes back to the 1470s alphabets of Nicolas Jenson), News Gothic (2005, a Cyrillic family based on the perennial News Gothic sans family), and Mag Mixer (2005, an industrial-look mechanical typeface based on Magistral).

In 2018, Albert Kapitonov and Dmitry Kirsanov revived the early 20th-century typeface Lehmann Egyptian from the Berthold and Lehmann type foundries in St. Petersburg, and published it at Paratype.

His talk at ATypI 2008 in St. Petersburg is on the first didones in Russia.

Paratype page. FontShop link. Klingspor link.

View Dmitry Kirsanov's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Dmitry Kirsanov: The World of Fonts

Web designer in Halifax who writes about fontography and type history. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Dmitry's Design Lab

Dmitry Kirsanov's page on typography. Lots of didactic material and great explanations. A must. Also a great example for web page design. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Don Barnett
[Urban Insect Evening (was: Nekton Design)]

[More]  ⦿

Donald Knuth: interview

Donald Knuth about TeX, Metafont, and Truetype. One quote: " I saw that the whole business of typesetting was being held back by proprietary interests." Elsewhere, he was surprised to learn from the interviewer that In-Design is using TeX's whole-paragraph optimization. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Mac McGrew writes: Dorsey was designed by Inland Type Foundry in 1904, and named for a printer in Dallas, Texas. It is an oldstyle antique series, much like Bookman but with slightly more contrast. Light Dorsey, introduced in 1910, is somewhat similar to Cushing Monotone, but with smaller x-height and longer ascenders. There were also condensed and extra condensed versions.

For a digital revival of Light Dorsey, see LD Display (2022, Otis Verhoeve). [Google] [More]  ⦿


Mac McGrew: Drew is a delicate, compact roman type with a pen-lettered effect. It has long ascenders and comparatively small x-height. The long serifs are mostly unbracketed, but the general feeling is informal and closer to oldstyle in details. It originated with Inland Type Foundry and was shown in 1910. Compare Adcraft, Avil; also Bernhard Modern, Cochin. The image below is from the 1923 ATF catalog. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Dutch ligatures

Zip file with German and Dutch ligatures such as fb, fk, ffb, ffk, fj, ffj, and so forth. Expert page by Gert-Jan C. Lokhorst. For the Computer Modern family. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Dynamic optical scaling

Article by Jacques André and Irène Vatton: "Dynamic Optical Scaling and Variable-Sized Characters"> (Electronic Publishing, vol. 7(4), pp. 231-250, 1994). Alternate URL. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Vítor Quelhas]

Vítor Quelhas was born in Porto, Portugal, in 1979. He received an MA in Multimedia Arts at Fine Arts School of the University of Porto (FBAUP), Portugal, with a thesis on Dynamic Typography. He studied Communication Design/Graphic Arts at FBAUP, where he graduated in 2002. In 2001/02 he studied abroad as an ERASMUS student in Communication Design at Willem de Kooning Academie, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. He is an invited Assistant Professor of Computation and Fine Arts, Communication Design, at the Department of Visual Arts, Bragança Polytechnic Institute, since 2002. As a designer, he has been responsible for different projects, including DynTypo, his research website concerning dynamic typography. From the latter site: dynTypo is a collection of work and research by various designers, programmers and artists interested in the possibilities of dynamic and interactive typography in the multimedia arts scene. There are many links, many of which go to John Maeda's lab at MIT. Speaker at ATypI 2006 in Lisbon on Dynamic typography. Alternate URL. Another URL. And another one. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Eamon Dyas
[Times New Roman]

[More]  ⦿


E-a-t (experiment and typography) is a joint Czech and Slovak enterprise that through publications and exhibitions tries to increase the visibility of Czechoslovak type design. Exhibitions in 2004 include Brno and Prague. In 2005, one is planned in Bratislava. Review by Dan Reynolds.

Old dead link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Edouard Hoffmann

Swiss typefounder who made the Haas Type foundry as the center of the Swiss movement in the design of typefaces in the 1950s. He directed Max Miedinger in the development of Helvetica, and Hermann Eidenbenz in Clarendon> (1953).

FontShop link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Ein Reiseführer für Typografen

Richard Felsner (Mainz, Germany) has some info on the history of type. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Elian Script

C. C. Elian oproposed an entirely new script in which letters and sounds are stacked. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ellen Lupton

Ellen Lupton is a writer, curator, and graphic designer. She is director of the MFA program in graphic design at Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA) in Baltimore. She also is curator of contemporary design at Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum in New York City.

Author of Thinking with Type (Princeton Architectural Press, 2004). Visit also the interesting Thinking with type web page, which features a fun section on "crimes against typography", notes on type classification, a course outline, and tons of other educational material. See also here and here. Author of Laws of the Letter (with J. Abbott Miller).

Ellen Lupton was the keynote speaker at AypI2006 in Lisbon. In that talk, summarized here, Ellen Lupton discusses the benefits of truly free fonts (Perhaps the free font movement will continue to grow slowly, along the lines in which it is already taking shape: in the service of creating typefaces that sustain and encourage both the diversity and connectedness of humankind.) and provides key examples: Gaultney's Gentium, Poll's Linux Libertine, Peterlin's Freefont, Bitstream's Titus Cyberbit, and Jim Lyles' Vera family. She is the editor of D.I.Y.: Design It Yourself (2006).

In 2007, she received the AIGA Gold Medal. Her introduction to the major typefaces. Speaker at ATypI 2010 in Dublin. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Elzevir family

Elzevir is an oldstyle typeface style related to garaldes. Elzevir was also the name of a renowned family of printers in the 16th and early 17th century in Leiden, The Hague, Utrecht, Copenhagen and Amsterdam. The first one, Louis (1540-1617), was the son of a Belgian printer in Leuven and established a print shop in Leiden in 1580. Other members include Isaac Elzevir, Bonaventrura Elzevir, and Abraham I Elzevir. They were operational until 1712.

The Elzevir style was promoted by Louis Perrin in Lyon, France, in 1846. In the United States, this style is known as DeVinne. Britannica link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿


emdash is a new type and design outfit founded by Ken Botnick. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Emday Fonts
[Miriam van der Have]

From Nijmegen, The Netherlands, Miriam van der Have's Dutch site offers a general introduction to fonts and font terminology. An impressive glossary. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Emil Olsson

[More]  ⦿

Emily King

London-based designer who wrote a Ph.D. thesis on typeface design of the late 1980s and early 1990s (at Kingston University, 199): "New Faces: type design in the first decade of device-independent digital typesetting (1987-1997)". Her thesis is on-line. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Fantastic site with descriptions of many of the funkiest foundries. Type links. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Emotional Digital

Great typography and design book by Alexander Branczyk, Jutta Nachtwey, Heike Nehl, Sibylle Schlaich, and Jürgen Siebert, Thames&Hudson, 1999. Now also on-line. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Empire Gothic

Empire Gothic was offered by Keystone Type Foundry in 1912. Although the name does not identify it as an italic, it is somewhat similar to Medium Gothic Italic, according to Mac McGrew. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Typography, font and web design links. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Enrique Longinotti

[More]  ⦿

Eric Gill and Jonathan Barnbrook: Designers as Authors at the Poles of the Twentieth Century
[Steven McCarthy]

Discussion of the work of Eric Gill and Jonathan Barnbrook, offered by Steven McCarthy (University of Minnesota). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Erik Spiekermann
[What makes a good typeface?]

[More]  ⦿

Erik's Typo Tips

Erik Spiekermann's tips for good typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Typographical tips. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Type historian James Mosley explains that Abraham Lichtenthaler, a seventeenth century printer from the Bavarian town of Sulzbach is credited with introducing the character to roman printing type. Follow-up article by Jonathan Hoefler. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ethan Cote

Chi Huynh (Ethan Cote) from Montreal interviews type designers. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Interiews with typographers. [Google] [More]  ⦿

European Diacritics

Overview of diacritics by John Hudson. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Nebiolo's Eurostile set a precedent that led to tens of typefaces and descendants. View a few of the commercially available ones. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Eva Wilsson
[Design Eva Wilsson]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Evolution of Alphabets

At the University of Maryland, Professor Robert Fradkin's page on the origins of the alphabet. Great applets. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Evolution of the Alphabet
[Matt Baker]

A great chart by Matt Baker that shows the evolution of the Latin alphabet from 1750 BC until today. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Olivier Randier]

Olivier Randier's pages devoted to typography. Has sub-pages on hyper Casse, his project on the listing and study of all 65000 signs/symbols from all languages. There is also l'Outil, a gallery of nice typographical examples.

Olivier Randier, Lionel Buchet and others helped with the development of a set of school fonts for SG Création (a company owned by Gérard and Marc Seintignan). These fonts were commercialized since about 2008 under the name SG Education. Link for Olivier Randier. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Familiar Faces

Allan Haley's guide to typefaces of the Compugraphic Corporation (note: Compugraphic was acquired by Agfa/Monotype). Written in the late 1970s. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Fat Cat

The hyper-heavy typeface Fat Cat probably appeared first as an uncredited typeface within the pages of Alphabete: Ein Schriftatlas von A bis Z. It inspired these digital fonts:

[Google] [More]  ⦿

Fat Faces: origins
[Sebastien Morlighem]

On February 22, 2021, Sebastien Morlighem gave a great Zoom talk in a seminar series hosted by The Cooper Union in New York. In it, he described the beginnings of fat types from around 1780 until their zenith of fatness and development around 1825, all in London. Here is a summary of the exposition for those who have no access to the video at The Cooper Union.

Sebastien started with quotes from famous type experts and type historians:

  • Paul Barnes, upon publishing Isambard in 2019: The fat face is the joyful expression of an idea---to make something as bold as can be---executed with real vigour and the utmost conviction. (Not really a definition)
  • Talbot Baines Reed, in "Old and new fashions in typography", Journal of the Society of Arts, 1890, p. 534: The new Roman was barely established as the prevailing fashion, when a vulgar taste for fatter faces asserted itself. The demand was promptly responded to by the founders of the day, Robert Thorne leading the way. Others outstripped him in the race; and about 1820, or rather before, a face like that before you was both fashionable and popular for certain works. (A condescending view)
  • Joseph Moxon, in "Mechanick Exercises Volume 2", 1683: A fat face is a broad stemmed letter.

Without a good definition, but eager to tell us the story, Sebastien showed examples of gradual thickening of the stems and increase of contrast from bold to fat, starting in Thomas Cottrell's foundry, where Robert Thorne (1754-1820) was employed. After Cottrell's death, Robert Thorne bought his foundry in 1794 and replaced the types by his own. Already in 1774, Thomas Cottrell had shown big fat letters in his A Specimen of Printing Types, very much related in shape to the Caslon types, as Cottrell had previously worked for the Caslon foundry. Similar large letters were also shown in broadsides by William Caslon in 1785. This was the time that a need arose for advertizing via posting bills and large lettering on buildings and coaches. Not to be outdone, Edmund Fry showed a very bold Ten Lines Pica in 1787 and S&C Stephenson had a sixteen lines pica in 1796. Thorne in his 1794 book, A Specimen of Printing Types, shows for the first time lower case versions of the letters. Still, serious mechanical challenges remained, as the early types of posting bills were often sand cast. Sometimes printers would use wood types, and in rare instances, even fill in the fat letters by hand.

The period from 1805 until 1810 saw the rise of the fat face; Sebastien showed us examples, in particular, of great use by the Liverpool-based printer G.F. Harris. Type historian Daniel Berkeley Updike (Printing Types: Their History, Forms and Use, Harvard University Press, 1922, vol. 2, p. 196) wrote: Thorne [...] is responsible for the vilest form of type invented up to that time. Thorne's specimen book of "Improved (!) Types" of 1803 should be looked at as a warning of what fashion can make men do. Stanley Morison, for whom Sebastien showed little respect, even wrote Thorne's "fat grotesque" [sic] was the first original English design to make an impression abroad. [...] With Thorne was produced a letter during 1800-1803 which was a novelty, distinct and dreadful. [Memorandum on Revision of the Typography of "The Times" [1930], Selected Essays on the History of Letter-forms in Manuscript and Print. Edited by David McKitterick, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980, vol. 2, p. 305]

Great progress was made in the genre by Caslon & Catherwood ca. 1810, who slowly evolved fatter types from bold typefaces. In 1812, William Caslon Juior (William Caslon IV) introduced a new production method, which he called the sanspareil matrices. They would allow for more accurate and crisper letters, and more efficient production of very large lettertypes. And so, the race was on, to make bigger and fatter typefaces. Other, newer foundries also started showing the popular fat types, including Vincent Figgins in 1815, caslon & catherwood in 1820, and Thorowgood in 1821, a year after he bought Thorne's foundry after Thorne's death in 1820. Nicolete Grey in XIXth Century Ornamented types and Title Pages [1938, London: Faber and Faber Limited] had this to add to a fat face by Fry and Steele from 1808: In this letter of Fry [...] the process seems to have reached a norm. It is a superb, wide, generous letter, magnificently roman, but with a good deal less of order and more of pomp than Trajan's classic. [...] It is a letter which falls into no category. In the process of fattening, Cottrell's ordinary eighteenth-century capital has changed, the modelling has been exaggerated and the shading become uniformly vertical and the forms of the letters have grown softer and rounder, yet it is not a modern face, for the shading is quite gradual and the bracketing very full, nor are the thick strokes thick enough, nor are the thin strokes thin enough, for it to be a fat face.

Sebastien wrote tthis all up in a booklet, Robert Thorne and the origin of the fat face (2021). The video of his talk is at Type@Cooper in the Lubalin series. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Font Development Best Practice documentation. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Felipe Cáceres
[La Unión de los Tipógrafos]

[More]  ⦿

Female typedesigners

A list maintained by Tiffany Wardle and Indra Kupferschmid. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Albert-Jan Pool]

The story of Albert-Jan Pool's information design type family FF DIN, told by FontShop: i, ii, iii, iv. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Microsoft page on figures, with information on proportional versus tabular numerals (tabular numerals are of the same width); old style numerals (three groups: 0, 1 and 2 align from baseline to x-height; 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 descend to the nearly the lowercase descender; 6 and 8 ascend to the figure overshoot height); vulgar fractions, shilling fractions, nut fractions; fractions reserved in unicode tables. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Filip Blazek
[Typo.z (was: Designiq)]

[More]  ⦿

Florian Jennett

Student at HfG in Offenbach who is working on a project involving the use of code to create typefaces. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Folio breitfett

Folio breitfett or Folio-Grotesk breitfett was an extended sans titling typeface at the Bauersche Giesserei, 1963, designed by K.F. Bauer and W. Baum. In the phototype era, it became known as Folio Bold Extended, and was used extensively by Universal Studios back in the late 60s to the mid-70s for various TV shows such as The Rockford Files, Banacek, McMillan & wife, McCloud, and Columbo. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Folios: Typographers

Online portfolios from typographers. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Font Bakery
[Dave Crossland]

Font Bakery is a command-line tool written in Python 3 for checking the quality of font projects. It is a tool similar to tools used for checking the quality of fonts on Google Fonts.


  • List of checks currently offered--they include thes subcategories: opentype, universal, adobefonts, googlefonts, fontval, shared_conditions, ufo_sources.
  • A full introduction
  • https://gitter.im/fontbakery/Lobby is a chat channel. Font Bakery has an active community of contributors from foundries around the world, including Adobe Fonts, Dalton Maag, Type Network, and Google Fonts.
  • Full developer documentation (a hosted and compiled copy of contents in the docs directory.)
  • The project was initiated by Dave Crossland in 2013 to accelerate the onboarding process for Google Fonts. In 2017 Lasse Fister and Felipe Sanches rewrote it into a modern, modular architecture suitable for both individuals and large distributors. Felipe has maintained the check contents since 2016. Lasse also began a sister project, Font Bakery Dashboard: A UI and a cloud system that scales up for checking thousands of font files super fast and in parallel, by using thousands of "container" virtual machines. Font Bakery is not an official Google project, and Google provides no support for it. Throughout 2018, 2019 and 2020 the core project maintainers Felipe Correa da Silva Sanches and Lasse Fister are commissioned by the Google Fonts team to maintain it.
  • TypoLabs 2018 talk on YouTube and its presentation deck.
  • Video by Felipe Sanchez.
  • Most of the checks are for OpenType binary files, and project metadata files. If you are developing a font project publicly with Github (or a similar host) you can set up a Continuous Integration service (like Travis) to run Font Bakery on each commit, so that with each update all checks will be run on your files.
  • Github link.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Font design strategies

Advice from John Hudson (Tiro Typeworks) on the initial stages of font design. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Font Falsehoods

Falsehoods programmers believe about fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Font FAQ

At Rijks Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Font FAQ (alternate site)

[More]  ⦿

Font Fundamentals

Thomas Detrie explains the evolutionary development of letterforms and how technology affected changes in typefaces. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Font identification (Spanish)

Font identification jump page, in Spanish. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Font Juice

A typographical inititiative by Bruhn, Uhlenbrock and Schmidt. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Font Pharos Text

Weekly column by ozzie Peter McDonnell. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Font prefixes, suffixes

Standard font prefixes (for foundries) and suffixes. Maintained by SourceNet. Dead link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Font Primer

The font formats (bitmaps, scalable, ...) explained. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Font School
[T. Kengo]

Dead link. T. Kengo's explanations, in Japanese, of the major font classifications. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Font Source Paradise

Font links and font information by "desktoppublishing". [Google] [More]  ⦿

Font Talk

Artboy (Glenn Zucman) collects interesting font links and has a cute anecdote about Helvetica and Franklin Gothic. [Google] [More]  ⦿

FontBook online

Searching for a designer or a font? Look no further than the FontBook. It has over 25,000 fonts listed. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Mirko Velimirovic]

An informal weekly Zoom meeting for type designers to chat and show their work, hosted on Friday afternoons by Mirko Velimirovic. [Google] [More]  ⦿


A font pairing design resource, which seems to be run by Extensis, a Portland, OR-based software company. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Fontjoy: Font pairing via machine learning

The proposal is to map each font as a vector of features such as thickness, x-height, descender height, obliqueness, and so forth. Pairing would happen by selecting a font that is close in one or two features, but very different in others. This is not quite machine learning, but the principle is nice, and perhaps easy to automate given a good program. If the features are all centered at zero, then it is proposed to maximize the absolute value of P and N, where P is the inner product restricted to positive terms and N to negative terms. Github link. [Google] [More]  ⦿


From the UK, Neville Brody's site. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Font information. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Nina Hons]

Düsseldorf-based German foundry of designer Nina Hons (b. 1974, Germany), formrly Nina David. Nina studied communication design at Art Center College of Design. In 1998 Nina Hons was rewarded a certificate of typographic excellence from the Type Directors Club in New York for her typeface UniF (1997, a unicase typeface published at Fountain). In 2002, she set up Font-O-Rama, her own commercial type foundry.

Her fonts include Geomee (2003, a noteworthy rounded squarish family), Mein Schatz (2004, a sans family), Casi (2000), DSC (2000, pixel face), Eiei (2001, eggs font for Easter), KomodoreDestroy (2000), KomodoreNormal (2000, horizontally-striped typeface), Pagra (2001), UniF (1997), UniFIce (2001), UniFRama (2002), UniFXmas (2000), Liebling (2005, a serif to go with Mein Schatz), Mein Schatz (2003, sans), Longing (2005, liquid typeface with ornaments added), Herzchen (2006), and Sweet Home (2005, stitching face).

Fountain link. Home page. Alternate URL. Dafont link. FontShop link. View Nina Hons's typefaces. Klingspor link. Fountain Type link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿


A series of one hour Youtube videos by Thomas Jockin and Erin McLaughlin on designing type. They mainly compare new typefaces with existing ones to aid the designers. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Ian Obermuller]

Ian Obermuller's introduction to typefaces, with a visual glossary, and wonderfully instructive pages on type classification and type recognition. Ian is a 2010 graduate of the Seattle Central Creative Academy. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Fonts and FreeBSD: A Tutorial

Dave Bodenstab's tutorial of the various font files that may be used with FreeBSD and the syscons driver, X11, Ghostscript and Groff. Cookbook examples are provided for switching the syscons display to 80x60 mode, and for using type 1 fonts with the above application programs. Dead link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Fonts Anon

A club for fontaholics, that has grown into a world of its own. It has a a great annotated list of download warehouse links, a funny confessional [read Sara's story!], original fonts, utilities such as FontDreams and FontSaver, a messageboard, one of the most useful lists of links anywhere, and many pages with tips and font support. Beautifully packaged, it provides hours of comfort and stress release for all font lovers. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Fonts are not software

Great article by David Earls in which he explains his views on what fonts are. He argues that, like a music CD, fonts are data, not software. Some quotes:

  • Typefaces (and, you guessed, music) are a specific form of data, they are ideas, they are the result of solving creative problems, they are inspiration and beauty, and as such are an expression of life, of humanity. Does that sound like software to you?
  • I think it devalues high quality typography to label it as software, even if the designers themselves who label it so may be only doing so in order to obtain financial or reputation protection under antiquated and ill-fitting intellectual property law.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Fonts are software

Typophile discussion as a reaction to David Earl's article which claimed that fonts are data, not software. Here are some viewpoints:

  • Simon Daniels (Microsoft): TrueType hinting code and OpenType Layout tables are clearly software, even if outlines and metrics might be considered data by some.
  • David Hamuel: The software is only an aid, legal one. Nothing more.
  • Mark Simonson:As a font designer, I sympathize with the idea that the design of a font should have legal protection in the U.S. as it does elsewhere. Apparently, fonts are put in the same category legally as flatwareforks, spoons, knives, etc.designs of which are also not protected as creative works.
  • Hrant Papazian: You know whats really denigrated though? Bitmap fonts. [...] Legal protection? Zilch.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Fonts Culture

Discussion (in Russian) about the various font categories. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Fonts Nomina Nominata

Carefully crafted page by Stefan Unterstein who lists and discusses high quality free fonts. His list:

  • Adobe Utopia
  • Charter
  • Bitstream Vera Sans/Mono/Serif [Gnome Desk+Webfont]
  • IBM Courier
  • URW Antiqua/Grotesk
  • URW Ghostscript/PS Core-Fonts
  • Microsoft WebFonts (Georgia, Verdana, Trebuchet)
  • Monotype Arial & Andale Mono
  • Linotype Digi-Antiqua/Grotesk (2)
  • Gentium RU Serif Roman/Italic Unicode (by Victor Gaultney)
  • Linux Libertine Serif Roman/Italic Unicode (by Philipp H. Poll).
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Fonts OLPC

A wiki on fonts for all languages. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Fonts versus typefaces

Allan Haley eloquently explains the difference between a typeface (a conceptual design) and a font (an implementation, from 8pt metal to a truetype file). [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Pierre Terrier]

Lausanne and/or Paris-based type site related to a project conceived and designed by two graphic designers, Franz Hoffman and Pierre Terrier from studio koilinen, and a software developer, Marc Escher. A quote: It provides the ability to create fonts that preserves the gestures of a given handwriting and the original look of the drawing appliance (ball-point pen, pencil, ink, paper, etc.)

Fontself allows one to make fonts directly in Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop. It appears that one can create, with their commercial software an Opentype font by simple dragging and dropping an image with the individual letters. It works on both Mac and Windows. This, in turn can be used to simulate handwriting. Fonts (format unclear, not downloadable) include grunge typefaces (Agrotesk, Linexspray), handwriting (Psycho, Mascara, Meriem, Bic, Ehcadnarac, Manu, Signo, Manuscript), and scanned text typefaces (Baskerville, Garabig, Franklin Multi, Sabon, Gothique, Dido). Fontself also provides an editor for creating color fonts. Creative Market link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

FontShop International (or: FSI)

Established in 1989 in Berlin by Erik Spiekermann, Joan Spiekermann and Neville Brody. Also offices in San Francisco, Australia, Austria and Norway. It has a formidable collection of fonts, better known as the FontFont collection. It is a major source of new type, and organizes a Conference in Berlin each year, called TYPO Berlin. In 2015, FontShop was sold to Monotype.

Fontshop team. Designers. Subpages: FontFeed (font news), FontStruct (free modular fontre), FontBook, Font education.

Catalog of FontFont's typefaces [large web page warning]. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

[Sean Cavanaugh]

Online font site run by Sean Cavanaugh (b. Cape May, NJ, 1962) out of Camano Island, WA. This used to be called Title Wave Studios. Since 1996, Sean Cavanaugh is the head of FontSite. In the archives, one can/could find essays on writing style, rules of typography, and a comparison by Thomas Phinney (program manager of Latin Fonts at Adobe) of T1 and TTF. The Fontsite 500 CD (30 USD) offers 500 classical fonts with the original names, plus a few names I have not seen before, such as Bergamo (=Bembo by Francesco Griffo), Chantilly (=Gill Sans), Gareth (=Galliard), Noveo sans (=Neuzeit Grotesk), Palladio (=Palatino), Savoy (=Sabon), URWLatino, Unitus, Toxica, Publicity, Plakette, Pericles, Opus (=Optima), Melville, Function, Flanders, Cori Sans, Binner. Uli Stiehl provides proof that many of the fonts at FontSite are rip-offs (identical to) of fonts in Martin Kotulla's (SoftMaker) collection. This is perhaps best explained that Sean Cavanaugh's last real job was director of typography for SoftMaker, Inc., where he oversaw the development and release of SoftMaker's definiType typeface library and associated products [blurb taken from Digital Type Design Guide: The Page Designer's Guide to Working With Type, published in 1995 by Hayden Books].

Free fonts: Bergamo, CartoGothic (1996-2009), CombiNumerals. At MyFonts, the CombiNumerals Pro and CombiSymbols dingbat families are available since 2010. The site has a number of fonts with the acronym FS in the name, so I guess these are relatively original (but I won't swear on it): Allegro FS, Beton FS, Bodoni Display FS (+ Bold, Demibold), Bodoni No 2 FS (+ Ultra, Bodoni Recut FS (+Bold, Demibold), and so forth. His 500 Font CD has these fonts:

  • Garalde, Venetian: Bergamo, Bergamo Expert, Bergamo SC&OsF, Caslon, Caslon Expert, Gareth, Garamond, Garamond Expert, Garamond SC&OsF, Garamond Condensed, Garamond Modern, URW Palladio, URW Palladio Expert, Savoy, Savoy Expert, Savoy Small Caps&OsF, Vendôme.
  • Slab Serif: Clarendon, Glytus, Typewriter, Typewriter Condensed.
  • Script: Commercial Script, Deanna Script, Deanna Swash Caps, Hudson, Legend, Mistral, Park Avenue, Phyllis, Phyllis Swash Caps, Vivaldi.
  • Uncial: American Uncial, Rosslaire.
  • Blackletter: Fette Fraktur, Fette Gotisch, Olde English.
  • Borders and symbols: Celtic Borders, Deanna Borders, Deanna Flowers, Picto, Sean's Symbols.
  • Transitional: URW Antiqua, Baskerville, Baskerville Expert, New Baskerville.
  • Didone, modern: Bodoni, Bodoni Expert, Bodoni Small Caps&OsF, Modern 216, Walbaum.
  • Sans serif: Chantilly, Franklin Gothic, Franklin Gothic Condensed, Franklin Gothic Cnd. SC&OsF, Function, Function Small Caps&OsF, Function Condensed, Goudy Sans, Opus, Opus Small Caps&OsF, Syntax, Letter Gothic.
  • Decorative: Ad Lib, Algerian, Arnold Boecklin, Binner, Caslon Antique, Chromatic, Copperplate Gothic, Davida, Delphian Open Titling, Function Display, Glaser Stencil, Goudy Handtooled, Handel Gothic, Hobo, Honeymoon, Horndon, Mercedes, Mona Lisa, OCR-A&OCR-B, Plakette, Reflex, Salut, Stop, Toxica, VAG Rounded.
Some more fonts: Alperton, Anaconda, Arizona, Bamboo, Bellhop, Bellows Book, Bernhard Modern FS (2011), Boehland (a revival of Johannes Boehland's Balzac, 1951), Le Havre. MyFonts link. Fontspace link. His art deco fonts, as always without "source" and confusing Victorian, art nouveau, and psychedelica with art deco, include Rimini, Arnold Boecklin, Eldamar, Erbar Deco, Rangpur, Pinocchio, Azucar Gothic, Boyle, Busorama FS, Winona, Abbott Old Style, Almeria (after Richard Isbell's Americana) and Adria Deco, Bernhard Modern FS (2011). FontSpring link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿


German language group interested in starting a web presence with a mailing list, linked web pages, font pages, and so on. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Nancy Foster]

Fontzilla is Nancy Foster's type site. Useful links and information. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Forrest L. Norvell

Type commentator and analyzer in San Francisco who has written on Hrant Papazian's bouma theory, Futura, web typography, chirography and readability. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Four parts of a typeface
[Cyrus Highsmith]

Dead link. Cyrus Highsmith explained the four parts of a typeface: Things, Ends of Things, Intersections of Things and Not Things. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Frank Adebiaye
[The Tragicomedy of Digital Fonts]

[More]  ⦿

Frank Griesshammer
[Git for type designers]

[More]  ⦿

Frank Hinman Pierpont

[More]  ⦿


This is an interesting book project by fathom Information Design: This project started because of a fascination with the way that PDF files contain incomplete versions of fonts. The shape data is high enough quality to reproduce the original document, however only the necessary characters are included in the PDF. This prevents others from extracting the fonts to be used for practical purposes, but creates an opportunity for a curious Victor Frankenstein who wants to use these incomplete pieces to create something entirely different. So the authors grabbed letters from tens of thousands PDF files and printed a book in them. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Franklin Gothic
[Morris Fuller Benton]

Franklin Gothic was designed from 1904 until 1913 by Morris Fuller Benton for ATF. It was one of the most successful advertising sans typefaces ever made. What the Americans called gothic in those days corresponds to the German Grotesk and the British grotesque. Designs close to Franklin Gothic of that era in Germany include Basic Commercial and Reform from D. Stempel AG. Later serif typefaces by Benton include Alternate Gothic, Lightline Gothic and News Gothic.

Franklin Gothic is seen in many high-profile situations, from books to billboards. It was featured on the cover of Lady Gaga's The Fame Monster. It is the official typeface of the MOMA (Museum of Modern Art) in New York, and was even the typeface in the PBS series The Electric Company. Franklin Gothic Condensed was used for subtitles in the Star Wars films.

In 1979, under license with ATF, Vic Caruso began work on more weights of Franklin Gothic for ITC. His version adheres closely to the subtle variations in stroke thickness of the original design. As was usual with all ITC designs of that period, it had an enlarged x-height and condensed proportions, and, as a result, it became a standard choice for use in newspapers and advertising. In 1991, David Berlow completed the family for ITC (MyFonts shows 96 styles) by creating compressed and condensed weights. He writes: ITC Franklin Gothic Compressed is designed especially to solve impossibly tight copyfitting problems, while maintaining high legibility standards. ITC Franklin Condensed provides medium weights of narrow proportions.

Digital remakes and variations and versions include Franklin Gothic (URW++), Gothic 744 (Bitstream, later simply renamed Franklin Gothic), Franklin Gothic SG (2016, Elsner & Flake), Franklin Gothic Pro Black Condensed (2011, Red Rooster), and Frankfurt Gothic (Corel).

In 2019, ATF Type published ATF Franklin Gothic (Mark van Bronkhorst, Igino Marini, and Ben Kiel), a broad and multi-weight interpretation of Franklin Gothic, which only had bolder weights. For the lighter styles, the designers were inspired by Benton's Monotone Gothic.

MyFonts hit list for Franklin Gothic and its descendants. Subpage with the 96 styles of ITC Franklin Gothic by David Berlow, 1991-2008. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Fred Showker

Dirty dozen typefitting tricks for designers. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Freddie Witherden
[A Treatise on Font Rasterisation]

[More]  ⦿

Frederic William Goudy
[National Old Style and Nabisco]

[More]  ⦿

Free ATypI

A personal opinion on the membership and conference fees for ATypI. After a Typophile discussion, ATypI's president, Mark Batty, lowered ATypI's membership fee for citizens of developing countries on February 18, 2003. A positive move! [Google] [More]  ⦿

Free font development discussion

Raph Levien muses about a website to foster the development of fonts to be released under licenses compatible with free software distribution. The typophiles discuss. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Free fonts on the web

Paul Neubauer's links to free fonts and typography in general. Gives info on which fonts to use in web pages. [Google] [More]  ⦿

French Face Extended

A modern typeface with short ascenders and descenders published by Monotype in the early part of the 20th century. In spite of its name the design follows English models. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Frenchwood Ronde

A metal typeface by Lanston Monotype. Its italic is almost a script, but does not seem to be related, as its name suggests, to the French hand know as ronde. [Google] [More]  ⦿

From metal to digital

Interesting discussion on Typophile on the transition from metal to digital type. Items dealt with include ink traps and thorns, optical scaling, soft contours, and randomized letters. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Wiki entry on Frutiger, the sans serif typeface created by Swiss type designer Adrian Frutiger in 1968 for the newly built Charles De Gaulle International Airport at Roissy, France. This typeface design was initially prepared by Adrian Frutiger for his friend Alfred deVolz at Sofratype. The working drawings were made by Andre Guertler. The typeface was called Concorde (or Concorde Sofratype) and was released in 1968. When Linotype purchased Sofratype, the typeface was withdrawn, and the rights were returned to Frutiger. The design re-appeared in 1970-1971 on the signage for the Charles de Gaulle airport at Roissy outside of Paris. Linotype purchased the design from Frutiger and it was re-released as the typeface Frutiger in 1976. The new typeface, originally called Roissy, was completed in 1975 and installed at the airport the same year. A very legible family, it was released to the public by Stempel in 1976. Corporations worldwide use it for their identity: Raytheon, the National Health Service in Britain, the British Royal Navy, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the Finnish Defence Forces. Road signs in Switzerland are in Frutiger, and the public transport system in Oslo uses it as well. Extensions of it include

  • Frutiger Next (1997) made for signage of the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. Linotype released it in 2000.
  • Frutiger Symbols (1998) and Frutiger Stones (1998).
  • ASTRA Frutiger: a variant of Frutiger used by Swiss authorities as the new font for traffic signs, replacing VSS since 2003. It was based on Frutiger 57 Condensed, but with widening up- and down-strokes, which are intended to give the eye a better hold than was the case with the earlier version. A family of 2 fonts were made, called ASTRA-Frutiger-Standard/standard, and ASTRA-Frutiger-Autobahn/autoroute.
  • Frutiger Capitalis (2005), containing only ornamental glyphs of religions, hand signs, astrological signs.
  • Frutiger Arabic (2007) designed by Lebanese designer Nadine Chahine as a companion to the Latin typeface Frutiger and with the consulting of Adrian Frutiger. It is based on the Kufi style but incorporates aspects of Ruqaa and Naskh in the letter form designs.
Copies include CG Frontiera Compugraphic, Provencale Autologic, Sigfried AM (Addressograph Multigraph), Freeborn (Boeger), Humanist 777 (Bitstream, now Monotype), Segoe UI (Agfa), Segoe Condensed (Microsoft). [Google] [More]  ⦿

FTF Billboard

Graphic designers get-together and manifesto for 2000. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Fuck yeah kerning
[Kilian Valkhof]

A web site that posts examples of poor kerning. Run by Kilian Valkhof, a Front-end developer&user experience designer from The Netherlands. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Futura Display

A typeface designed by Paul Renner in 1932 (Bauer, Neufville, Berthold).

Derived typefaces include Futura Display by URW, Futura Display SB (2004, Scangraphic), Futura Display SH (2004, Scangraphic), Futura Display EF (Elsner & Flake), Deko Display Serial (2010, Softmaker), Function Display (Infinitype), S842 Deco (Softmaker), Steile Futura, Topic, Bauer Topic. Turista Gorda NF (2009, Nick Curtis) is based on Baltimore Type Foundry's Airport Tourist which in turn used ideas from Renner's 1932 typeface Futura Display.

Airport Gothic is a related metal face. Mc McGrew on Airport Gothic: Most of this series is the first American copy of Futura, which originated in Germany in 1927, designed by Paul Renner for Bauer. One source says it was cut from original Futura drawings, smuggled out of that country, but it seems more likely that matrices were made by electrotyping the imported type. An extrabold weight, Airport Black, was cut by Baltimore about 1943; information on this cutting is scarce and contradictory---one account says it was designed by Bill Stremic or Bill Blakefield, another that it was designed by Carl Hupie (or Hooper), and cut by Herman Schnoor. There is also Airport Black Condensed Title and Airport Broad. The latter is a modification of Airport Black, cut 50 percent wider on the pantagraph by Herman Schnoor. Baltimore later cast some of its Airport series from Monotype Twentieth Century matrices, and in a few cases listed both series. Airport Relief, Baltimore 299, is English Monotype Gill Sans Cameo Ruled, while Airport Tourist, Baltimore 602, is Futura Display, cast from electrotype mats of the German foundry type.

Hess Neobold was designed by Sol Hess for Monotype in 1934. Mac McGrew: It is a narrow, bold, and very squarish gothic with small serifs, designed for attention-getting display in a style of the day, but never made in more than one size. Compare Airport Tourist (Futura Display), Othello. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Futura: Text by Mac McGrew
[Paul Renner]

Futura is a geometric, serifless type designed by Paul Renner for Bauer Type foundry in Germany in 1927, and features reproportioning which at first seemed radical in relation to the traditional gothics. It first gained popularity in America as imported foundry type. The first copies in this country were made by Baltimore Type under the name Airport (q.v.). One source says it was cut from original Futura drawings, but most likely it was electrotyped from imported fonts. Three extrabold versions were added by Baltimore Type, apparently being introduced before their counterparts from other sources.

Airport Black and Airport Black Condensed Title were cut about 1943. Airport Broad is essentially a modification by pantagraph of Airport Black, being cut 50 percent wider. These typefaces are heavier than most of their counterparts, none of which copy them exactly, although Spartan Extra Black is about the same weight.

Intertype copied a number of Futura typefaces under the original names in 1939, with additional weights designed by Edwin W. Shaar and Tommy Thompson up to 1956.

Monotype copied the series under the name Twentieth Century, with additional versions by Sol Hess.

Spartan is claimed to have been redrawn from various European sources, but is almost indistinguishable from Futura. It was cut cooperatively by American Type and Linotype, with smaller sizes matching from both sources. Linotype introduced its Sanserif 52, later renamed Spartan Black, in 1939, while other weights appeared as late as 1955. Some of the additional weights were drawn for ATF by Bud Renshaw and Gerry Powell.

On Ludlow, Tempo Alternate is a near copy of Futura, but not quite as close as the other typefaces listed; in addition, this typeface has several alternate letters and figures which change the character of the design when substituted. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Stefan Lundhem]

Stefan Lundhem started Fyrisfonts. He is the designer of Garajannon (Garamond family), Spartacus (a Roman, CODEX-like lettering font), Beckhem Gothic, Fournament, Primus, Fyris Fraction, Fyris Fraktur, Krabat, Heltime (mix of Times and Helvetica), Terminator, Bessie (2001, multiline art deco typeface modeled after Marcia Loeb's 1972 alphabet, Rainbow), Billie (2001, art deco titling, modeled after Marcia Loeb's 1972 alphabet, Zig Zag), Jämför abc, Miami Blues and Miami Vice (beautiful, now called Bessie and Billie, respectively). The pages in Swedish contain an in-depth study of Jenson and Adobe Jenson MM, Caslon, Cloister Old Style, Fraktur, Garamond, Minion MM, MultipleMaster fonts, Myriad MM, OpenType, Poynter, RailwayType, Newspaper type, Web fonts, Web typography, and screen typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

FY(T)I Scripts: From Formal to Casual

Ilene Strizver on script fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿


A fun type discussion by experts on the letter "g". [Google] [More]  ⦿

Gaby Mrörch

Typographical links by Thierry Bouche and Gaby Mrörch. [Google] [More]  ⦿


A heavy sans display typeface sold by Apple, and designed by Font Bureau from 1995 until 1998. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Gamb Design
[Manfred Baierl]

Manfred Baierl created the screen fonts Mini-5 and Mini-7 for 5pt and 7pt screen text in 2001. He also created the old typewriter font AltAdler, and the dot font Punkt. Free downloads. He sells Fishsoup, a type 1 font consisting of a smorgasbord of type styles. His pages have lots of useful discussions and links, not least of which is Bembo's Zoo. Check also on-line converter for typographic measurements, Top 10 typefaces, Information on the Euro. Download Ansicode (ANSI numbers replace characters). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Gary Hustwit

[More]  ⦿

Gary McGraw
[Letter Spirit]

[More]  ⦿


Michael Schmitz's on-line program (2004) to create generations of letters by applying the principles of genetics. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Georg Kraus
[Preußisches Bleisatz-Magazin]

[More]  ⦿

George Williams: interview

An interview with my hero, George Williams, the developer of FontForge. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Georgia and Verdana

Essay by Daniel Will-Harris: Georgia and Verdana: Typefaces designed for the screen. [Google] [More]  ⦿

German numberplates font

FE Mittelschrift is the German car plate font designed between 1978 and 1980 by Karlgeorg Hoefer (1914-2000) together with the University of Giessen (Dept. of Physiology and Cybernetic Psychology). FE is the abbreviation of the German word fälschungserschwerend (difficult to forge). Characters were designed individually so that a C could not be made into an O and so forth. The typeface was first used on cars in 1994. Article by Susanne Schaller, with comments by a number of people. Martin Core claims his Sauerkrauto (2000) font was based on images of the license plates. Spiekermann dislikes the typeface because the letters have no relationship to each other: he calls it a complete forgery. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Gerrit van Aaken

[More]  ⦿

Getting Started With Type Design: A Personal Journey
[Mathieu Triay]

An excellent type design tutorial by Mathieu Triay for Creative Review, 2017. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Daniel Will-Harris provides an educational discussion of using GIF-coded letters in web pages. He also tells you how to go about getting them ready. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Gill Sans: Critique by Ben Archer
[Ben Archer]

Ben Archer argues why Gill failed in his attempt to improve on Johnston's Underground typeface in his design of Gill Sans. He laments the lack of consistency and rhythm, the poor choices for some tails, ascenders and descenders. He concludes by saying: The old metal version of Granby has a faithfulness to Johnston's proportions and characteristics that Eric Gill missed in such a way as to suggest he did it deliberately. Nearly a century later, Edward Johnston's pioneering work is still the big noise in contemporary sans serif typeface design. So much for fool-proof! [Google] [More]  ⦿

Git for type designers
[Frank Griesshammer]

A page on Git for type designers brought to you by Frank Griesshammer. [Google] [More]  ⦿

GLaD construction

Read about the relationship between the GLaD construction (subdivide any segment into any number of equal parts with ruler and compass) and Tschichold's page layout proposals. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Global Type
[Lars Kähler]

German/English web site by Lübeck, Germany-based printing engineer Lars Kähler (b. 1962) about all typographic matters, but still under construction. For example, it will have biographies, complete lists of fonts from the major foundries, technological surveys, and articles on the history of type. Lars has been typesetter from 1987 until 1994. He spoke at ATypI 2006 in Lisbon on Global Type, his project. PDF of Lars' presentation. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Globe and Mail
[Nick Shinn]

Canada's main newspaper, The Globe and Mail, was redesigned on April 23, 2007. It features a new font family, consisting of Globe and Mail Sans, Globe and Mail News, and Globe and Mail Text subfamilies, all designed by Nick Shinn. Thanks to the new type, the width of the paper was decreased to 12 inches, matching the Wall Street Journal. The redesign is good, with strong sectioning by well-designed separators. Sample. See also the piece by News Designer. The Globe and Mail News font replaces the old serif headline font, and introduces a semi-serif with the ascenders of the b, d and l slightly bent near the top. Its "l" has a tail for readability I suppose. Personally, I would have stuck with a solid serif headline face---classy and timeless.

Chapter two, October 1, 2010--another redesign, this time catastrophic by any standard. Text content is reduced, pictures are bigger and flashier (and all in color), sports scores, sudoku puzzles, and just about any piece of information is smaller (to the point that sudokus, for example, are almost impossible to do with no scratch space left), and large one-page ads without information are taking over. Nick Shinn's Globe Sans is not bad, but the Globe promises a reduction in its use of serif typefaces for text, and that is another major blunder. This is very sad, indeed, because just about all other newspapers in the country, some French ones excepted, are in the hands of a right-wing group and provide predictable biased content. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Globe Gothic: Benton versus Goudy?

Globe Gothic is a typeface that came to ATF via Central Type Foundry's Quentell. Its career path is described by Mac McGrew: Globe Gothic is a refinement of Taylor Gothic, designed about 1897 by ATF at the suggestion of Charles H. Taylor of the Boston Globe, and used extensively by that paper. But Taylor Gothic has mostly the same lowercase as Quentell, though with hairlines heavied a bit. ATF's Central Type Foundry branch in St. Louis claims to have originated Quentell (q.v.) in 1895 or earlier. The conversion to Taylor Gothic was designed by Joseph W. Phinney, while the redesign as Globe Gothic in about 1900 is credited to Morris Benton. It is a serifless, thick-and-thin face, distinguished by the high crossbar on E, F, and H. The angular end on the stems of V, W, and most lowercase letters.

But there is a slight controversy as to whom designed Globe Gothic Bold, Benton, or Goudy, or others, McGrew: Globe Gothic Condensed, Extra Condensed, and Extended were designed by Benton about 1900. Globe Gothic Bold and its italic are also credited to Benton, in 1907 and 1908 respectively. But Frederic W. Goudy, in the book on his typefaces, says, "This type (Globe Gothic Bold), drawn at the suggestion of Joseph Phinney, followed in the main certain points which he wished brought out. It never had much vogue and is the least satisfactory (to me) of all my types." This is puzzling, as the bold departs somewhat from the style of the lighter weights, but is not at all characteristic of Goudy's work-nor of Benton's, for that matter. Studley of Inland Type Foundry was similar. Compare Ryerson Condensed, Radiant, Matthews, Pontiac, World Gothic.

In the digital era, we find Globe Gothic MN by Mecanorma and a more extensive family at Lanston Monotype called LTC Globe Gothic (2005). Colin M. Ford also created a digital typeface called Globe Gothic. Eli Hernandez's Magnolia (2019) was inspired by Globe Gothic. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Glyphic or incise typefaces

Glyphic typefaces have flared strokes or tapered waistlines. They emulate letters carved into stone or bronze. Most of them are not serifed, but they can hardly be called sans typefaces either. Classical examples include Optima (Hermann Zapf), Albertus (Berthold Wolpe) and Pascal (José Mendoza). More recent glyphic or incise typefaces include Ideal Sans (Jonathan Hoefler), Carter Sans (Matthew Carter and Dan Reynolds, 2010, ITC) and Winco (Ramiro Espinoza). [Google] [More]  ⦿


This 11,000 font archive has taken typefaces from all major foundries and removed the trademark and copyright notices. The names are unchanged. It contains for example Basic Commercial (Linotype, 2004). If Linotype sues Goldenweb, then we have an interesting situation, because Linotype did exactly the same thing when it derived Basic Commercial from Berthold's Akzidenz Grotesk (namely, it removed and replaced the trademark and copyright notices, but did not touch the electronic font data). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Gothic: Mac McGrew

Mac McGrew's discussion on Gothic starts with an important remark: Gothic, the purists say, is Blackletter or what we more often call Old English. But the name is so firmly established in American usage as meaning a plain block letter without serifs or hairlines, that we must accept that meaning. Also, it is part of many type names. But we prefer to go further, and reserve the term gothic for the traditional forms, and sans serif for the modified forms originating in Germany with the Bauhaus movement of the 1920s. Our preferred general term is serifless. In this book, gothics having distinctive family names are listed alphabetically throughout---see Alternate Gothic, Franklin Gothic, Modern Gothic, News Gothic, etc. Those with merely descriptive names are included in this section under the following headings: Numbered Gothics, Condensed Gothics, Inclined or Italic Gothics, and Miscellaneous Gothics. The term "Lining," added to many names when they were realigned to new standards around the turn of the century, has generally been ignored in this book, as it was later dropped in nearly all cases. Nineteenth-century gothics are not included except for a few representative ones or those that have been substantially used subsequently. "Title" gothics---all-cap versions usually occupying almost the entire body---are shown as secondary listings to the cap-and-lowercase versions where both exist. Offset Gothics were cut in reverse for a process of transferring proofs of type to lithographic stones, or more recently to electronic parts. Also see Record Gothic Offset. He the discusses gothic typefaces in detail.

  • Numbered Gothics. Most such typefaces, except as cross-referenced below, are nineteenth-century designs; a few are shown because they were copied by Monotype or Linotype or otherwise survived for extensive use in this century. For ATF typefaces numbered in the 500s, the initial 5 generally indicates that the typeface has been adjusted to standard alignment from an older typeface with the same number otherwise; that is, Gothic No. 544 was formerly Gothic No. 44 to old standards.
    • Gothic No.6, an 1895 Inland face, is important only because Monotype adapted it as a practical and widely used utility typeface before the advent of sans serifs.
    • Gothic No. 13 is included under Condensed Gothics.
    • Gothic No.1 and 3: see Franklin Gothic (also see below).
    • Gothic No. 14. See Chamfer Gothic.
    • Gothic No. 16. See Franklin Gothic.
    • Gothic Nos. 17 to 20. See Trade Gothic.
    • Gothic No. 25, 38, and 520 to 526. See Gothic No. 545.
    • Gothic Nos. 29 to 35. See Copperplate Gothic.
    • Gothic, Mono 481, 496, 508. See Helvetica.
    • Gothic Nos. 39 to 45. See Metrolite.
    • Gothic Nos. 544 and 545 are typical plain nineteenth-century gothics, both shown by MacKellar in 1889 or earlier, but both have been copied extensively by other sources, and shown by ATF as late as 1979. Hansen's New York Gothic was equivalent to Gothic No. 545. There was also a comparable but lighter Gothic No. 543, which was not as long lasting. Combination Gothic and Interchangeable Gothic were similar to Gothic No. 545, but as title versions, with several sizes of caps on each of several bodies. Also see Octic Gothic.
    • Gothic No. 578 was shown as Gothic No.8 by Inland in 1898 as "the latest candidate for the printer's favor; a popular old typeface entirely recut." It was shown until 1941. It is a bold weight, and is quite similar to Standard Bold which as an import from Germany was very popular in this country in the 1950s. It is also similar to Comstock, but without the added outline. Keystone called it Standard Gothic, although it is not identical to the German face. As a nineteenth-century gothic, the cap G had no crossbar. Paragon Gothic is the same design, without lowercase, cast as a title face.
    • The small Laclede Type Foundry in St. Louis originated a pair of attractive gothics which apparently were scrapped when the foundry was taken over by BB&S. Gothic No.1 was similar to Franklin Gothic, and Gothic No.3 was similar to Square Gothic, but both had many small differences, the most noticeable being round dots on i, j, and punctuation marks. Another Gothic No.3 is made by Monotype, Linotype, and Intertype, probably from a nineteenth-century foundry source. It is similar to Gothic No. 544.
    • Some other numbered gothics appear under Numbered Faces.
  • Condensed Gothics.
    • Inland Type Foundry introduced its Gothic Condensed No. 10 in 1904 as "an entirely new face, from which has been eliminated all of the inconsistencies and objectionable features so noticeable in similar series." Its companion Gothic Condensed Title No. 11, introduced in 1905, was shown by ATF as late as 1969; Monotype's New Gothic Condensed and Gothic Condensed Title are very similar; all are still handsome typefaces.
    • Another Inland typeface of about the same age, Extra Condensed Gothic No.1, survived almost as long in its all-cap version of Extra Condensed Title Gothic No. 12. BB&S had a very similar face, Gothic Extra Condensed No.6 and Title No.6.
    • Gothic No. 13 is a traditional heavy condensed gothic in small sizes; from 24-point up it is basically the same as Modern Gothic Condensed,. Unique Caps were added in 1937.
    • Gothic Condensed No. 523 was Keystone's Universal Gothic, introduced about 1906. Gothic No. 47 of BB&S is somewhat similar. Gothic Condensed No. 529 is a nineteenth-century design, and is similar to the later and more refined Alternate Gothic, but it remained in the ATF specimen books at least to 1979; most sources had comparable typefaces. Also see Vertical Gothic.
    • Monotype has several utility gothics, including Gothic Caps Condensed. No. 48, designed to occupy roman small cap positions in the standard arrangement; and Gothic Condensed, No. 49, a medium weight conventional sort of gothic. A Monotype specimen sheet, issued in 1917, says of Condensed Gothic, No. 515, "This was formerly our 18-point No. 51. We found that it did not match the balance of the series, so we have given it a new number." See Gothic Condensed No. 529.
    • Gothic No.1 Condensed. See Franklin Gothic Extra Condensed.
    • Gothic Condensed No. 2. See Gothic Condensed No. 529, also Alternate Gothic No. 3.
    • Gothic Condensed No.3. See Headline Gothic, Ludlow.
    • Gothic Condensed No. 521. Also see Vertical Gothic.
    • Gothic Condensed Outline. See Contour No.6.
    • Condensed Gothic Outline. See under Alternate Gothic.
    • Gothic Bold Condensed Title. See Railroad Gothic. Medium Gothic No.7. See Mid-Gothic, also Boston Gothic.
    • Medium Condensed Gothic, Ludlow, is a refinement of typical nineteenth-century, straight-sided gothics. It has been popular in newspaper work. Deluxe Variants are an additional feature of about 1939, when similar characters were designed for a number of gothics. Compare Mid-Gothic; Modern Gothic Condensed.
    • Ludlow also has two typefaces named Gothic Extra Condensed, 6-EC. The newer one, in 24to 84-point sizes, is very similar to Aurora Condensed from Germany, also known as Inserat Grotesk or Enge Wotan, with extremely short ascenders and descenders and lengthened white areas in the angular letters. The older Ludlow face, made only in 144-point, is similar to Extra Condensed Title Gothic No. 12, and has no lowercase. In this size, letters are cast individually on Ludlow, the long way of the slug, and used primarily for newspaper headlines.
  • Inclined or Italic Gothics.
    • Gothic Italic No. 512, ATF, was advertised by Marder, Luse in 1893 or earlier as Gothic Italic No.3. BB&S had matching GothicItalic, formerly Degree Gothic No. 1.
    • The BB&S Gothic Italic Light was formerly Degree Gothic No.2. Several foundries had comparable typefaces; Inland called its comparable Gothic Italic "original."
    • Gothic Inclined, BB&S, was shown at least as early as 1889 as Inclined Lining Gothic, later known as Inclined Gothic No. 120. Inland advertised the same typeface as Title Slope Gothic, "improved." ATF and Monotype had a similar Inclined Gothic, and other founders had comparable typefaces.
    • Gothic Inclined Light of BB&S was formerly Slope Gothic No. 50 from 1879.
    • Bold Inclined Gothic. See Modern Gothic Italic.
    • Also see Doric Italic, Draftsman Gothic, Boston Gothic.
  • Miscellaneous Gothics.
    • Monotype has several typefaces designated simply "Lining Gothic." Those not cross-referenced were undoubtedly copied or adapted from undetermined foundry typefaces. Lining Gothic No. 106 is very light, similar to Lightline Gothic but less refined; it has caps and lowercase. No. 112 is a little heavier, with caps and small caps only in each size. No. 176---see Mid-Gothic. No. 66 and 349---see Gothic No. 545. No. 350 is similar to No. 112 but has four sizes of caps in each of 6and 12-point, in the manner of Copperplate Gothic.
    • Gothic Modern. See Modern Gothic series.
    • BB&S's Gothic Novelty Title was formerly Tasso, 1890 or earlier. Other founders had the same design as Gothic, ATF; Gotham, Farmer Little; Gothic No. 205, Bruce; Ancient Gothic. Dickinson.
    • Gothic Novelty, the same typeface with lowercase, was formerly Tasso No.2.
    • Gothic Novelty Condensed was formerly Archer, about the same age but unlike the other typefaces in this group.
    • Hansen's Extended Lining Gothic was a copy of Philadelphia Lining Gothic.
    • Gothic Shade became Jim Crow.
    • Gothic Double Shade became Marble Heart (q.v.).
    • Gothic Outline Title No. 61, formerly Outline Gothic No. 61, dates to 1890 or earlier, but was still shown by ATF in 1979. Compare Contour Nos. 1 and 6, Franklin Gothic Condensed Outline, Whedons Gothic Outline.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Goudy Center links

Links on typography in general. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Goudy versus Inland

P22 reports this story about the foundry's theft of a design by Goudy: In 1900 Frederick Goudy was commissioned by W.W. Denslow to letter his edition of Mother Goose stories for the McClure, Phillips Co. of New York. (Denslow was the Illustrator of the original Wizard of Oz and also an occasional Roycroft illustrator.) The lettering that Goudy designed featured short ascenders and descenders, as well as a tall x-height. Shortly thereafter the Inland type foundry of St. Louis released a typeface that was a direct copy of Goudy's lettering. Goudy seemed to be more offended that the font was named "Hearst" after the notorious newspaper mogul, than by the fact that they copied his designs. As Goudy had put it: "To my surprise, a little later on, the Inland Type foundry of St. Louis, without consultation with me, brought out a new type copied--not inspired--from my Denslow lettering, and added insult to injury by naming it "Hearst." Goudy's reaction was to create his own type typeface for release. The result of Goudy's attempt to outdo a copy of his design evolved into the Pabst type face. Created for the Pabst Brewing Company, this type design has some similarities to Hearst, but is clearly its own unique face. The ascenders are much taller than Hearst and the x-height is reduced. The distressed edging of the letters and the caps bear a similarity, but clearly these are two distinct typefaces. Five years later in 1907, Goudy's "Powell" typeface was created for the Mandel Brother department store in Chicago. This "Powell" typeface bears a closer similarity to "Hearst."

The Hearst Roman typeface was later digitized by Dan Solo (Solotype) and by Nick Curtis in 2006 as Ragged Write NF. Alan Jay Prescott made New Hearst Roman and Italic in 1995. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Graffiti and typography

Great discussion at Typophile. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Italian site with the history of type, stone cutting and calligraphy. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Graham Hicks
[Itchy Robot]

[More]  ⦿


French association for the promotion of the typographic arts. Fighting for the survival of the treasures at the Imprimerie Nationale in France. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Olivier Marcks]

Entitled "Cynthia et Luc, ou la Rome et la Mecque des liens", Olivier Marcks discusses, in French, a calligraphy and a font site. Merci, Olivier! [Google] [More]  ⦿


Typography joint run by Bill Troop, a phenomenal wordsmith. Just read this quote: Typeface Design is obtuse, incomprehensible, unsuitable, unremunerable, and irresistable. With the aid of the computer, it has never been easier to design a typeface, and never easier to manufacture one. Because of PostScript, TrueType, and font creation programs like Fontographer, Font Studio, and Font Lab, there have never been more typeface designs available, nor have there ever been so many typeface designers active. Yet, just as at all times and places there is very little good of anything to be had, so there are remarkably few fine typefaces available today. Printers now have merely a fraction of the first rate types they had in 1930. " [Google] [More]  ⦿

Guia de tipos

Miguel Sousa's PDF files with type catalogs. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Gunnlaugur Briem
[Notes on type design]

[More]  ⦿

Guru's Lair: Acrobat library shelf directory

Arizona-based Don Lancaster's huge list of links for PDF and Acrobat. Includes PostScript code websitan.ps, reflog1.ps and weblogu2.ps (website analysis in PostScript), urlindoc.ps (embed url links directly into your pre-Acrobat source documents), tutorial on PostScript "alpha" transparency, a JPEG to PDF file conversion tutorial, catools1.ps (a et of PostScript utilities that let you read Acrobat catalog internals), and a PFB2PFA.PS program. He has, among many other things, some articles on text justification in postscript, called Picojustification and Postjustification. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Association of the French users of TeX. Has a newsletter, and publishes topical books. Run by Jacques André, University of Rennes. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Günter Schuler

Günter Schuler is a German author interested in good typography. Among the things he seels are the Cleverprinting DTP-Typomter (a handy sheet for measuring type sizes, both absolute and relative), TypeSelect Schriftenfächer (a wall paint-style foldout with typefaces), and Grundkurs Typografie und Layout (an introductory book on typography). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Haas Unica: The story

This story is taken from the Lineto web site in 2015, just after the digital revival Unica 77 (Christian Mengelt) was published by them. All italic text are verbatim quotes. The underlying thread is a huge fight between Haas and Linotype, with on the Haas side, the Swiss outfits Team 77 and Lineto, and on the Linotype side, the corporate heavyweight. Lineto / Team 77 writes: We are proud and honoured to release Unica77, created by Christian Mengelt of Team 77, the original authors of Haas Unica. Some see Unica as the pinnacle of modernist type design, arguably the most modern and the most Swiss typeface: the idea of a «pure medium», a «neutral carrier». Unica was the typeface that finally delivered what Helvetica had only promised, at a moment when, in a bizarre twist of fate, no-one was looking. And released for a fading technology at a time of transition, it was soon relegated to undeserved obscurity. The tragic story of Haas Unica is one of technological progress, economic pressure, corporate powerplay, bad timing, and unfortunate coincidences. It's the dark side of Helvetica's bright success story.

Helvetica had been secretly developed at the Haas Foundry in the mid-1950s, against the will of Stempel, their majority stakeholder. First presented as Neue Haas Grotesk, in 1957, it was a sensational success. Haas, a relatively small enterprise depending on cooperation and licensing deals, licensed it to Linotype for worldwide exploitation, who adapted it and turned it into the fabled Helvetica. However, Linotype prevented Haas from producing Helvetica for the now prevalent phototypesetting technology, and as a consequence, Haas was denied any major share of its global success.

In 1973, Alfred Hoffmann of the Haas type foundry had enough. He invited the prolific type designers André Gürtler, Christian Mengelt, and Erich Gschwind to investigate improving Helvetica for phototypesetting, and to propose a new typeface optimised for the dominant technology of the day. Their thorough analysis of four formally related typefaces (Akzidenz Grotesk, Univers, Neue Haas Grotesk and Helvetica), later published in the document «From Helvetica to Haas Unica», served as foundation for the synthesis of the brilliant new typeface, its name an amalgam of Univers and Helvetica.

But by the time Bobst/Autologic (for their Eurocat system) and Linotype (for their Linotronic range) came out with Haas Unica, the days for phototypesetting were numbered. The personal computer was on its way to radically alter the design and printing professions, and in 1984 the Apple Macintosh promised a new dawn for type design. Haas Unica fell into the gap of this transitional period. It had taken six years from commissioning to foundry release, and when it came out, the world was ready to move on.

The shift from analogue to digital turned the industry upside down. In rapid succession, companies went bankrupt, were taken over, stripped of their assets, and sold down the river. Four years after launching Haas Unica, Haas’ business partner Stempel was sold to Linotype. Haas, one of the world's oldest foundries with a back catalogue of sheer excellence, was taken over and terminated in 1989. Haas Unica disappeared, and its designers' appeals to Linotype for a digital reissue bore no fruit---it remained buried for close to 30 years.

But it was not forgotten. As avid users of type, we often wondered why Haas Unica wasn't available on the market. In 2004, Berlin-based designer and Lineto partner Stephan Müller came across a digital version in a Scangraphic specimen book. As it wasn't available to buy, he sourced a black market copy, made minimal changes to it and discreetly used it for an artist book. This made waves and before long, Unica became a revered tool of choice for keen designers, among them Norm, Cornel Windlin, Laurent Benner, Jon Hares, and Gregor Huber & Ivan Sterzinger, to name but a few.

The years passed, and in 2012, there still was no legitimate version of Haas Unica around. What was the problem? It seemed mysterious. When we got in touch with Team 77 to express our gratitude and respect, Christian Mengelt told us the whole Unica saga. Talking to him, we also realised that the version of Unica we had grown to appreciate as a quietly obedient servant was an unauthorised version, resolutely rejected by its original designers. According to Mengelt, its more monolinear drawing and its spacing and kerning bore little resemblance to the more subtle and refined original.

At the same time, Mengelt confirmed that Linotype had absolutely no interest in re-issuing Haas Unica and had even given up the trademark years ago; it was obviously just dead weight to them. We were awestruck and decided right there and then to collaborate, in a mission to preserve Unica in its true form and original state. Christian Mengelt dug out the original drawings and went to work, carefully redrawing each of the 8 original cuts. Maurice Göldner closely collaborated with Mengelt to adapt character sets to full Latin Extended encodings, build features and extend the family with new weights (Thin, Medium, Extra Black coming soon). The rest is history, as they say.

The bad luck for Haas Unica contnues, however, in 2014-2015, as Toshi Omagari finished his splendid rendering Neue Haas Unica and Neue Haas Unica Pan European for Linotype. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Hamish Macpherson
[The typography of code]

[More]  ⦿

Handwriting: An Elegy
[Ann Wroe]

A wonderful article by Ann Wroe in the November 2011 issue of Intelligent Life. She celebrates the dying art of writing. The first two paragraphs set the tone: Take a sheet of paper. Better still, take a whole sheaf; writing prospers with comfort and cushioning. The paper may be deliciously thick, with ragged edges and a surface capillaried with tiny fibres of the rags that made it. It may be thin, blank, industrial A4, one of a thousand in a cut-price pack from Staples. It may be wove paper, vellum-smooth and shiny, or a bit of scrap, torn not quite straight, with a palimpsest of typed meeting-minutes showing through. But write. The instrument matters but, for the moment, seize anything. The old fountain pen, so familiar that it nestles like a warm fifth finger in the crook of the thumb, its clip slightly shaky with over-use; the pencil, its lead half-blunt and not quite steady in that smooth cone of wood; the ultra-fine felt tip from the office cupboard, with its no-nonsense simplicity, or the ancient mapping pen, nibbed like a bird's claw, which surely writes only in copperplate, scratching fiercely as it goes. Seize even a ball-point, though its line is mean and thin, and though teachers will tell you that nothing ruins writing faster. Dip, fill or shake vigorously; and write. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Hans Reichardt
[Type Designer and Punchcutter]

[More]  ⦿


A list (in German) of typefaces used by companies (often specially designed). Translated and partially reprodused here. We also took info from this subpage.
CompanyTypeAlternate typeYet another typeStill another type
ARDThe Sans The Serif
AirbusHelvetica Neue Times New Roman Arial
Akzo NobelSymbol
AralAral V2 Medium Baskerville BQ
AudiAudi Antiqua Audi Sans
BMWBMW Helvetica
BonnfinanzFrutiger Adobe Garamond Bodoni Book
BoschBosch Sans/Serif
CDUFF Kievit
Credit SuisseCredit Suisse Type
DHLFrutiger Minion
DRKGill Sans Rockwell
DSKThe Sans5
DaimlerChryslerCorporate ASE
Deutsche BahnHelvetica
Deutsche BankDeuBa Univers
Deutsche PostFrutigerHelvetica
FordFord Light/Bold
HeinekenHeineken Sans/Serif
HenkelHelvetica Neue Swift EF Arial Times New Roman
LangenscheidtTrade Gothic
Linde AGLinde Dax
MephistoFutura Book
MercedesCorporate A/E/S
MitsubishiAlpha Headline
NiveaNivea Sans
NokiaNokia Sans/Serif
OpelOpel Sans
PorscheFranklin Gothic
RocheMinion Imago
ShellFutura LT Bold
SiemensSiemens Sans/Serif/Slab Serif
SparkassSparkasse Lt/Rg
UBSUBS Headline Frutiger 45
VWVW Headline Utopia
VolvoVolvo Broard
WDRMeta Minion
Zeche ZollvereinChevin
ŠkodaSkoda SansDalton Magg
3SatGill SansMonotypeEric Gill
ADACFranklin GothicLinotypeMorris Fuller Benton
AEGRotisAgfaOtl Aicher
AMDGill SansMonotypeEric Gill
ARDThe SansLucasFontsLucas de Groot
ARDThe SerifLucasFontsLucas de Groot
AVMInfoFontFontErik Spiekermann, Ole Schäfer
AVMMetaFontFontErik Spiekermann
AdobeMinionAgfaRobert Slimbach
AirBerlinMetaFontFontErik Spiekermann
AirbusTimes New RomanMonotype
AirbusArialMonotypePatricia Saunders, Robin Nichols
AirbusNeue HelveticaLinotype
Akzo NobelSymbol
AldiFuturaElsner+FlakePaul Renner
AllianzFormata CondensedHeadlines
AppleApple Myriad
AralBaskerville BQ
AralAral V2 Medium
ArcorMemphisLinotypeChauncey H. Griffith
AudiAudi Antiqua
AudiAudi SansUnivers
B.Braun Melsungen AGRotisAgfaOtl Aicher
BMWBMW TypeHelvetica
Beck'sSyntaxLinotypeHans Eduard Meier
Berliner ZeitungWalbaumLinotypeJ. E. WalbaumHeadlines
Berliner ZeitungUtopiaMonotypeText
BertelsmannUniversLinotypeAdrian Frutiger
BonnfinanzBodoni BookBitstreamGiambattista Bodoni
BonnfinanzAdobe GaramondAgfaClaude Garamond, Robert Slimbach
BonnfinanzFrutigerLinotypeAdrian Frutiger
BoschBosch Serif
BoschBosch Sans
BulthaupRotisAgfaOtl Aicher
Bundesagentur für ArbeitCorporate SURW++Kurt Weidemann
BundesregierungNeue Demos
BundesregierungNeue Praxis
C&ACA Info Type
C&ACA Corporate Type
CDUCDU KievitKievit
Commerzbank AGCommerzbank HeadlineStymie Black
CosmosDirektGeometric Slabserif 703BitstreamLogo
CosmosDirektUnivers CondensedLinotypeAdrian Frutiger
Credit SuisseCredit Suisse Type
DA direktFrutigerLinotypeAdrian FrutigerFliesstext
DA direktLinotype ErgoLinotypeLogo
DAB BankDAB Bank OfficinaOfficina
DHLFrutigerLinotypeAdrian Frutiger
DHLMinionAgfaRobert Slimbach
DRKHelveticaLinotypeMax Miedinger
DRKArialMonotypePatricia Saunders, Robin Nichols
DSKThe SansLucasFontsLucas de Groot
Delta AirlinesDeltaDalton Magg
Der SpiegelSpiegel Sans (a 32 style American gothic family)LucasFontsLucas de GrootFranklin Gothic
Der SpiegelSpiegel SerifLucasFontsLucas de GrootLinotype Rotation
DetaxFrutigerLinotypeAdrian Frutiger
Deutsche Bahn AGDB Sans CondensedURW++
Deutsche Bahn AGDB SansURW++
Deutsche Bahn AGDB HeadURW++
Deutsche Bahn AGDB NewsURW++
Deutsche Bahn AGDB SerifURW++
Deutsche BankDeutsche Bank UniversUnivers
Deutsche Post AGFrutiger CondensedLinotypeAdrian FrutigerHeadlines
Deutsche Post AGMinionAgfaRobert Slimbach Fliesstext
Deutsche TelekomTeleAntiquaURW++
Deutsche TelekomTeleGroteskURW++
Deutsche TelekomTeleLogoURW++
Deutsche WelleBemboAgfaFrancesco Griffo, A. Tagliente Fliesstext
Deutsche WelleDW InterstateInterstate
Die GrünenCorpus GothicFountainPeter Bruhn
Die Linke/PDSMetaFontFontErik SpiekermannFliesstext
Die WeltFranklin GothicLinotypeMorris Fuller Benton
Die WeltExcelsiorLinotypeChauncery H. Griffith Text
Die WeltTimesBQHeadlines
Direct LineGill SansMonotypeEric Gill
Dr. OetkerDr. Oetker TiffanyTiffany
Dänisches BettenlagerFuturaElsner+FlakePaul Renner
E-PlusFrutigerLinotypeAdrian Frutiger
E-PlusOCR PlusLinotypeAdrian FrutigerOCR F
ErcoUniversLinotypeAdrian Frutiger
ErcoRotisAgfaOtl Aicher
Eurex (Deutsche Börse AG)SyntaxLinotypeHans Eduard Meier
Ev. JohanneswerkArialMonotypePatricia Saunders, Robin Nichols
Ev. JohanneswerkHelveticaLinotypeMax Miedinger
FC Bayern München AGFCB InterstateInterstate
FSBNews GothicLinotypeMorris Fuller Benton
FSBUniversLinotypeAdrian Frutiger
Festo AGMetaFontFontErik Spiekermann
Financial TimesUtopiaMonotype
Financial TimesWalbaumLinotypeJ. E. Walbaum
FordFord ExtendedHelvetica
Frankfurter Allgemeine ZeitungEighteen
Frankfurter Allgemeine ZeitungTimes Ten
Frankfurter Allgemeine ZeitungFAZ FrakturURW++Fette Gotisch
Fraunhofer-GesellschaftFrutigerLinotypeAdrian Frutiger
Fujitsu Siemens ComputerRotisAgfaOtl Aicher
GE (General Electric Company)GE Inspira
Gothaer (Versicherung)MetaFontFontErik Spiekermann
Heidelberg GruppeHeidelberg GothicNews Gothic
Heidelberg GruppeHeidelberg AntiquaSwift
HeinekenHeineken Sans
HeinekenHeineken Serif
HenkelNeue HelveticaLinotype
HenkelArialMonotypePatricia Saunders, Robin Nichols
HenkelTimes New RomanMonotype
ING DiBaStone Sans
IkeaIkea SansFutura
IkeaIkea SerifNew Century Schoolbook
Industrie- und HandelskammerRotis SansAgfaOtl Aicher
Industrie- und HandelskammerRotis SerifAgfaOtl Aicher
J.M. Voith AGVoith HelveticaHelvetica
Jet (Tankstelle)JetSans
Kabel DeutschlandKabel UnitFF Unit
LBSLBS The SansThe Sans
LangenscheidtTrade GothicLinotypeJackson Burke
LekkerlandLL SariFF Sari
Linde AGLinde DaxFF Dax
Linotype Library GmbHUniversLinotypeAdrian Frutiger
LufthansaHelveticaLinotypeMax Miedinger
MINIMINITypeRegularDalton MaagFliesstext
MINIMINITypeHeadlineDalton MaggHeadlines
MazdaBaseTwelve SansHeadlines
MazdaFrutigerLinotypeAdrian FrutigerText
McDonald'sAkzidenz Grotesk
Mecklenburg VorpommernMyriad Pro
Mecklenburg VorpommernLithograph
MediaMarktFranklin GothicLinotypeMorris Fuller Benton
MephistoFutura BookElsner+FlakePaul Renner
MercedesCorporate EURW++Kurt Weidemann
MercedesCorporate AURW++Kurt Weidemann
MercedesCorporate SURW++Kurt Weidemann
MitsubishiAlpha Headline
MobilcomNeue Helvetica ExtendedLinotype
Müller (Drogerie)MuellerSchriftGill Sans
Münchner RückUniversLinotypeAdrian Frutiger
N-TVInfo OfficeFontFontErik Spiekermann, Ole Schäfer Laufbänder
NissanNissan StandardURW++
NiveaNivea Sans
NokiaNokia SansErik Spiekermann
NokiaNokia SerifErik Spiekermann
OBIObi SansElsner+Flake
OpelOpel SansFutura
PAGE (Magazin)GST PoloTypeManufacturGeorg Salden
Paul Hartmann AGFrutiger NextLinotypeAdrian Frutiger
PeugeotGill SansMonotypeEric Gill
PioneerMetaFontFontErik Spiekermann
Plus (Supermarkt)The SansLucasFontsLucas de Groot
PorscheNews GothicLinotypeMorris Fuller Benton
PorscheFranklin GothicLinotypeMorris Fuller Benton
Postbank AGFrutigerLinotypeAdrian Frutiger
Premiere WorldPremiere GothicFranklin Gothic
PumaPuma PaceDalton Magg
Quelle (Versandhaus)Quelle InterstateInterstate (1993, Tobias Frere-Jones)
RBBInterstate (1993, Tobias Frere-Jones)Font BureauTobias Frere-Jones
RTL aktuellBank GothicBitstreamMorris Fuller Benton
RWERWE Corporate
RamaRama Typo
RavensburgerThe SansLucasFontsLucas de Groot
RocheMinionAgfaRobert Slimbach
RocheMinionAgfaRobert Slimbach
SPDThe SansLucasFontsLucas de Groot
SaabGill SansMonotypeEric Gill
Sat.1SAT1DigitalSansDigital Sans
Schwäbisch Hall AGCharlotte SansThe Sans
ShellFutura LT BoldElsner+FlakePaul Renner
SiemensSiemens SerifURW++
SiemensSiemens SansURW++
SiemensSiemens SlabURW++
SmartSmart CourierCourier
Sparda BankClarendonLinotypeH. Eidenbenz Headlines
Sparda BankITC Officina SansAgfaErik Spiekermann Fliesstext
SparkasseSparkasse LightDalton Magg
SparkasseSparkasse RegularDalton Magg
Stuttgarter ZeitungDTL Argo
Stuttgarter ZeitungGulliver
Süddeutsche ZeitungExcelsiorLinotypeChauncery H. Griffith Text
Süddeutsche ZeitungHelveticaLinotypeMax MiedingerHeadlines
TU DresdenDIN BoldFontFont
TU DresdenUnivers 45LinotypeAdrian Frutiger
TUITuiDalton Magg
Tagesspiegel (Berlin)Franklin GothicLinotypeMorris Fuller Benton
Tagesspiegel (Berlin)PoynterFont BureauFliesstext
Tagesspiegel (Berlin)CalifornianFont BureauFrederic W. Goudy, David Berlow Headlines
TalklineNeue HelveticaLinotypeText
TalklineRockwellMonotypeF. H. Pierpoint Headlines
Taz (Berlin)Taz IIILucasFontsLucas de Groot
Taz (Berlin)LF TazLucasFontsLucas de Groot
Taz (Berlin)The AntiquaELucasFontsLucas de Groot
Taz (Berlin)TazTextLucasFontsLucas de Groot
TchiboInterstate (1993, Tobias Frere-Jones)Font BureauTobias Frere-Jones
TengelmannSyntaxLinotypeHans Eduard Meier
UBSFrutiger 45LinotypeAdrian Frutiger
UBSUBS Headline
VWVW Headline
VattenfallInterstateFont BureauTobias Frere-Jones
VeluxFuturaElsner+FlakePaul Renner
VobisInterstate (1993, Tobias Frere-Jones)Font BureauTobias Frere-Jones
VodafoneVodafone Font FamilyDalton MaggInterFace
VolvoVolvo Broard
WDRMinionAgfaRobert Slimbach
WDRMetaFontFontErik Spiekermann
Wilo AGWilo PlusFF Plus
Xbox 360Convection
XeroxWalbaumLinotypeJ. E. Walbaum
Yello StromYello DINFF DIN
ZDFHandel GothicURW++Logo
ZDFSwiss 721Helvetica
ZF FriedrichshafenZF SerifURW++
ZF FriedrichshafenZF SansURW++
Zeche ZollvereinChevin
comdirectDaxFontFontHans Reichel
dm DrogeriemarktDM CochinCochin
dm DrogeriemarktDM The SansThe Sans
e·onGST PoloTypeManufacturGeorg Salden
kabel einsDIN 1451FontFont
mdr (Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk)can you (read me?)
tegut...tegut-SansOfficina Sans

Credit for some images below: Danielle West. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Hausschrift-Liste Unternehmen-zu-Schrift

Ralf Hermann's list of house fonts used by German companies. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Heike Häser

[More]  ⦿

Helmar Fischer

[More]  ⦿

[Gary Hustwit]

A documentary film about Helvetica and the influence of type in our lives, by Gary Hustwit, released in 2007. From the web site: Helvetica is a feature-length independent film about typography, graphic design and global visual culture. It looks at the proliferation of one typeface (which will celebrate its 50th birthday in 2007) as part of a larger conversation about the way type affects our lives. The film is an exploration of urban spaces in major cities and the type that inhabits them, and a fluid discussion with renowned designers about the choices and aesthetics behind their use of type. Helvetica encompasses the worlds of design, advertising, psychology, and communication, and invites us to take a second look at the thousands of words we see every day. The film was shot in high-definition on location in the United States, England, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, France and Belgium. [...] Interviewees in Helvetica include some of the most illustrious and innovative names in the design world, including Erik Spiekermann, Matthew Carter, Massimo Vignelli, Wim Crouwel, Hermann Zapf, Stefan Sagmeister, Michael Bierut, Jonathan Hoefler, Tobias Frere-Jones, Experimental Jetset, Michael C. Place, Norm, APFEL, Pierre Miedinger, Bruno Steinert, Otmar Hoefer, Rick Poynor, Lars Müller, and many more. Screened in Montreal on May 5, 2007, at Concordia University, the reaction was unanimously positive. The editing, pace, music and visual content are just perfect. The humour of Hustwit shines through when he pits the rationalists (pro-Helvetica people) against the emotionalists (the grunge crowd). The interviews with Massimo Vignelli (very funny), Wim Crouwel, Erik Spiekermann (about Helvetica: "bad taste is everywhewre"), Paula Scher (she said that Helvetica was used by the war corporations in Vietnam and is the cause of the Iraq war) and Michael Bierut are very entertaining. Maybe on purpose, maybe not, Hustwit used the Germans as a comical counterweight. FontShop link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Helvetica quotes

Taken from the flyer for Helvetica---Homage to a Typeface, edited by Lars Müller:

  • Helvetica is the jeans, and Univers the dinner jacket. Helvetica is here to stay. (Adrian Frutiger)
  • In a way, The Beatles are the Helvetica of pop; just like Helvetica is The Beatles of typefaces. (Experimental Jetset)
  • If you have no intuitive sense of design, then call yourself an "information architect" and only use Helvetica. (David Carson)
  • Anyone who uses Helvetica knows nothing about typefaces. (Wolfgang Weingart)
  • I discovered that I never really used Helvetica but I like to look at it. I like the VW beetle, too, although I've never driven one. (Stefan Sagmeister)
  • I have never designed a logotype without first trying it in Helvetica. It is still the most versatile, classic and readable of all typefaces. (Steff Geissbuhler)
  • Any good typeface can be completely destroyed when misused or extensively overused. Helvetica seemed to sustain a beating like no other. Still fresh, still popular Helvetica is king. (Alexander Gelman)
  • There was once a typeface that had the reputation of being more legible and functional than all the others. It was used everywhere and for everything, from signs to logos. Then one day readers couldn't stand seeing it anymore and decided to stop reading it - despite its superior legibilty. Bit by bit designers forgot about it and it was only used by lay people. Then it was rediscovered for a while and in fashion again. Even books were published about it. (Ruedi Baur)
  • Helvetica is the typeface for a deserted island. (Friedrich Friedl)
  • We hate to like Helvetica. (Hamish Muir)
  • I remember a time at Yale when my work was being critiqued by Paul Rand. Mr. Rand told me only to use Helvetica as a display typeface never in text, then he squinted, leaned in, and whispered in my ear, "because Helvetica looks like dogshit in text". (Kyle Cooper)

Credit: Poster by Charlotte Bagnara. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Helvetica: The name

About the genesis of the name Helvetica, Max Miedinger's famous typeface from 1957. According to Bruno Steinert, Stempel's marketing director had the idea to change the name, because Neue Haas Grotesk didn't sound like very good for a typeface that was intended to be sold in the United States. Alfred Hoffmann, the son of Eduard Hoffmann who influenced and advised Miedinger, explained: Stempel suggested the name of Helvetia, this is very important. Helvetia is the Latin name of Switzerland. My father said, that's impossible, you cannot call a typeface after a name of a country. So, he said, why don't we call it Helve-ti-ca. So, in other words, this would be "the Swiss typeface". And they agreed. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Helvetica, the Voice of Opposition
[Steven McCarthy]

Discussion and critique on Helvetica offered by Steven McCarthy (University of Minnesota). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Herb Lubalin
[Lubalin Graph]

[More]  ⦿

Herron School of Art

Unbelievably nice web pages for a typography course atught by John Chastain at the Herron School of Art. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Info on Panose, Infinifont, FontSmart, and the Book of Characters. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Historical alternatives to the Latin alphabet

Essay by Nicholas Fabian. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Hobo sign language

Symbols used by hobos for communication. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Hollow Truetype Fonts

Jacques Paris lists and discusses hollow truetype fonts. Some downloads: AgencyGothic, CaesarOpen, Bio-disc, FanatikaOne, FanatikaTwo, GoudyOldStyleBT-Roman, CAITLYN, Nonstop, PointedOut, Ruffian-Outline, RainyDays, SqueezeMeBaby, ArialicHollow, BurnOut, Callistroke, Flashbackversion3, Flyman, ImpressedMetal, JediHollowNormal, JediSolidNormal, lemans, YoldAnglican, AlfredoHeavyHollow, Babylon5-Hollow, Bullpen3D, Bullpen, Bullpen-Italic, Gubbrra.AgencyGothic, Bio-disc, FanatikaOne, FanatikaTwo, GoudyOldStyleBT-Roman, CAITLYN, Nonstop, PointedOut, Ruffian-Outline, RainyDays, SqueezeMeBaby, Stitch-&Bitch, ArialicHollow, BurnOut, Callistroke, Flashbackversion3, ImpressedMetal, JediHollowNormal, JediSolidNormal, lemans, YoldAnglican, AlfredoHeavyHollow, Babylon5-Hollow, Bullpen3D, Bullpen, Bullpen-Italic, Gubbrra. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Homage Script and Homage Condensed

In 2016, Garagefonts published a pair of nostalgic 1980s-theme typefaces without identifying the designer, other than International TypeFounders and Phil's Fonts. Homage Script (2016) is inspired by James Hellmuth's 1980 cover lettering for Phil's Photo Homage to the Alphabet, and Homage Condensed (2016) is a digital revival of LSC Condensed by Tom Carnese and Herb Lubalin. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Hot Metal Homepage

List of typecasters (in the United States). [Google] [More]  ⦿

HotFont Directory

French typography links. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Enrique Longinotti]

Argentinian site managed by Longinotti's group at FADU, University of Buenos Aires, est. 2009. This project is dedicated to extreme fonts---many creations are truly spectacular. It is thus a huge source of font ideas. The list below has the names and creators of the 208 fonts made by FADU-UBA graduates between 2008 and 2010, in three consecutive classes, with direct links to their university pages, where one can find images. Because of the overload, I will only comment on a few of the typefaces elsewhere on my Argentinian page. In alphabetical order of typeface name: ⦿ 1810 Golpista: by Lucas Morsellino ⦿ 72 Degrees: by Alvaro Vaquero ⦿ Alfonsina: by Rocio Cueto ⦿ Aliro: by Carla S. Bozzola ⦿ Anette's Font: by Paula Bustos ⦿ Angélica: by Facundo Quiroga ⦿ Antigona: by Analía Aspauzo Baez ⦿ Aracno: by Denise Furman ⦿ Arnol: by Verónica Bertazzo ⦿ Babel: by Florencia Pereira Da Luz ⦿ Backigham Palace: by Luciana Paiva ⦿ Bakery: by Agustina Re ⦿ Balawi: by Ma. José Galanda ⦿ Balu: by Bratin Esteban ⦿ Bariloche: by Yanina Walter ⦿ Bella Donna: by Ma. Laura Verazzi ⦿ Belta: by Aixa Aztarbe ⦿ Bemola: by Ma. Angeles Scarimbolo ⦿ Bendland: by Debora Palti ⦿ Benicius: by Diego Martinez Bela ⦿ Bernini Gian: by Martín Dalesandro ⦿ Bikini: by Marcela Casabona ⦿ Black Queen: by Matías J. Fernández G. ⦿ Blackheart Inertia: by Sebastián Barraud ⦿ Blackwidow: by Cinthia Alonso ⦿ Blindado: by Ma. Cecilia Montaño ⦿ Blue Velvet: by Jésica Sanson ⦿ Bogus: by Emiliano Suárez ⦿ Boldalic: by Gutierrez ⦿ Bolticad: by Hernán Rodríguez ⦿ Botero: by Sebastián Garbrecht ⦿ Brott: by Andrea Broitman ⦿ Buffóntica: by Lucía Ladreche ⦿ Calvina: by Laura Dattoli ⦿ Caroline Type: by Luciana Manazzoni ⦿ Carta: by Carolina Monacci ⦿ Caspianfont: by Ana Zimmermann ⦿ Celeni: by Lucía Ramallo Sarlo ⦿ Cenefa: by Natalia Vetta ⦿ Ceñida: by Agustín Morano ⦿ Clonum: by Alejandra Arregger ⦿ Cloverflieds: by Mariana Mac Loughlin ⦿ Colofón: by Maximiliano Sproviero ⦿ Column Roman: by Ayelén Starzak ⦿ Cupcake: by Andrea Landoni ⦿ Dam: by Luz Aicardi ⦿ Damajuana: by Rocio Ruiz ⦿ Dammar: by Yony Fernando Huaman ⦿ Decorte: by Juan Manuel Riva ⦿ Dei Verbum: by María Teresa Beccar ⦿ Delhi: by Francine De Tullio ⦿ Denan: by Hernán Silles Roth ⦿ Dergollum: by Carol Pinto ⦿ Desencadenada: by Francisco Valdez ⦿ DHNN Wilson: by Lucas Davison ⦿ Dighot: by Diana Sanchez ⦿ Dilatatie: by María Brex ⦿ Diplodocus: by Martiniano Garcia Cornejo ⦿ Dixie Light: by Eugenia Mello ⦿ Don Felix: by Natalie Galindo ⦿ Donatello: by Fernando García Laucona ⦿ Drop Seriff: by Alberto Federico ⦿ Efilona: by Leonardo Píccolo ⦿ Eightys's font: by Ana Valeria Canelo ⦿ Ema Zunz: by Lucía Szych ⦿ Epistemologia: by Jacques Franz Toriglia ⦿ Erahood: by Pamela Aurora ⦿ Etile: by Santiago Adur ⦿ Expressive: by Julieta Valiente ⦿ Faegon: by Pablo Menéndez ⦿ Famkul Italic: by Florencia Diaz ⦿ Fatty: by Justina Leston ⦿ FedDartype: by Sebastián Fucks ⦿ Fegs: by Celeste Peney ⦿ Figaro: by Carolina Wasiljew ⦿ Fiji: by Andrés Rosenberg ⦿ Filografía: by Cecilia Billoch ⦿ Filoseidología Ponzettiana: by Alejandro San Pedro ⦿ Finola: by Ivana Pazos Boullón ⦿ Fits Neo Gotik: by Ludmila Lara ⦿ Foster: by Augusto Menestrina ⦿ Fractus: by Federico Zrycki ⦿ Frakfurt: by Emanuel Gerber ⦿ Fran: by Iris Santana ⦿ Frappé: by Magdalena Sifredi ⦿ Furh Modern: by Carolina Pernet ⦿ Giambattista Illuminame: by Verónica Grandjean ⦿ Girak: by Sebastian Sanchez ⦿ Gloomy: by Alicia Lee ⦿ Gluttony: by Jimena Zazas ⦿ Good Folks: by Ruth Miller ⦿ Goodfortune: by Giuliana Grippo ⦿ Guilvant Font: by Florencia Mendez ⦿ Gurkaf: by Wozniak ⦿ Haarp: by Micaela Diaz ⦿ Headache Gothic: by Daniela Rascovsky ⦿ Heavyink: by Esteban Estomba ⦿ Holga: by Paola Mathieu ⦿ Homesick: by Georgina Di Francesco ⦿ Humekoy: by Brenda Diaz ⦿ Ignea: by Ma. Lucia Tissino ⦿ Incriptus: by Joaquín Lavori ⦿ Iota Font: by Ana Paula Santander ⦿ Irontail Gothic: by Brian Aldave ⦿ Isolda: by Stefania Orsini ⦿ Italgraph: by Johanna Sosa ⦿ Jocelyn: by Fabián Mariño ⦿ Jockimo: by Astrid Bauckhage ⦿ Joker: by Sofía Arhancet ⦿ Juana: by María Juana Sibolich ⦿ Junior: by Milagros Barros Tomé ⦿ Kilo: by Leandro Di Pascuale ⦿ Kilogramica: by Ma. Soledad Garcia Rodriguez ⦿ Kimborni: by Mauricio Dias ⦿ Kowgui: by Laura Di Candia ⦿ Kramer: by Mercedes Moltedo ⦿ Kraut: by Marcelo Granero ⦿ Kyss: by Carolina Norzagaray ⦿ Lady Elizabeth Grant: by Sabrina Lopez ⦿ Lang Font: by Fernanda Cinzano ⦿ Lashing Candy: by Sabrina De Mestre ⦿ Last Nk: by Anabela Willie ⦿ Latter Serif: by Marcia Garibaldi ⦿ Leguin: by Marcela Fernandez ⦿ Look Font: by Clara Severo ⦿ Lucha Unicase: by Lucia Guisado ⦿ Lucky Type: by Paula V. Hernandez ⦿ Madox: by Nadia De la Cruz ⦿ Manuale: by Juan Eduardo Nápoli ⦿ Marea: by Andrea López ⦿ Marinera: by Facundo Rodríguez ⦿ Marteaux: by Martín Canal ⦿ Mavera: by Fernando Escobares ⦿ May Gothic: by Aylen Marzo ⦿ Mecánica: by Ángeles Gonzalez ⦿ Melba: by Daniela Scarone ⦿ Mifont: by Bianca Trezza ⦿ Milk Shake: by Camilo González Lowy ⦿ Minoris: by Gabriela Calvo ⦿ Monia: by Lucas Di Prisco ⦿ Nai: by Ignacio Sottano ⦿ Nemesya: by Danila Gallardo ⦿ Neo Scriptum: by Renata Caballin ⦿ Newpress: by Julieta Pisani ⦿ Norton Gothic: by Juan Rodríguez Cuberes ⦿ Noville: by Cecilia Álvaro ⦿ NüĽ Font: by Nadia Menotti ⦿ O Merinda: by Ana Cordani ⦿ Oblong: by Gabriela Palmieri ⦿ Odysea: by Lisandro Mansilla ⦿ Old Glyph: by Gerardo Sanchez ⦿ Old Magazine: by Ulises Faggiani ⦿ Olden Zebra: by Noelia Romero Mendoza ⦿ Olivia: by Diana Mora ⦿ Onirik: by Agustina Borsani ⦿ Oriental Condensed: by Leonardo Barilari ⦿ Orondas: by María Carolina Espinosa ⦿ Patova: by Anabella Mazzuca ⦿ Peperina: by Cristina Alvarez ⦿ Picolina: by Lucia López ⦿ Pochoclo: by Daniela Shinzato ⦿ Poster Bondi: by Juan LLorens ⦿ Qhanqa: by Juan Martinez ⦿ Queen: by Claudio Guzmán ⦿ Read Praz Std: by Emiliano Agnetti ⦿ Recrearte Italic: by Fabbro ⦿ Requiem: by Daniel Fernandez ⦿ Robertha: by Dominique Raed ⦿ Rypher: by Flavio Martínez ⦿ Sabayon: by Cecilia Kimsa ⦿ Saint Firulet: by Florencia Baldini ⦿ Salmuera: by Fernanda Moench ⦿ Schrag Pech: by Carolina Melul ⦿ Schynus Regular: by Ma. Belén Toledo ⦿ Serenity: by Carla Llinas ⦿ Sergo: by Ma. Florencia Garcia ⦿ Siesta: by Luciana Sanchez Guerrero ⦿ SirFont: by Florencia Marascio ⦿ Sixfingers: by Matias Seisdedos ⦿ Sleepy: by Marcelo Di Carlo ⦿ Slender: by Silvana Lopéz Devito ⦿ Sofia: by Esteban Simone ⦿ Staralfur: by Natalia Lee ⦿ Tagua: by Lucía Estévez ⦿ Taipu: by Alejandro Alarcón ⦿ Tangerine: by Carolina Grosso ⦿ Techi: by Ricardo Kim ⦿ Templetype: by Guillermina Astorga ⦿ Tomato Soup: by Ma. Florencia Iglesias ⦿ Tomp Regular: by Tomas Rafael Palazzo ⦿ Tormes: by Adrián Cattalini ⦿ Trovattore: by Paula Do Souto ⦿ Unique: by Hernán Fraga ⦿ Urbano: by Florencia Cambera ⦿ Vade Retro: by Evelyn Von Eckenbrecher ⦿ Vennezia: by Karina Haasz ⦿ Verjilius Augusteus: by Andrés Apud ⦿ Vesper: by Alejandra Montalbetti ⦿ Vicario: by Carolina Carballo ⦿ Vikinga: by Martín Kazaniets ⦿ Vittandaj: by Elizabet Correa ⦿ Wayne Bruce: by Juan Francisco Adriani ⦿ Wedding: by Marisol Lucero ⦿ Wide Drops: by Laura Espeso ⦿ Wynox: by Herrera Broner Lucila ⦿ Xixo Xixo: by Adolfo Gregorio Acosta ⦿ Zephora: by Florencia Basile ⦿ Zerdai: by Rodrigo Oturakdjian. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ian Obermuller

[More]  ⦿

Ikea: The flap

In 2009, Ikea, which had been using Ikea Sans and Ikea Serif, switched to Verdana for its signs. Freely distributed by Microsoft, the typeface allows Ikea to use the same font in all countries and with many alphabets. An Ikea spokesperson adds: It's more efficient and cost-effective. Plus, it's a simple, modern-looking typeface. But the verdict by typographers is unanimous---this is a bad choice. One person even started a wiki page called Verdanagate. Excerpts from their reactions:

  • Carolyn Fraser (a letterpress printer in Melbourne, Australia): Verdana was designed for the limitations of the Web - it's dumbed down and overused. It's a bit like using Lego to build a skyscraper, when steel is clearly a superior choice.
  • Simon l'Anson (creative director at Made by Many, London): It has open, wide letterforms with lots of space between characters to aid legibility at small sizes on screen. It doesn't exhibit any elegance or visual rhythm when set at large sizes. It's like taking the family sedan off-road. It will sort of work, but ultimately gets bogged down.
  • Lise Abend (Time Magazine): The main complaint that online protesters have, though, is that the newly adopted font is plain ugly. Especially when it's enlarged to, say, the size of a catalogue headline. Or worse yet, a billboard.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Ilene Strizver

From Westport, CT, Ilene Strizver is the founder of The Type Studio. She consults on type, designs type and writes about typography and visual communication. She co-designer ITC Vintage (1996) with Holly Goldsmith. She was the Director of Typeface Development for International Typeface Corporation (ITC) where she developed more than 300 text and display typefaces with type designers such as Sumner Stone, Erik Spiekermann, Jill Bell, Jim Parkinson, Tim Donaldson, and Phill Grimshaw. Her essay on spacing and kerning. Essay on rags (ragged lines), orphans (short last lines) and widows. She published "Type Rules! The designer's guide to professional typography". [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Illustrator 8 font list

List of Illustrator 8 fonts, provided by Thomas Phinney. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Image, Object, Text

The Master's thesis of Frances Sendbuehler written in 1995 at the Université de Montréal, Département d'études anglaises. There are some interesting typographical comments. [Google] [More]  ⦿


"IMPRINT (The Newsletter of Digital Typography) is a free newsletter devoted to digital typography and typesetting." Edited by Robert A. Kiesling. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Index of typography at Wikipedia

[More]  ⦿

Installing PostScript Fonts on Windows

Font installation guide at Castletype. [Google] [More]  ⦿

International Font Technology Association (IFTA)

On 20 February 2003, 23 people gathered in Heidelberg and decided to create the International Font Technology Association (IFTA) [see also here]. Its goals: (1) To develop and publish standards, industry recommendations, and developer resources. (2) To facilitate cooperation and information exchange between font, tool and software developers. (3) To provide a point of contact between the type business and related standards organisations, e.g., Unicode, World Wide Web consortium. <.....> My comments: It is great to try and come to an agreement on a decent font format. I hope that IFTA has visionary thinkers on its team, not limited by short-term industrial interests or driven by market considerations. There are a few minor bugs right from the start, like the membership fee [not again!] and the mention of "an intellectual property policy" [I fail to see the relationship with font formats]. The board should consist, in equal representation, of software experts, industrial typographers, individual type designers, type users, publishers, brainy visionaries, and type historians. It seems to be initially biased towards type technocrats, but that can all change. In any case, good luck to this worthwhile initiative! [Google] [More]  ⦿

International Standards Organisation

Swiss organization which in the type world is best known for its simple monoline rounded typeface Isonorm proposed in 1980. The font is appropriate for drafting and architectural purposes, as well as for technical charts and graphics. This typeface was digitally implemented by many, including:

  • Isonorm D by URW.
  • Isonorm by Linotype.
  • Isonorm MN by Mecanorma.
  • Isonorm EF (Elsner & Flake).
  • Isonorm SB (2004, by Scangraphic).
  • FF Isonorm by Robert Kirchner (1992-1993). In four weights and with a monospaced option.
  • Isotope (2012) by Fabio Duarte Martins (Scannerlicker). This is the largest collection. While all others have one or at most two weights, Scannerlicker offers 18 weights.
  • Iso Metrix NF (2012) by Nick Curtis.
  • Instant Schrift (2000) by Edgar Walthert. This is a redesign of Isonorm 3098 matching the radical restrictions of the Instant design-manual.
  • Isonorm by Infinitype.
  • PF Isotext Pro (2005, Panos Vassiliou, Parachute). A Latin / Greek family based on Isonorm.
View some digital fonts based on Isonorm. [Google] [More]  ⦿


A punctuation mark to convey surprise and exclamation and wonder at the same time (as in ?!), which was introduced by Martin K. Speckter in 1962 in an article written for TYPEtalks Magazine. Quoting Jim Richardson: "American Type Founders issued a metal typeface in 1966 called Americana which included the INTERROBANG. Remington Rand included the key as an option on its 1968 typewriters, commenting that the INTERROBANG "expresses Modern Life's Incredibility." In 1996, a New York art studio designed variations of the mark for each of the fonts in its computer library." The Interrobang can be found in Wingdings2, for example. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Interrobang Letterpress
[Michael Babcock]

Michael Babcock's hot metal type collection. He made Bradley Combo Ornaments (2001) by digitizing samples from the Nov. '74 Kingsley/ATF "Fonted Ornaments and Typographic Accessories" sheet. Free. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Intertype Laurel

A modern typeface published by Intertype (France) in 1960. The serifs are bracketed though. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Introduction to typography

In Japanese, but well done! [Google] [More]  ⦿


Berry, Johnson and Jaspert write: [Mergenthaler Linotype 1926; Linotype (London); Monotype] Ionic was originally another name for Egyptian and seems to have been first used by Stephenson Blake in a specimen around 1830. It has been revived as a suitable newspaper type. With its strong serifs it has been found to be legible in small sizes. It has short ascenders and descenders and greater differentiation of colour than in the parent Egyptian. It has some features resembling the modern face, such as the spur on the G, the tails of Q and R, the large eye of the e and the ear of the g. The italic in the lower case is very like the modern face. Linotype Ionic was introduced in 1926 in the New York Herald Tribune, and Intertype later cut their version of Ideal for the New York Times. There is also The Monotype Corporation's version of Ionic. [Google] [More]  ⦿

iOS Fonts

A listing of the fonts on the iPhone and iPad: A, B, CD, FG, H, KLMNOP, STUV, Z. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Irene Korol Scala

Irene Scala is a fellow typophile and graduate of The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, where she had the opportunity to study with educators such as Paul Rand, Lou Dorfsman, and Milton Glaser. After earning a B.F.A. from the Cooper Union, she went on to postgraduate study at The Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem. She now lives in New York City, where she is associated with Designing with Type: Designingwithtype.com is a web site devoted to the art and appreciation of typography. It offers a unique typographic resource for students, educators, and professionals, showcasing talent from around the world. Originally created by James Craig as a supplement to his popular textbook Designing with Type specifically for his Cooper Union students, it has grown to include contributions presented by fellow educators and designers to embrace a wider audience.

In 2006, James Craig and Irene Korol Scala published the blockbuster book Designing with Type, 5th Edition: The Essential Guide to Typography (published by Watson-Guptill).

Designer of a wonderful logotype entitled Cognac One (2012). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Isabella Ribeiro Aragao

For her PhD at UFPE (in Recvife, Brazil) and USP (in Sao Paulo, under Priscila Farias), Isabella Ribeiro Aragao researched Funtimod (Fundição de Tipos Modernos, est. 1932), the largest and first industrial scale type manufacturer in Brazil with national reach. Considered an important Brazilian type foundry, it used to import matrices from European countries, especially Germany, to fabricate the modern types. Examples of their typefaces include Memphis Meio Preto (1960s), which is similar to Rudolf Wolf's iconic slab serif typeface, Memphis. At ATypI 2015 in Sao Paulo, Isabella Ribeiro Aragao and Priscila Farias reported on their research into Funtimod. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Itchy Robot
[Graham Hicks]

Graham Hicks's type pages, and type commentary. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Data base of Latin American designers and their fonts, maintained by people at FADU at the University of Buenos Airies (UBA). [Google] [More]  ⦿

J. Victor Gaultney

Type designer (b. Minneapolis, MN, 1962) at SIL International, UK since 1991, and an ex-M.A. student in type design at the University of Reading. He has worked on non-Latin typefaces, as well as his own extended Latin design, Gentium (2002). [Download from places such as OFL and FreeBSD]. Gentium Plus supports a wide range of Latin, Greek and Cyrillic characters. It was developed between 2003 and 2014 by J. Victor Gaultney (main designer), Annie Olsen, Iska Routamaa, an Becca Hirsbrunner.

Papers by him include Multitudinous Alphabets: The design of extended Latin typefaces (2001), The influence of pen-based letterforms on Devanagari typefaces (2001), Balancing Typeface Legibility and Economy, Gentium---A Typeface for The Nations, Problems of Diacritic Design, and "Problems of diacritic design for Latin script text typefaces" (2002). The last one is a must-read.

Projects in which he is the main or only designer include SIL Dai Banna Fonts, SIL Tai Dam Fonts, SIL Greek Font System, SIL IPA Fonts, and SIL Encore Fonts. At ATypI 2004 in Prague, he spoke about the technical problems with East European type. In 2008, he published Gentium Basic and Gentium Book Basic, each in four weights, but essentially limited to Latin, and added them to the Google Font Directory link.

At ATypI 2010 in Dublin, he spoke about sculptural letterer Arnold Flaten (1900-1976). Speaker at ATypI 2011 in Reykjavik. Speaker at ATypI 2013 in Amsterdam: Open and collaborative font design in a web fonts world. Speaker at ATypI 2017 Montreal.

Kernest link. Klingspor link. Google Plus link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Jackie Geerlings

Friend of Trinidad's John Bomparte, after whom he designed Jacky Sue BF (2008). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Jacob Øvergaard

[More]  ⦿

James Craig
[Designing with Type]

[More]  ⦿

James G. Poulos

Author of Bad Words: The Case Against Decadent Fonts (2005), a well-written but controversial piece about the silly (and dangerous) use of theme fonts. Read the condescending reaction of typophiles here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Jamie Clarke
[Type Worship]

[More]  ⦿

Japan Typography Association

JTA (Japan Typography Association) page. They have a Japanese type mag called Typographics T. Old URL. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Jared Benson
[Typographic Collaboration (or: Typophile.com)]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Jay Miller
[Type Crime: Rated R]

[More]  ⦿

Jean-François Porchez
[Le Monde]

[More]  ⦿

Jef Tombeur

Typographic aficionado who contributes links to the St. Bride Printing Library in London. This page has links to the main type sites on the web.

I can't resist this wonderful short autobiography of Jef, and I do not want to translate it, because it would lose its punch: Jef Tombeur, ex-vagabond professionnel&auto-stoppeur en Europe, au Moyen-Orient et en Amérique du Nord depuis l'âge de 15 ans, s'est rapidement tourné vers le journalisme par désoeuvrement. Vendre à la criée The International Times et The Black Dwarf à Londres, puis Le Monde à Strasbourg, l'y incita. Laissant tomber facs et école de journalisme, il contribua à rédiger, composer, gérer l'hebdomadaire franco-alsacien Uss'm Follik (Issu du Peuple), ce que facilitèrent ses origines bretonnes. Repéré ensuite à Belfort, Niort, Reims, devenant progressivement grand reporter et de moins en moins pigiste pour Libération et d'autres. Chef de desk à l'Agence Centrale de Presse, il en diffusa la dernière dépêche puis retourna à la rue et aux facultés. Ayant traduit divers auteurs anglophones au passage, tel Tom Coraghessan Boyle (cf. www.tcboyle.net), il s'est de nouveau passionné pour la typographie, en devenant le seul journaliste spécialisé français (notamment pour Création Numérique ou Pixelcreation.fr). Envisage de devenir chômeur en fins de droits et propagandiste plénipotentiaire pour Phil Martin en Afrique avant d'avoir atteint, prochainement, si possible, 55 ans. Localisé fréquemment chez Ali (bar La Gitane, près de Strasbourg-Saint-Denis, Paris) ces temps derniers.

Author in 2004 of Femmes&métiers du Livre, Women in the Printing Trades, which appeared with Talus in Belgium. It describes women typographers and printers throughout history. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Jeff Carlson on screen typography

Jeff Carlson's great page on screen typography. German translation. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Jemma Gura

[More]  ⦿

Jens Kutilek

Jens Kutilek studied Communication Design in Braunschweig. After graduating he founded the web design agency Netzallee. He works at the font technology department at the Berlin office of FSI (FontShop International) since 2007. Jens Kutilek had a small typology page proving that Arial is not Helvetica, Courier is not Courier New, and Times-Roman is not Times-New Roman. That page disappeared. His typefaces:

  • Azuro (2011). Designed by Georg Seifert and fine-tuned by Jens Kutilek, and published by FontShop.
  • Bulette Bold (2008). A fat octagonal / mechanical design.
  • The free font Comic Jens (2007-2009), a free alternative to Comic Sans: see here. See also the update Comic Jens UI (2014).
  • Conta: A coding font. Monospaced and proportional variants, italics.
  • The sturdy 6-style typeface family FF Hertz (2015) that was influenced by German cartographic alphabets.
  • FF Uberhand. An 11 style marker pen font family---casual and informal---that could serve as a replacement and improvement of Comic Sans.
  • Grotesk 812: A condensed grotesque typeface.
  • Helvers (2011). A blend of Univers and Helvetica.
  • Homecomputer (2019). Two-axis variable interpretations of monospaced pixel fonts for the Commodore 64 and Amiga home computer systems from the 1980s, with adjustable effects to simulate artifacts of old CRT displays. Github link for the open source fonts. Particular fonts include Workbench and Sixtyfour.
  • Malerblock: A signpainter's typeface.
  • Mergenthaler Antiqua (2012). A digitization of a forgotten typeface by Hermann Zapf.
  • Pathos: A monumental sans-serif with classical proportions.
  • Selectric Century: A digitization of the Century typeface from IBM's Selectric Composer.
  • Soccer Sans: A constructivist sans with extra low legibility. Ideal for soccer kits.
  • Stecker: A typeface made of round elements.
  • Sudo (2009-2013). A programming font family developed from Experimental 710.
  • Topography: A version of the classic German cartography typeface.

Github page with many of his unfnished typefaces. Github page with free programming and system fonts such as Arimo, Clear, Cousine, Droid, Fira, Material Icons, Noto, Open, Roboto, Source, Special Elite, Tinos, and WinJS Symbols. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Jeremiah Shoaf

[More]  ⦿

Jim Crow

During the 1850's, the Dickenson Type Foundry in Boston stole a typeface from a foundry in France, redesigned the M and modified the N, and named it Gothic Shade. American Type Founders (ATF), a business trust created by the merger of 23 type foundries (including the Dickenson Type Foundry) was established in 1892. With the merging of these foundries, came the merging of their catalogs. And with that came Jim Crow, the American Type Founders' 1933 and 1949 re-casting of the Dickinson Type Foundry's type of the 1850s, Gothic Shade. It has also been called Tombstone. Additional sizes were cut by Los Angeles Type Foundry.

Digitizations include VTC Ruby by Tre Seals (2019). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Jim Godfrey
[Typographic Sins]

[More]  ⦿

Jim Parkinson on his grotesques

Jim Parkinson (Parkinson Type Design) explains the gradual development of his grotesque typefaces, from the custom headline font Newsweek No. 9 to Banner, Antique Condensed (Font Bureau), ITC Roswell and finally, Balboa and Balboa Plus. In his own words:

Balboa took its sweet time evolving. In 1985, Roger Black was at Newsweek magazine in New York. He was going to do a total redesign of the magazine, Roger had me redesign the logo, and help him fashion a headline font for the magazine. Roger wanted the font to be based on Stephenson Blake's Grotesque No. 9. But he wanted it heavier, way heavier. There was one crazy afternoon during the development of that font when Roger and I were at drawing tables in my tiny Art Room. My office has always been called The Art Room, and it was always the extra bedroom in whatever house I was living in. I was at one drawing table furiously drawing bolder letters, and, as fast as I could draw them, Roger, at the other drawing table, was rubber cementing the comp letters into dummy headlines. Each time he finished a headline, he would look over at me and bark, Bolder. BOLDER. I can still hear him today, Bolder. BOLDER. Eventually we found the right weight and made Newsweek No. 9. I drew it in pen and ink. It was digitized by some company in New Jersey. That was my introduction to the Grotesque letterforms.

About a dozen years later, I found myself working at the San Francisco Chronicle, trying to make digital fonts for the paper. The Executive Editor was a crusty old dude. He had fond memories of the 1950s when San Francisco had a half dozen dailies, all competing to attract readers. Back then, the old editor had had dozens of rack cards printed to scream for attention from atop newspaper racks in the city. The cards were butt-ugly, badly typeset, free of any trace of design, and unintentionally comical.

Still, the old fellow had deep affection for his rack cards and saved them as souvenirs. When he became aware there was a guy in the building designing digital type, he decided the strange wood type from the rack cards would be the Chronicle's first digital font.

The type on the rack cards was old woodtype. The letter weights were so uneven that I am sure characters from other fonts had been mixed in. I turned to an old ATF typeface called Condensed Title Gothic No. 11 to use as my model. I called the result Banner. It was a bomb proof headline gothic. No frills.

By the early 1990s I was working my favorite parts of the Grotesque into other typefaces. I like the endings of the round strokes and I worked them into Antique Condensed No. 2. The thing that I found distracting about the Grotesques was the flat-tire shape of the round characters. Droopy. Finally I combined the character shapes of Banner with the Grotesque details I used in Antique Condensed to make ITC Roswell. And ITC Roswell begat Balboa. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Joan Marti Mas
[TypePhases (was: vigital tipografia)]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Joe Clark
[Joe Clark: Type in the Toronto subway]

[More]  ⦿

Joe Clark: Type in the Toronto subway
[Joe Clark]

Joe Clark tells us about the typeface used in the Toronto subway: The Toronto subway has a typeface all its own. You can compare it to a few other fonts, but no other typeface is exactly the same. And, for 50 years, pretty much the only place you found it was on permanent, virtually indestructible wall signage. The typeface, in its original form, is a geometric sansserif in upper case only, with ten numerals, ampersand, period, and apostrophe, and an arrow (though a few other arrows are found on period signage). The typeface is often misidentified at Gill Sans, a typeface that will later become important in TTC typographic history. Even highly expert designers have misidentified the typeface as Gill. Vaguely comparable typefaces are Verlag, Bernhard Gothic, Metro, Neutraface, and Eagle. [...] By all accounts, no one alive today knows who designed the Toronto subway typeface. The original drawings (TTC 1960) do not credit an artist. (Since the drawings are dated 1960.12.12, they were drawn after the first installation of letters on a subway wall. That makes the absence of credit even more surprising; it may mean the designer had already been forgotten six years after the subway opened.) The subway typeface does not have a name, although the TTC claims (2007a) it is known internally as the Station font. That name has not taken root with transit fans outside the TTC. No stable name for the typeface in common use apart from "the TTC font." [Google] [More]  ⦿

Joel Friedlander
[The story of Bembo]

[More]  ⦿

Joel Galeran
[Joel Galeran]

A curated list of font software, by Joel Galeran. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Joel Galeran
[Joel Galeran]

[More]  ⦿

Johann David Steingruber

Steingruber (1702-1787) was the son of a master mason from a place called Wassertrüdingen an der Wörnitz, near the town of Dinkelsbühl. After an apprenticeship in which he worked on constructing palaces at Mannheim and Rastatt, he came to work at the Brandenburg court at Ansbach in the service of the margrave Friedrich Carl Alexander. He was soon appointed court and public surveyor, and was later made principal architect of the board of works. Besides completing many building projects, Steingruber expounded on his architectural theory in his books Architecture Civile (ca. 1748) and Practica Bürgerlicher Baukunst (Practical Course in Civil Architecture, 1763). He is the creator of the Architectonisches Alphabeth, so called because each capital is in fact a floorplan of a building. [Google] [More]  ⦿

John D. Berry

A collection at CreativePro.Com of John Berry's articles on typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

John D. Berry
[The Faces of Microsoft]

[More]  ⦿

John Downer
[Call it what it is]

[More]  ⦿

John Magnik
[Typefaces---a free tutorial]

[More]  ⦿

John Walters lauds Erik Spiekermann

John Walters (Eye Magazine) wrote this about Spiekermann in February 2011.

When I went to Berlin a couple of years ago, in preparation for Eye 74, our Berlin special, I kept running into Erik Spiekermann. Not literally, though I did later spend a pleasant evening in the company of Erik and his wife Susanna. But I quickly realised that I couldn't avoid encountering Erik and his legacy. For a start, nearly every person I met had some connection to him: either they had collaborated with him, or worked for him, or they'd been taught or otherwise encouraged by Erik early in their career. And even people who didn't know him very well, or who had never met him, seemed to have an opinion about him. They knew him as a designer, as a typographer, as a type evangelist and as a writer---chiefly on the subject of typography, but with opinions about every other subject: politics, society, culture, art, music and so on. Also, quite apart from all the people I met, there were traces of Erik everywhere I went, on the subway, in the signs and the many different civic and commercial public projects that bore the stamp of one of his design practices, or that used one of his typefaces.

So that is why we called the Eye 74 piece "Six degrees of Erik Spiekermann". We devoted a gatefold information graphic to all the connections that he had made throughout his career, spanning the years since 1979, when the company that would become Meta was founded, to the present-day activities of Edenspiekermann. Like Kevin Bacon, Erik seemed to connect anyone who was anyone in graphic design, visual communication, branding and typography. Yet if our world were Hollywood, Erik would perhaps be more like Steven Spielberg than an actor like Bacon.

Erik is both a generalist and a specialist. The first time I ran into him, at an international typography conference, he asked me how I could stand to be surrounded by so many nerds? He knows how designers and typographers think, in the most minute detail, because that is the way he thinks, too. Yet he is managed to lift his head above the cubicle that all too often restricts the graphic design world, and look dispassionately at commerce and government and charities, taking the time to understand how they think, too. I have daily reason to be grateful for Erik's advice, since his ideas about the Rundbuero, expressed in Unit Editions' book Studio Culture, helped me make some changes in the way I organise my own office.

William Owen described Erik (in Eye 18) as a "consummate pluralist", while also taking on Erik's own definition of himself as a "typographic designer", who designs "from the word up", a phrase later used for a slim volume on Meta's work. William also noted that Erik "valued work of a kind he could never or would never want to do." But that is not surprising. It is almost the definition of a anyone with a rounded interest in culture and the world at large: you don't have to sing opera to value Nixon in China, nor do you have to paint in oils to appreciate art.

I think it is Erik's ability to work and show curiosity at both micro and macro levels (and all points between) that makes him a good writer, as well as a good designer. His writing is clear and to the point, whether in a column for Blueprint magazine or in an email containing directions to his house. Even if he had done little else, the book he wrote with E. M. Ginger, Stop Stealing Sheep & Find Out How Type Works (2nd Edition), would be an international calling card of huge proportions, since it's one of the few genuinely informative, entertaining and readable books about type written in the past few decades.

When I first watched the DVD of Gary Hustwit's Helvetica, whose extras section includes an extended interview with Erik, I was amused to hear him say how much he liked being an "unknown designer". Today's ceremony seems an odd place to talk about Erik's lack of recognition. Yet he was making an important point about the role of design---graphic design, type design and typography in particular---in civic life. As Erik explains in that documentary, neatly diverting the director from too many questions about a typeface he doesn't much care for, a nation's culture, the stuff that surrounds us, is made of good architecture and building, good food and cafes and supposedly nerdy things like the small type in timetables for public transport, or the signs in stations, or the little details that make your iPhone work intuitively.

Erik gets a kick out of being the unknown author behind some of this stuff, even when the money is terrible, and he has to fight the system---the conventional way of doing something---to make things just a little bit better. Few people might notice, or remark out loud that the timetable has acquired more legible, readable type, or better navigation, but as Erik would say, "That is the point." Many designers get a kick out of making things better, or finding a solution, or being part of the team that did that, whether their name is on the finished product or not. So I think we could regard this prize as one that Erik can share, just a little bit, with all the unknown designers out there, who play their part in making our lives better, our small print more legible.

Around the time I became editor of Eye, we published an updated version of Ken Garland's "First Things First", calling on designers to examine their priorities. The new manifesto included these sentences: "Unprecedented environmental, social and cultural crises demand our attention. Many cultural interventions, social marketing campaigns, books, magazines, exhibitions, educational tools, television programmes, films, charitable causes and other information design projects urgently require our expertise and help." Erik was one of 33 designers who put their names to "First Things First 2000", and that statement sounds just as relevant today---throw mobile devices and social media into the mix and it still holds good.

I agreed to come here on the strict understanding that the Designpreis would not signify or herald any slowing down on Erik's part. He still works at a furious pace. He even has a proofing press in his house, where he’s cooking up plans to combine digital and analogue, making plates with a laser cutter. And in addition to all the usual client work, he is publishing a series of booklets of writings that he likes, and more little red books of his own work---the thoughts of Chairman Erik.

These thoughts are worth sharing. Erik is concerned about nerdy details, yet he loves to construct the big picture. He is a great advocate of design's role in civilised society, all the boring, behind-the-scenes stuff, but he is also quick to spot what is new and cool, and to champion and mentor young talent---the new Edenspiekermann scholarship is a significant addition to this aspect of Erik's life and work. For all these reasons, Erik is a worthy recipient of whatever awards get thrown his way---and they won't go to his head. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Johnny Be Goode

Robin Hood on alt.binaries.fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Jon Tangerine
[Typeface is not a Font]

[More]  ⦿

Jonathan Hoefler

Jonathan Hoefler's splendid courses on typography, Type Styles 101, and Intro to Typeface Design 110. [Google] [More]  ⦿

José María Gosálbez Ruete
[Manya Disseny]

[More]  ⦿

José Ramón Penela

[More]  ⦿

Josh Farmer
[Opinionated Type]

[More]  ⦿

Josh Nimoy
[RibbonType: Josh Nimoy]

[More]  ⦿

Joshua Langman
[Orbis Typographicus]

[More]  ⦿

Juan Carlos Grafico
[Juan Carlos Pacheco]

Spanish design/typography site. Juan Carlos Pacheco made the experimental font Polilla (a cross between Flexure and Goudy) in 1997/1998. Spanish type scene. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Juan Carlos Pacheco
[Juan Carlos Grafico]

[More]  ⦿

Juan Pablo De Gregorio Concha

[More]  ⦿


This site has over 500 million PDF files on all topics. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Justin Penner
[Beginners guides to type design: Justin Penner]

[More]  ⦿

Justin Penner
[Type Design Resources: Justin Penner]

[More]  ⦿

Kai F. Oetzbach
[Typo Knowledge Base (tkb)]

[More]  ⦿

Kalle Wangstedt

Swedish language article by Wangstedt on digital type. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Karl-Erik Tallmo

[More]  ⦿

Kazui Press

Exquisite font specimen pages at the Kazui Press in Japan. They sell wood types. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Keith Houston
[Shady Characters The secret life of punctuation]

[More]  ⦿

Ken Shirriff: Java Applets: PCFFont

Ken Shirriff explains how to use PCF (bitmap) fonts in java applets. Example source code available. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Kerning and letterspacing research. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Kerning: A survey
[Sebastian Kosch]

Sebastian Kosch surveys existing kerning methods in 2019 as part of his research for his own Google-supported method called YinYangFit. A verbatim excerpt:

  • Fixed-distance methods: A family of approaches that insert pre-defined distances between letter pairs. In their simplest incarnation, these heuristics are equivalent to simply adding sidebearings to every letter, without any kerns. Kernagic, inspired by Frank Blokland's research, uses heuristics to identify stems or stem-equivalents (such as the round sides of an o) in every letter shape, and then aligns them. This works reasonably well with very regular type (think blackletter), but manual adjustments are usually required. Less well known is Barry Schwartz's anchor point implementation of what amounts to basically the same idea. Adrian Frutiger, Walter Tracy and Miguel Sousa have devised similar systems, described in Fernando Mello's MATD thesis. The legendary Hz-Program is also included in this category, as its patent application reveals that letter pair distances were simply stored in a hardcoded table.
  • Gap area quadrature: A family of algorithms that attempt to quantify and equalize the perceived area of the inter-letter gap. The crux, of course, lies in deciding where the gap ends. HT Letterspacer, the crudest one of these tools, considers everything between baseline and x-height (modulo some minor refinements). Simon Cozens's CounterSpace uses blurs and convex hulls to more effectively exclude regions that arguably don't belong to the gap (such as the counter of c). My own Electric Bubble model measures Euclidean instead of horizontal distances, but imposes geometric constraints that produce similar results to CounterSpace. CounterSpace currently wins in terms of performance-complexity ratio but it, too, struggles to fit certain letter pairs.

  • Other shape-based methods: These include more exotic approaches, such as stonecarver David Kindersley's wedge method from the 1960s, which operated on letter area moments of inertia (and didn't really work), and iKern, which produces great results but, just like Adobe's Optical Kerning feature, remains unpublished. Last but not least, the TypeFacet Autokern tool identifies parts of letter outlines that jut out horizontally, and adds kerning to compensate, based on a few parameters.
  • Neural nets: Yes, we can train convolutional nets to recognize images of well-fitted and poorly-fitted type. Simon Cozens has built several versions of his kerncritic model (formerly AtoKern), and the recent ones perform surprisingly well on many (if not all) pairs. While neural nets are fascinating, they tend to be black boxes: we can only make guesses at how they work, and we cannot tune their behaviour to suit our taste. This problem holds not just for convolutional nets, but for statistical function approximators in general.
  • Honorable mention: Bubble Kerning is a proposal that type designers draw a bubble around every letter, such that software can automatically find pair distances by simply abutting the bubbles. While this isn't technically a letterfitting heuristic at all, it’s still worth mentioning as a neat idea that could perhaps save designers some time. Toshi Omagari has built a Glyphs plugin.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Kerning (Adobe)

Adobe's notes on kerning. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Kevin Woodward
[All Good Things Typography]

[More]  ⦿

Kilian Valkhof
[Fuck yeah kerning]

[More]  ⦿

Kindersley's kerning--spacing method

I cite Joerg Knappen: Kindersley's "optical kerning": for the purposes of kerning, each character is replaced by a circle placed at the center of gravity of that character; the radius of the circle is determined by the fourth moment of the character (that is, the fourth root of the sum over all black pixels of the fourth power of their distance from the centre). On the UKTUG trip to Kindersley's studio, I tried to extract the reason why the fourth, as opposed to third or fifth or whatever, moment is used; the reason is apparently that it "looks right". [Google] [More]  ⦿

Knuth's Digital Typography page

Mirror in UK. [Google] [More]  ⦿


The story of Korinna, a slightly art nouveau typeface designed by Berthold in 1904. Korinna and Korinna Bold were cut by Intertype in 1934. In 1974, Ed Benguiat and Victor Caruso created ITC Korinna, and made the design more popular. Ed writes: The goal was to keep the style and personality of the original German typeface, but make it more applicable to current tastes. The ITC Korinna font family doesn't fade into the background, and I like that. There was no italic design in the original, so I sat down for a month or two and just drew it and then decided to call it Korinna Kursiv rather than italic. I thought it sounded better!

Digital versions:

[Google] [More]  ⦿

Korni's typo cave

Jochen Kornitzky's links to foundries and font-related pages. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Kosal Sen

[More]  ⦿

Kristall Grotesk

A typeface cut by Wagner & Schmidt, Leipzig, in 1936-1937 meant for headlines. This Bauhaus-influenced design was owned by Stiftung Werkstattmuseum für Druckkunst, Leipzig. For a digital revival, one could use Kristall H MfD Pro (2019, Elsner & Flake). Kristall Now Pro (2019, Elsner & Flake) is a text family that revives Kristall Grotesk Buchschrift by Johannes Wagner GmbH, 1937. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Kurt Brereton

Aussie essay about typography. "Kurt Brereton teaches at the University of Technology Sydney, and writes on type and design. " [Google] [More]  ⦿

La typographie selon invalid.net

General intro to typography in French. Full of neat pictures and useful information. [Google] [More]  ⦿

La Unión de los Tipógrafos
[Felipe Cáceres]

Chilean typographical and type design society. The site has announcements and discussions. It was founded by the Peruvian typographer Victorino Laínez in 1853 in Santiago. Presently, the motors behind this society are Felipe Cáceres and Conrado Muñoz. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Lange on Helvetica

Quote by Günter Gerhard Lange in baseline on Helvetica: "If you look at it psychologically what you get is a picture of a pygmy script! It's like a human being with a large upper body and short arms and legs, in brief a Swiss Appenzeller mountain dog! As a typeface this "Appenzeller" stinks to high heaven because young people today are 1.9 meters tall, 2 meters with VAT, and it will be difficult to find a lad who prances around the area like a country bumpkin. Good heavens, they've probably forgotten him! He's standing still." [Google] [More]  ⦿

Lars Kähler
[Global Type]

[More]  ⦿

Laserprinter fonts

Historical email discussions of the choice of fonts shipped with laserprinters today. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Michael Everson]

The Last Resort font is a collection of glyphs to represent types of Unicode characters. These glyphs are designed to allow users to recognize that an encoded value is one of the following: a specific type of Unicode character; in the Private Use Area (no private agreement exists); unassigned (reserved for future assignment); one of the illegal character codes. Apple's LastResort font was first included in Mac OS 8.5 in 1998, for the benefit of applications using Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging (ATSUI). It is also used in Mac OS X. In 2001, for the second release of OS X, the Last Resort font design was revised to include the border text and was re-digitized, and extended in 2002 by Michael Everson of Evertype, who continues to update it with each new release of Unicode. Apple has now made the Last Resort font available for free download from the Unicode website. Wiki entry. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Latin Antique

McGrew writes: Latin is a general name for a number of typefaces which originated in the 1880s or earlier. Most of them were made by various foundries, sometimes under other names. Some had little or no apparent design relationship to each other. ATF's Latin Antique No. 520 was Marder, Luse's Latin Antique No. 12O. Other founders had it simply as Latin Antique, though BB&S originally called it Latin No.5. It is a wide, medium-weight typeface with very small, rounded serifs, and lacks the curlicues of Latin Modern or Modern Antique. Latin Bold Condensed is now the most common name of the most prominent survivor of this group, but most recent fonts were imported from England, although ATF had at least two sets of matrices in its vaults for many years. ATF formerly made the typeface as Modern Antique No.2, originating at Cincinnati Type Foundry. BB&S in its later years called the same typeface Latin Modern, but earlier had also called it Latin Antique. Inland simply called it Latin series. From whatever source, it is a bold, compact display face, characterized by heavy, triangular serifs. The strokes of several lowercase letters terminate in pointed curlicues. In the 1950s or 1960s, fonts imported from Stephenson Blake achieved some popularity; this is the source of the specimen shown here. Latin Condensed, Extra Condensed, Elongated, and Compressed are much narrower versions of this design, though a little lighter and with fewer curlicues. The New York Times has used a version of Latin Condensed for news heads for many years. In its 1898 book, ATF applied the name "Baskerville" to Latin Condensed! Light Modern has curlicues and long triangular serifs but is much lighter, while Latin Expanded (formerly called Guard) is the same but wider. ATF called the latter design Lightface Celtic No. 40, shown in 1886 by Marder, Luse, while Keystone had a similar Keystone Expanded, and Linotype had Celtic No.1. The BB&S Latin Lightface is a much lighter version of Latin Antique; it was formerly called Light Latin. Latin Oldstyle Bold has the least relationship to other Latin typefaces. It was formerly known as Modern Title, and before that Monarch, shown in 1893 or earlier; ATF called the same typeface Eastman Oldstyle. Also see Emperor. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Laurence Penney

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Laurens Leurs

[More]  ⦿

Laurie McCanna

Freelance computer illustrator in Pacifica, CA. Author of "Creating Great Web Graphics". Some free art. Designed a few typefaces of her own, mostly licensed to NIMX Foundry: Scat, Scat Dingbats, Jitterbat (1994), Jitterbug (1994), Holiday Mix, and Faces. Other typefaces include Spud Dude, Beebop (2009, a sixties party font), and NIMX Nature Mix (NIMX, 1995).

Dafont link. FontShop link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Layering type with CSS z-index

A MyFonts webfonts feature article. The summary: Layering text adds depth and visual interest to headlines, mastheads and other large display type on your site. There are plenty of fonts that are specifically designed for this technique. Font families designed for this technique will typically have two or more versions of the font, such as a shadow, fill, outline or a texture. It is especially important that the fonts all have the same metric values, because making manual tweaks to spacing and kerning is hard enough in DTP applications; in CSS, it is virtually impossible. The typefaces below all work right out of the box. The basic principle of this technique is that it takes two identical lines of text, applies a different version of the font to each (such as an outline and a fill version) and then layers one above the other. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Le Monde
[Jean-François Porchez]

Character set for the typeface used by Le Monde and designed by Jean-François Porchez in less than three months. It was used by Le Monde from 1994 until 2005. In 2002, the headlines were replaced by a typeface designed by Lucas De Groot (but Porchez did not like that) and in 2005, finally, the text typeface was replaced by Carter's Fenway, done earlier for Sports Illustrated. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Les Maîtres d'Art

French web site with information on high quality printing, and lead type. [Google] [More]  ⦿

L'espace culturel

List of French typographers and some of their fonts. Beautiful and useful, well worth a visit. Internet archive version. [Google] [More]  ⦿

L'esperluette (Adobe)

An essay (in French) on the ampersand. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Leszek Bielski

Lesek Bielski (b. 1960) specializes in the design of visual identification systems, posters, graphic signs and graphics. In 2017, he participated in the Bona project, which set out to revive and extend Andrzej Heidrich's old typeface Bona. Mateusz Machalski contacted him for advice on the revival project. The resulting typeface families were published by and are available from Capitalics. The centerpiece is the warm and wonderful text typeface Bona Nova. It is supplemented by the extreme contrast typeface family Bona Title and the inline typeface family Bona Sforza. Participants in the project also include Leszek Bielski, Ania Wielunska and Michal Jarocinski. Google Fonts link for Bona Nova. Github link for Bona Nova. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Font news in English, Spanish and Galego. Lots of updates! Goodies on type classification, font search, a type glossary, font identification, type articles, and related information. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Juan Pablo De Gregorio Concha]

Juan Pablo De Gregorio Concha is the Chilean designer (b. 1978) of the hip Bodoni typeface Isbel la Romana (2002). Alternate URL. Creator of Chúcara (2003), a typeface developed as part of his thesis for the School of Design of the Catholic University of Chile. His blog, Letritas, has many interesting technical type discussions. His other blog is Garabatitos. I especially like his article on the logical decomposition of letter forms. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Letter Combinations

In the late 19th century, Central Type Foundry from St. Louis, MO, published Letter Combinations in one of its catalogs. It has a number of basic geometric shapes that typesetters could combine into modular typefaces, a time-consuming process. But it is not unlike the digital modular software programs like FontStruct that let users work with a palette of basic shapes. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Letter Spirit
[Gary McGraw]

A project in cognitive sciences at the University of Indiana, headed by Gary McGraw, John Rehling and Douglas Hofstadter, and active from about 1992 until 1994. A lot of it is captured in McGraw's PhD thesis.

They state: "The specific focus of Letter Spirit is the creative act of artistic letter-design. The aim is to model how the 26 lowercase letters of the roman alphabet can be rendered in many different but internally coherent styles. The program addresses two important aspects of letterforms: the categorical sameness possessed by letters belonging to a given category (e.g., `a') and the stylistic sameness possessed by letters belonging to a given style (e.g., Helvetica). Starting with one or more seed letters representing the beginnings of a style, the program will attempt to create the rest of the alphabet in such a way that all 26 letters share that same style, or spirit." Fonts created in this manner include Standard square, Double Backslash, Hint Four, Zigzag, Snout, Bowtie, Weird Arrow, Sabretooth, Sluice and Flournoy Ranch. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Sander Neijnens]

A discussion on the typography of numbers on shirts, by Dutchman Sander Neijnens, a Tilburg-based Dutch graphic designer (b. Valkenswaard, 1957) who drew a character in the September 11 charity font done for FontAid II. Specializing in numbers on athletic shirts, and displeased with the sameness of the letters in classical typefaces like ITC Machine or Superstars, he proposes serifed numbers, which were used by the soccer team Willem II from Tilburg in 2002-2003. A new athletic number design, King III, is in the works. He created Hia (a stencil typeface for use on doors and fences), Streep (horizontally striped letters for fences), and Klinker (based on street tile patterns).

Codesigner of the free font Tilburg Sans (2016) and Tilburg Sans Text (2017). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Letterform Archive
[Rob Saunders]

A great source of typographic images collected since 1980 by Rob Saunders, who is based in San Francisco. A visual treasure trove, well-documented. Rob Saunders has been collecting letterforms for over 35 years, while pursuing a career as a designer, teacher, children's book publisher, and marketing consultant. His collection contains many books and ephemera of historical and inspirational interest to type designers. He founded Letterform Archive in 2013 to share his collection with the design community. Frequent speaker at TypeCon meetings. Speaker at ATypI 2015 in Sao Paulo. [Google] [More]  ⦿


German/English site in which Frank Blokland gives us a lecture on letter shapes. [Google] [More]  ⦿

License Plates of the World

Pictures of license plates. Handy for determining typefaces. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ligature Schmigature

Wonderful anti-ligature essay on ligatures by Daniel Will-Harris. A strong case, and a must read for new typographers. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Linotype designers

Linotype designers, with portraits and fonts highlighted. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Liquid Type Space

Thomas Muller. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Lisanne's Font Library

Font talk and links. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Literata is a typeface designed in 2014 and 2015 by Type Together for use in Google Play Books on many different kinds of devices. As of 2015, it replaces Droid Serif (2006-2007, Steve Matteson). The project was headed by Veronika Burian and José Scaglione. The final Literata family featured two weights and matching italics including more than 1100 characters per font with Pan-European language support. It coversedPolytonic Greek (designed by Irene Vlachou, advised by Gerry Leonidas) and Cyrillic (designed by Vera Evstafieva, advised by Kiril Zlatkov).

In 2020, Literata 3, entirely free and a totally new re-design, was released. This 48-style family comes with a variable style. The designers in 2020 were Veronika Burian (Latin), José Scaglione (Latin), Vera Evstafieva (Cyrillic), Elena Novoselova (Cyrillic) and Irene Vlachou (Greek).

Github link. [Google] [More]  ⦿


General desktop publisher links page by Robert Gagnon. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Lloyd Springer
[TypeArt Foundry (or: Digiteyes Multimedia TypeArt Foundry)]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

London 2012 font

The hookish London 2012 logo font is almost unanimously booed by the typophiles. A typical comment: A terrible font. Reminds me of antedeluvian Viking runes. I quote a section from Simon Garfield's book Just My Type (2010, Gotham Books):

The London 2012 Olympic Typeface, which is called 2012 Headline, may be even worse than the London 2012 Olympic Logo, but by the time it was released people were so tired of being outraged by the logo that the type almost passed by unnoticed. The Logo was the subject of immediate parody (some detected Lisa Simpson having sex, others a swastika), and even the subject of a health warning--an animated pulsing version was said to have brought on epileptic fits. In the International Herald Tribune, Alice Rawsthorn observed that "it looks increasingly like the graphic equivalent of what we Brits scathingly call--'dad dancing'--namely a middle-aged man who tries so hard to be cool on the dance floor that he fails."

Like the logo, the uncool font is based on jaggedness and crudeness, not usually considered attributes where sport is concerned. Or maybe it's an attempt to appear hip and down with the kids--it looks a little like the sort of tagging one might see in 1980s graffiti. It also has a vaguely Greek appearance, or at least the UK interpretation of Greek, the sort of lettering you will find at London kebab shops and restaurants called Dionysus. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Long S Code
[Nick Shinn]

Nick Shinn's long S code for Opentype. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Lorenz Schirmer
[Zen or The Art of Hinting]

[More]  ⦿

Lothar Südkamp
[Type Hype]

[More]  ⦿

Lubalin Graph
[Herb Lubalin]

From the ITC site: ITC Lubalin Graph is based on the ITC Avant Garde Gothic typeface. The design of ITC Lubalin Graph stemmed from a need for a flexible Egyptian alphabet that was suitable for the phototypesetting technology of the 1970s. The original roman typefaces were designed by Herb Lubalin and drawn by Antonio DiSpigna and Joe Sundwall. The oblique versions were designed by Herb Lubalin and drawn by Ed Benguiat. The condensed versions were developed in 1992 by Helga Jörgensen and Sigrid Engelman.

There are versions of this idiosyncratic slab serif typeface by ITC and Adobe. In 2013, Svetoslav Simov created a lookalike extension of Lubalin Graph called Nexa Slab. In the same style, we also find Kettering 105 (2012) and Kettering 205 by Adrian Talbot. For alternates, see APT Lubalin Graph Alternates (1997, Alan Jay Prescott).

Posters of Lubalin Graph include a set by Benjamin Schmidt (Columbus, OH) in 2014. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Lucida Grande

Lucida Grande is a humanist sans-serif typeface. It is a member of the Lucida family of typefaces designed by Charles Bigelow and Kris Holmes. It has been used throughout Mac OS X user interface from 1999 to 2014, as well as in Safari for Windows up to the browser's version 3.2.3 released in 2009. As of OS X 10.10 Yosemite, the Apple system font was changed from Lucida Grande to Helvetica Neue. In OS X El Capitan the system font changed again, to San Francisco.

The typeface looks very similar to Lucida Sans and Lucida Sans Unicode. Like Sans Unicode, Grande supports the most commonly used characters defined in version 2.0 of the Unicode standard. Three weights of Lucida Grande (Normal, Bold, and Black) in three styles (Roman, Italic, and Oblique) were developed by Bigelow & Holmes. Apple released the Regular (Normal Roman) and Bold Roman with OS X. Bigelow & Holmes realeased Narrow and Monospaced versions as well.

Apart from Mac OS X, many web sites and blogs (such as Facebook) use Lucida Grande as the default typeface for body text.

Font store for all Lucida fonts. Lucida Grande at MyFonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Lust auf Typographie?

Michael Nicklas explains typography. In German. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Lygia Clark

Lygia Pimentel Lins (b. Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 1920, d. Rio de Janeiro, 1988), aka Lygia Clark, was a Brazilian artist and painter. She was often associated with the Brazilian constructivist movements of the mid-20th century and the Tropicalia movement. She started the Frente movement in 1954. Along with Brazilian artists Amilcar de Castro, Franz Weissmann, Lygia Pape and poet Ferreira Gullar, Clark co-founded the Neo-Concrete movement---The Neo-Concretists were interested in how art could be used to express complex human realities. From 1960 on, Clark introduced ways for viewers to interact with her (often abstract) art works.

She had an influence on some type designs. A partial list:

  • In 2019, Flavia Zimbardi released Lygia at Future Fonts and writes: Lygia explores the duality of sharp and round forms with stylish cues and historical references from 16th-century masterpieces by Robert Granjon to the geometric approach of W.A. Dwiggins. An homage to Brazilian neo-concrete artist Lygia Clark, originally designed in 2017 as Flavia Zimbardi's degree project for the Type@Cooper extended program in New York. Lygia is a variable font with a weight axis. Future Fonts link.
  • Renan Carlos Medeiros (Natal, Brazil) designed the experimental futuristic decorative typeface Lygia Clark (2013).
  • Clarks (2021) is a modular typeface based on the work of Lygia Clark. It was designed by Pintassilgo (Erica Jung and Ricardo Marcin).
[Google] [More]  ⦿

M. Whitney
[Typography for Mobile Devices]

[More]  ⦿

Mac Baumwell

He once said Each letter should have a flirtation with the one next to it. The story told by his son Clyde (Chromatype, Charlotte, NC) in 2010: It was a quote developed during the time of using the typositor for phototypesetting headlines. Herb Lubalin, Aaron Burns and ITC were clients of ours who often required the careful and considered placement of one letter next to the other. We had to take into account the positive and negative space between letters. This was being done in a red light safe darkroom, exposing each letter one at a time and watching it develop under a "glass" which held liquid photo developer. Being a flirtatious man, my father came up with that quote during that period which was around 1985-1986. A couple of years later he became a consultant for a few companies including Adobe in their earliest years. That quote can be found in one of Adobe's first specimen books "Adobe Type Guide, Volume 1". [Google] [More]  ⦿

Macintosh Type Resources

Mac font jump page. Useful subpages with links. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Make Reasy

Make Ready is a journal featuring news and observations on letterpress, book arts, typography, design, and other delectables - slightly caramelized, with a healthy dollop of ephemera. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Making web sites: fonts and typography

Scott Granneman's links to useful sites for web typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Manfred Baierl
[Gamb Design]

[More]  ⦿

Manuel Bieh

[More]  ⦿

Manya Disseny
[José María Gosálbez Ruete]

Spanish site with type and graphic design news from Spain. Edited by José María Gosálbez Ruete. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Map typography

[More]  ⦿

Marca Tipografica

Italian page that explains about typographic marks that were used principally between 1457 and 1700. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Marcos Mello
[Oficina Tipográfica]

[More]  ⦿

Mariana Dominguez Cosson

During her studies at Savannah College of Art and Design in Savannah, Georgia, Mariana Dominguez Cosson designed a beautiful typographic anatomy poster (2013). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Mark Jamra
[Type Culture]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Mark MacKay
[Shape Method]

[More]  ⦿

Mark Weaver
[Mid-Century Modern Typefaces]

[More]  ⦿

Martin Pecina

[More]  ⦿


Mac McGrew: Masterman was put on Monotype in 1909, but it originated with Hansen some time before that. It is a modification of earlier typefaces known generally as Title before type names as we know them became common, and is similar to some of the typefaces in the Engravers and Litho families (q. v.). The characters have high contrast, and lowercase has fairly long ascenders. The basic character is a plain, severe roman shape. It was popular as an early advertising display face.

For a digital revival of this Hansen font first designed ca. 1872, I refer to Masterman (2017, Jordan Davies). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Masters of Modern Typography

Page of links maintained by Christopher Raymond Baker. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Mathieu Triay
[Getting Started With Type Design: A Personal Journey]

[More]  ⦿

Matt Baker
[Evolution of the Alphabet]

[More]  ⦿

Matthew Carter
[The Yale Typeface]

[More]  ⦿

Matthew Smith
[Type Foundry Directory]

[More]  ⦿

Maurizio Boscarol

Italian page. Maurizio Boscarol's introduction to typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Max Bruinsma

Dutch typographer and graphic designer. In 2000-2001, he published a piece on the erotics of type, and reviewed the book Sex Appeal: The art of allure in graphic and advertising design (Steve Heller, Allworth Press, New York, 2000). He spoke at ATypI 1998 in Lyon on Words on screens. Ed Annink and Max Bruinsma edited the book Gerd Arntz Graphic Designer (2010, Rotterdam). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Mediengestaltung Typografie

German language site with typographical tips. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Metafont, Metamathematics, and Metaphysics

Article by Douglas Hofstadter (1982). Subtitled: "Comments on Donald Knuth's article The Concept of a Meta-Font". Originally published in Visible Language, it appears with a new postscript as chapter 13 in Metamagical Themas by Douglas R. Hofstadter (Basic Books, 1985). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Metro Bits

Interesting pages about all of the world's metros: their architecture, history, art, logos and fonts. A partial list of famous metro signage fonts:

  • Amsterdam: M.O.L. (Gerard Unger, 1974)
  • Berlin: Transit (MetaDesign, 1991), based on Frutiger. By Erik Spiekermann, Lucas de Groot, Henning Krause.
  • Brussels: Brusseline (Eric de Berranger, 2006)
  • Hong Kong: Casey (1996), based on Tahoma and Frutiger. Unknown designer.
  • Lisbon: Metrolis (1995, Michael Barbosa, Freda Sack, David Quay)
  • London: Johnston (Edward Johnston, 1916)
  • Mexico City: Tipo Metro (1969, Lance Wyman)
  • Munich: Vialog (2002, Werner Schneider, Helmut Ness)
  • Newcastle: Calvert (1980, Margaret Calvert)
  • New York: tile fonts by G.C. Heins, C.G. LaFarge and S.J. Vickers, 1901
  • Newcastle: Calvert (1980, Margaret Calvert).
  • Paris: Metropolitain (1901, Hector Guimard), Alphabet Métro (1973, Frutiger, based on Univers), Parisine (Jean-François Porchez, 1996)
  • Prague: Metron (1974, Jiri Rathousky) and Helvetica
  • Rotterdam: RET (1984, Henk Van Leyden)
  • Seoul: Korail (2003), unknown designer.
  • Singapore: LTA Identity Typeface (1980s, Hubert Jocham).
  • Toronto: TTC Font (1954, based on Futura)
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Michael Babcock
[Interrobang Letterpress]

[More]  ⦿

Michael Bierut
[Michael Bierut: Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Typeface]

[More]  ⦿

Michael Bierut: Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Typeface
[Michael Bierut]

Michael Bierut on the how and why of type choices. I quote from the introduction: For the first ten years of my career, I worked for Massimo Vignelli, a designer who is legendary for using a very limited number of typefaces. Between 1980 and 1990, most of my projects were set in five fonts: Helvetica (naturally), Futura, Garamond No. 3, Century Expanded, and, of course, Bodoni. For Massimo, this was an ideological choice, an ethical imperative. In the new computer age, he once wrote, the proliferation of typefaces and type manipulations represents a new level of visual pollution threatening our culture. Out of thousands of typefaces, all we need are a few basic ones, and trash the rest. [...] My Catholic school education must have well prepared me for this kind of moral clarity. I accepted it gratefully. Then, after a decade, I left my first job. Suddenly I could use any typeface I wanted, and I went nuts. On one of my first projects, I used 37 different fonts on 16 pages. [...] Liberated from monogamy, I became typographically promiscuous. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Michael Brandt
[The Evolution of Type]

[More]  ⦿

Michael Bundscherer
[Typolis (German version)]

[More]  ⦿

Michael Everson

[More]  ⦿

Michael Levy

Pictures of some famous typographers and artists by Michael Levy. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Michael Meilan's World Leader Fonts

On McSweeny's site of lists, Meilan's list of World Leader Fonts:

  • Lincoln Sans Hat
  • Nelson Mandela Black
  • Ulysses S. Gothic
  • Boutros Boutros Wingdings
  • Thatcher Old Style
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Michael Nicklas

Type pages by Michael Nicklas (in German). It has a German glossary. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Michael Russem
[The Offices of Kat Ran Press]

[More]  ⦿

Mid-Century Modern Typefaces
[Mark Weaver]

A page on typefaces from 1900 until 1940 brought by Mark Weaver. These typefaces were used on vintage printed material such as on album covers. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Mike Yanega's Sans Serif Guide

In Mike Yanega's sans serif type identification guide, the user selects characteristics for seven letters (a, e, g, G, M, R, and y) and is shown fonts that have those characteristics. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Mike Yanega's Serif Guide

In Mike Yanega's latest type encyclopedia, the user selects characteristics for 12 key letters (a, b, e, g, y, E, J, K, M, R, U and W) and is shown fonts that have those characteristics. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Milo Dominik Ivir
[Milo Typografik]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Milo Typografik
[Milo Dominik Ivir]

Milo Dominik Ivir is a Croation graphic designer and type designer, born in Zagreb in 1968. He worked at the Institute of Print Technology and Planning in Berlin, and started Milo Typografik. Check his essay "Schrifttechnologien und Bildschirmtypografie". His typefaces: Agram (2000), Aramaica (1997), AvantHighBook (1997), Bonbon (1998), CorinnaHand (1999), Delirious (1998), GirlsAndBoys (1997), Gotharda (1997, a blackletterish headline face), Kaptol (1997), LexikaBold, Pianissimo (1998), Poster-Inline (1997), Poster-Outline (1997), Samantha (1997), StariGrad (1998), StephenHand (1997), Zagreb. His families: Factory (1997), FactoryBroken (1997), Klavir (1997), KlavirCaps (1997), Milo-Inline, Milo-Outline, Screen14 (1998), Screen14Bold (1998).

He joined Linotype in 1999 where he had already published his blackletter font Linotype Gotharda (1997). FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Miriam van der Have
[Emday Fonts]

[More]  ⦿

Mirko Velimirovic

[More]  ⦿

Mitja Miklavčič
[Three chapters in the development of Clarendon---Ionic typefaces]

[More]  ⦿

Mixing Garamonds

It is well-known that typophiles do not like ITC Garamond. They are also not fans of Adobe Garamond. But when the two get mixed in one book, they blow all their renaissance fuses. Excerpts from some posts. MB is Matthew Butterick and CL is Chris Lozos.

MB: I was examining a paperback copy of the book "The No-Asshole Rule" in the airport. I was curious how you get a whole book out of a title that seems fairly self-explanatory. The text was set in ITC Garamond, which would be bad enough on its own, but the italic used in the text was not ITC Garamond italic, but rather Adobe Garamond italic. At that point, the book lost all credibility, because despite the title, it was clear that an asshole had been allowed to handle the typography. No-Asshole Rule: flagrantly violated. [...] To combine ITC Garamond and Adobe Garamond like this requires a willful act of perversity and disharmony. It would be easier to just use ITC Garamond italic. But here, the book designer expended time and labor to produce something even uglier.

CL: You are assuming some actual thought went into that decision. My guess is that 4th edition paperbacks that end up in airports are done "by computer" meaning humans are forbidden from taking part in the process because they require an hourly rate and health insurance. My guess is that Adobe Garamond Italic came earliest on the font menu so was selected. No one cares what poor schleps who can only buy books in airports have to suffer. After all, they are about to get crammed into a tincan with bad air and poor service where they will not only contract some dreaded disease but be late for their meeting anyway. ;-) That surely is a job coveted only by assholes. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Modern Antique

Mac McGrew describes the slab serif Modern Antique: Modern Antique and Modern Antique Condensed were adapted to Monotype in 1909 from traditional typefaces dating from about 1820, commonly known simply as Antiques or Egyptians. They were forerunners of the square serifs, but closer to romans in general appearance, and were usually used for boldface emphasis with roman types, particularly modem romans. In most sizes these two Monotype typefaces are the same set width as each other, and have the same figures and points. Otherwise they differ only in the proportions of the C2 and C 1 arrangements, being good examples of adaptations to the basic Monotype unit system. (See "Practical Design Limitations" in Introduction.) Also see Bold Antique; and Latin Modern under Latin Bold Condensed.

In 2015, Jeff Levine did a revival of Modern Antique No. 26 (1909, Monotype) called Antique Slabserif JNL. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Modern Gothic

Mac McGrew: Modern Gothic originated with BB&S about 1897. It appears to be a modernization of older nineteenth-century gothics, although it has considerable resemblance to the much later European design, Helvetica Bold. It has the horizontal endings to curved strokes which typify Helvetica, but the more typically American double-bowl g. However, it is much more loosely fitted and not as refined as either Helvetica or the American Franklin Gothic, which originated in 1902. The entire series is called Gothic Modern in some specimens. Modern Condensed Gothic is probably the best member of this family. It was copied by Monotype at an early date, with 6- to 12-point sizes substantially modified to fit the unit system; however, unlike many early Monotype copies, display sizes are virtually exact copies of the foundry original. In 1928 Sol Hess drew a set of alternate capitals for this face, and the name was changed to Tourist Gothic (q. v.) in display sizes, 14-point and larger. This typeface is often called Franklin Gothic Condensed, but this is not correct as there is only a general resemblance. Medium Condensed Gothic Outline, cut by Triangle Type Foundry in Chicago, is an open version, without lowercase, of this face; some other sources inaccurately call it Franklin Gothic Condensed Outline (q.v.). The larger sizes of Gothic No. 13 (q.v.) on Linotype and Intertype are very similar. Monotype also has Tourist Gothic Italic, and an adaptation of Modern Gothic Italic under the name of Bold Inclined Gothic. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Modern Typography
[Paul Barnes]

Modern Typography is a dot com web presence organized by the London-based type designer and graphic designer, Paul Barnes (b. 1970), typophile extraordinaire. It is promised to have plenty of material for the typophile. In the 1990s, Paul Barnes worked for Roger Black in New York where he was involved in redesigns of Newsweek, US and British Esquire and Foreign Affairs. During this time he art-directed Esquire Gentleman and U&lc. He later returned to America to be art director of the music magazine Spin. Since 1995 he has lived and worked in London. He has formed a long term collaboration with Peter Saville, which has resulted in such diverse work as identities for Givenchy and numerous music based projects, such as Gay Dad, New Order, Joy Division and Electronic. Barnes has also been an advisor and consultant on numerous publications, notably The Sunday Times Magazine, The Guardian and The Observer Newspapers, GQ, Wallpaper, Harper's Bazaar and Frieze. Following the redesign of The Guardian, as part of the team headed by Mark Porter, Barnes was awarded the Black Pencil from the D&AD. They were also nominated for the Design Museum Designer of the Year. In September 2006, with Schwartz he was named one of the 40 most influential designers under 40 in Wallpaper. He cofounded Commercial Type with Christian Schwartz. Author of Swiss Typography: The typography of Karl Gerstner and Rudolf Hostettler (Modern Typography, 2000).

His typefaces:

  • The (free) font Pagan Poetry (2001), done for one of the sleeves on Björk's albums. The font was made for Show Studio (see also here and here).
  • Codesigner with Christian Schwartz in 2005 of the 200-font family Guardian Egyptian for The Guardian, about which he spoke at ATypI 2006 in Lisbon.
  • In 2007, he worked with Peter Saville on the Kate Moss brand. As a font, he suggested a variation on Brodovitch Albro, a typeface by Alexey Brodovitch, the famous art director of Harper's Bazaar from 1934-58. The Creative Review reactions to this typeface are a bit negative though.
  • In 2003, he created Austin, a high-contrast modern typeface. Now available at Schwartzco and at Commercial Type, Christian Schwartz writes: When hired to design a new headline typeface for Harper's&Queen, Britain's version of Harper's Bazaar, Paul thought to flick back through the pages of its 60's precursor, the über cool Queen. The high contrast serif headlines were lovely, but a little too expected in a contemporary fashion magazine. Some time poring through specimens in St Bride's Printing Library inspired the perfect twist: rather than taking our cues from Didot or Bodoni, we would start with [Richard] Austin's first creation, turn up the contrast, tighten the spacing and make a fresh new look that would look bold and beautiful in the constantly changing world of fashion. The end result is Richard Austin meets Tony Stan, British Modern as seen through the lens of late 1970s New York. iThe Cyrillic version was designed in 2009 and 2016 by Ilya Ruderman (CTSM Fonts).
  • Dala Floda (1997-now) is based on gravestone inscriptions, and was turned in 2010 into a logotype stencil family at Commercial Type. As a stencil family, it is praised by the typophile community. Realted is the semi-stencil typeface family Dala Moa.
  • Publico was designed from 2003-2006 with Christian Schwartz, Ross Milne and Kai Bernau. Originally called Stockholm and then Hacienda, and finally Publico for a Portuguese newspaper by that name. Publico Text Mono (Christian schwartz and Paul Barnes) was commissioned in 2012 for Bloomberg Businessweek. Greg Gadzowicz added the italics, which are optically corrected obliques, in keeping with the un-designed aesthetic, in 2014.
  • Brunel (1995-now): an English modern, this is an anthology of the late eighteenth and nineteenth century English foundries. It was drawn from original source material, most notably the Caslon foundry and the work of John Isaac Drury).
  • Marian (2012) is a type experiment based on Garamond, consisting of 19 hairline styles with names referring to dates between 1554 and 1812. Commercial Type writes: Marian is a series of faithful revivals of some of the classics from the typographic canon: Austin, Baskerville, Bodoni, Fournier, Fleischman, Garamont, Granjon, Kis and van den Keere. The twist is that they have all been rendered as a hairline of near uniform weight, revealing the basic structure at the heart of the letterforms. Together they represent a concept: to recreate the past both for and in the present. [...] Faithful to the originals, Marian comes with small capitals in all nine roman styles, with lining and non-lining figures, with swash capitals (1554, 1740, 1800&1820), alternate and terminal characters (1554&1571). And like the hidden track so beloved of the concept album, Marian is completed by a Blackletter based on the work of Henrik van den Keere.
  • His classics series, mostly influenced by old Britsh type foundries, includes Figgins Sans (original 1832), Besley Grotesque, Caslon Antique, Fann Street Clarendon, Caslon Italian, Blanchard, Thorowgood Sans, Antique No. 6, Antique No. 3, and Ornamented (original c. 1850 at Caslon, Barnes use a Steven Shanks interpretation).
  • VF Didot (2013) is a custom Didot by Paul Barnes and Christian Schwartz for Vanity Fair, as requested by its design director, Chris Dixon. Based on work of Molé Le Jeune, a punchcutter used by the Didot family in the early part of the 19th century, VFDidot has 7 optical sizes and up to 5 weights in each size, plus small caps and even a stencil style.

    Early in 2014, Christian Schwartz, Paul Barnes and Miguel Reyes joined forces to create the manly didone typeface family Caponi, which is based on the early work of Bodoni, who was at that time greatly influenced by the roccoco style of Pierre Simon Fournier. It is named after Amid Capeci, who commissioned it in 2010 for his twentieth anniversary revamp of Entertainment Weekly. Caponi comes in Display, Slab and Text subfamilies.

    In 2014, Dave Foster and Paul Barnes (Commercial Type) designed Marr Sans. They write: The influence of Scotland in typefounding belies the nation's small size. Marr Sans, a characterful grotesque design, was inspired by a typeface from the 1870s found in the work of James Marr & Co. in Edinburgh, successors to Alexander Wilson & Sons. From a few lines in three sizes, and only one weight, Paul Barnes and Dave Foster have expanded the family from Thin to Bold, plus an Ultra Black weight, a wider companion to the six lighter weights. While Graphik and Atlas represent the greater homogenity of twentieth century sans serifs, Marr, like Druk, revels in the individuality of the nineteenth century, and is like an eccentric British uncle to Morris Fuller Benton's Franklin and News Gothics.

  • Le Jeune (2016, Greg Gazdowicz, Christian Schwartz and Paul Barnes): a crisp high-contrast fashion mag didone typeface family in Poster, Deck, Text and Hairline sub-styles, with stencils drawn by Gazdowicz. This large typeface family comes in four optical sizes, and was originally developed for Chris Dixon's refresh of Vanity Fair.
  • Marian Text (2014-2016) is a grand collection of ultra thin typefaces designed at Commercial Type by Miguel Reyes, Sandra Carrera, and Paul Barnes. Marian Text 1554 depicts the old style of Garamond & Granjon; John Baskerville's transitional form becomes Marian Text 1757; the modern of Bodoni, with swash capitals and all, becomes Marian Text 1800, and the early Moderns of the Scottish foundries of Alexander Wilson & Son of Glasgow, and William Miller of Edinburgh, become Marian Text 1812. And like the original, a black letter: Marian Text Black, referencing the forms of Hendrik van den Keere.
  • Gabriello (2015) is a soccer shirt font designed by Paul Barnes and Miguel Reyes: Inspired by brush lettering, Gabriello was commissioned by Puma. First used by their sponsored teams at the 2010 Africa Cup of Nations, it was later used at that year's World Cup, held in South Africa. It was used on the kits worn by Algeria, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, and Ghana.
  • Sanomat (2013-2017). This custom typeface by Paul Barnes was originally commissioned by Sami Valtere in 2013 for his acclaimed redesign of Helsinging Sanomat in Finland. Sanomat is now available for retail via Commercial Type in two subfamilies, Sanomat (serif) and Sanomat Sans.
  • Chiswick (2017), a series of three typefaces families based on vernacular forms found in the British Isles from the eighteenth century.
  • Darby Sans, Darby Sans Poster, Darby Serif, done together with Dan Milne, and published in 2014 and 2019 at Commercial Type, respectively.
  • The Commercial Classics series from 2019:
    • Brunel (Paul Barnes): Elegant and hardworking, Brunel is the Anglo variant of the high contrast Modern style. Based on designs that were cut first for Elizabeth Caslon at the end of the eighteenth century, we have expanded them to encompass a range of weights and sizes: from a roman to an emphatic black and from a text to a hairline for the largest sizes.
    • Caslon Doric (Paul Barnes): The sans was the natural progression of nineteenth-century innovations. From the pioneering faces of Caslon and Figgins in the second and third decades, they quickly became a phenomenon across Europe and the United States, but it was only in the second half of the century that the British foundries would embrace lowercase forms and make faces that could be used in multiple sizes. Caslon Doric is the synthesis of these styles, from narrow to wide and from thin to heavy.
    • Caslon Italian (Paul Barnes, Tim Ripper, Christian Schwartz): Perhaps the strangest and ultimate example of experimentation in letterforms during the early nineteenth century was the Italian. Introduced by Caslon in 1821, it reverses the fat face stress---thins becomes thicks and thicks become thins---turning typographic norms on their heads. This new version extends the forms into new territory: a lowercase, an italic, and another one of the more unusual ideas of the time, the reverse italic or Contra.
    • Isambard (Paul Barnes and Miguel Reyes): The boldest moderns were given the name fat face and they pushed the serif letterform to its extremes. With exaggerated features of high contrast and inflated ball terminals, the fat face was the most radical example of putting as much ink on a page to make the greatest impact at the time. These over-the-top forms make the style not only emphatic, but also joyful with bulbous swash capitals and a wonderfully characterful italic.
    • Caslon Antique (Paul Barnes and Tim Ripper): The slab serif or Egyptian form is one of the best letters for adding a drop shadow to. Its robust nature and heaviness support the additional weight of a prominent shading. First appearing in the 1820s, the style was pioneered and almost exclusively shown by the Caslon foundry, who introduced a wide range of sizes and, eventually, a lowercase.
    • Caslon Sans Serif Shaded (Jesse Vega and Paul Barnes): The addition of graphic effects to typefaces was one of the most popular fashions of the nineteenth century, with the most common being the shaded form. Fashionable throughout this period, they largely disappeared from the typographic landscape, but their simple graphic qualities offer much potential today.
    • Rapha (2018, Serif, Sans). A bespoke typeface at Commercial Type for the cycling clothing company.
    • In 2019, Commercial Type released Caslon Ionic by Paul Barnes and Greg Gazdowicz. They write: Bolder and more robust than the modern, yet lighter and more refined than the Egyptian, the Ionic with its bracketed serif was another innovation of the nineteenth century. Lesser known than Thorowgood's Clarendon, Caslon's Ionic No. 2 is a superb example of the form and greatly influenced the newspaper fonts of the next century. With additional weights and a matching Egyptian companion, Antique No. 6, it is a masterpiece of type designed to be robust and legible. Antique No. 6 was designed by Paul Barnes in 2019.
    • In 2019, Commercial Type released the Thorowgood Grotesque collection by Paul Barnes and Greg Gazdowicz. It is accompanied by the subfamilies Thorowgood Grotesque Dimensional (beveled) and Thorowgood Grotesque Open (based on Thorowgood's Seven-Line Grotesque Open), and the related condensed headline typeface Thorowgood Egyptian.

The crew in 2012 includes Paul Barnes (Principal), Christian Schwartz (Principal), Vincent Chan (type designer), Berton Hasebe (type designer, who worked at Commercial type from 2008 until 2013) and Mark Record (font technician). Miguel Reyes joined in 2013. Hrvoje Zivcic helps with font production.

View Christian Schwartz's typefaces.

His St Bride Type Foundry. Dafont link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Modernite relative

French Mac font page maintained by Francis Loup. [Google] [More]  ⦿

MonicaWorks Graphics

Font intro. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Monotype Dante

Giovanni Mardersteig, and later Ron Carpenter, are responsible for the present version of Monotype Dante, an ageless classic. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Monotype Laurentian

Monotype Laurentian (ATF Humanistic) was designed by Sol Hess. There seems to be no digital version. For metal variants, see Stephenson&Blake's Bologna and ATF's Verona. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Monotype: The Foundation Collection

In 2016, Monotype published its Foundation Collection (75 fonts for 490 dollars: see this PDF file) described as follows in its corporate promo: This carefully-curated type collection draws from the acclaimed Monotype, Linotype, ITC, Bitstream and other libraries to provide a strong foundation for any designer's type library. No Futura, Gill Sans, Times or Helvetica? No recent hot fonts? Luckily, the collection contains Litterbox ICG and Smile ICG. So, I would replace "carefully-curated" by "random", and "strong" by "rickety".

The fonts: Akko Pro-Regular, Akko Pro-Italic, Akko Pro-Bold, Akko Pro-Bold Italic, Ashley Inline MTStd, Avenir Next LTPro-Medium, Avenir Next LTPro-Medium It, Avenir Next LTPro-Bold, Avenir Next LTPro-Bold It, Ayita Pro, Ayita Pro-Italic, Ayita Pro-Bold, Ayita Pro-Bold Italic, Baskerville MTStd-Regular, Baskerville MTStd-Italic, Baskerville MTStd-Bold, Baskerville MTStd-Bold It, Bodoni LTPro, Bodoni LTPro-Italic, Bodoni LTPro-Bold, Bodoni LTPro-Bold Italic, Bodoni Std-Poster, Bodoni Std-Poster Italic, Cariola Script Std, Centaur MTPro-Regular, Centaur MTPro-Italic, Centaur MTPro-Bold, Centaur MTPro-Bold Italic, Charter ITCStd-Regular, Charter ITCStd-Italic, Charter ITCStd-Bold, Charter ITCStd-Bold Italic, Chicory, Clarendon BT Pro Light, Clarendon BT Pro Roman, Clarendon BT Pro Bold, Clarendon BT Pro Black, DINNext LTPro-Regular, DINNext LTPro-Italic, DINNext LTPro-Bold, DINNext LTPro-Bold Italic, DIN Next Slab Pro Light, DIN Next Slab Pro Black, Eclat, Litterbox ICGStd, Malabar LTPro-Regular, Malabar LTPro-Italic, Malabar LTPro-Bold, Malabar LTPro-Bold Italic, Neue Haas Unica Pro Ultra Light, Neue Haas Unica Pro, Neue Haas Unica Pro Italic, Neue Haas Unica Pro Bold, Neue Haas Unica Pro Bold Italic, Neue Haas Unica Pro Black, Pokerface, Schmutz Pro-Clogged, Scooter, Shelley Script LTPro, Smile ICG-Medium, Stempel Garamond LTPro-Roman, Stempel Garamond LTPro-Italic, Stempel Garamond LTPro-Bold, Stempel Garamond LTPro-Bold It, Titanium Motors Std-Oblique, Titanium Motors Std-Regular, Trade Gothic Next LTPro-Rg, Trade Gothic Next LTPro-It, Trade Gothic Next LTPro-Bd, Trade Gothic Next LTPro-Bd It, Unit Slab OT-Ita, Unit Slab OT-Bold, Unit Slab OT, Unit Slab OT-Bold Ita, William Lucas Std. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Monotype's copies of fonts

Mark Simonson explains Monotype's cheap substitutes for not only Helvetica, but all the other proprietary fonts Adobe has included with PostScript. These were created at the request of Microsoft for inclusion with its PostScript clone, TrueImage, and also included with Windows and Microsoft Office. A quick list:

  • Monotype Book Antiqua (+Italic) is a copy of Palatino (+Italic), unauthorized by Herman Zapf, Palatino's creator.
  • Monotype Corsiva is a poor substitute for ITC Zapf Chancery.
  • Monotype Sorts is intended to replace Zapf Dingbats.
  • Twentieth Century is Monotype's version of Futura. Now, Monotype Century Gothic is Twentieth Century, redrawn to match the weight and proportions of ITC Avant Garde Gothic.
  • Bookman Oldstyle is the original Bookman (late 19th century, ATF) redrawn to match the weight and proportions of ITC Bookman, including its cursive italic.
  • Century Schoolbook is simply the earlier design upon which New Century Schoolbook (1980, Matthew Carter, Linotype) is based, which both Monotype and Linotype licensed from American Type Founders. The two are virtually indistinguishable except for the extra weights offered in the Linotype version.
  • Monotype's Arial is a poor subsitute of Helvetica with exactly the same proportions, metrics and weight. Mark Simonson takes Arial apart.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Montserrat Font Chart

List of the main font families, with original designer, date of creation, Bitstream alias, and latest reincarnation. Very useful! The serif fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Morris Fuller Benton
[Franklin Gothic]

[More]  ⦿

MT Neo Didot

MT Neo Didot was designed in 1904 at Monotype. With less contrast than the original Didot typefaces, it is appropriate for texts. Some suggest that the closest we have to MT Neo Didot in digital form is Peter Mohr's Fayon (2010, OurType). But Maxim Zhukov pointed out its popularity in Russia: Series No 27 (Neo Didot) had a Cyrillic version. I don't know when it was developed. A lot of books in USSR and world-wide were set in Neo Didot. Neo Didot was so popular that around 1940 its Soviet clone was developed, Obyknovennaya Novaya Garnitura (Ordinary New Typeface). It was custom-designed for the 4th edition of Lenin's Collected Works (its 1st volume was printed in 1941, and the last one, 39th, in 1967). That typeface was later released for general use. It is now offered in digital form by ParaType, under the name New Standard. That clone was by Anatoly Shchukin at Polygraphmash. Also, Maxim is referring to the Paratype version done in 1996 by Vladimir Yefimov. [Google] [More]  ⦿


MToT (My type of type) provides users with a web-based typeface specimen collection. Users are able to take a typeface from anywhere on the web and catalog it for their own reference. Collections can be organized via tags, and shared with other MToT users or kept private. Examples include ITC Founder's Caslon, ASffair, and Bodoni. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Multilingual typographical lexicon

Maintained by Jacques André. [Google] [More]  ⦿

MyFonts: Gill Sans

A list of digital versions of Gill Sans, and related digital fonts. Please note the abysmal design of Gill Sans---the lower case seems to have been borrowed from a serif typeface, and the stroke widths in general are unpredictable. The lower case a destroys the entire design---what a shame. [Google] [More]  ⦿

MyFonts: Johnston

A list of typefaces that are related to Edward Johnston's typeface for the railway. See also here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Laurence Penney]

MyFonts was a division of Bitstream Inc., located in Marlborough, Massachusetts. After Bitstream was taken over by Monotype, it changed directions. Its mission was to make it simple for everyone to find and buy fonts. In pursuit of this mission, MyFonts has pioneered new ways to search for fonts when one does not have an exact font in mind. The concept of MyFonts was born in 1999 when Charles Ying, Bitstream's Chairman of the Board, wanted to find a font for a particular project. He was horrified to discover that the only way to find fonts on the web was to know the name of the font you were looking for, or browse a flat alphabetical list. Why can't I just search for wedding fonts, he asked. This should be as easy as shopping for shoes! I should be able to point at a font in a magazine and say, Show me fonts like this. Charles reasoned that making it hard to find and buy fonts for the average computer user meant turning away 99.9% of the potential market for fonts. He called for an open marketplace, where fonts from many vendors could compete side-by-side. Charles personally hired the initial team and commissioned a site design from (now defunct) Calgary-based Fusion Media Group. MyFonts began selling the Bitstream library on March 20, 2000 through the MyFonts.com website. It now has over 80,000 fonts from about 1000 foundries. It includes WhatTheFont (was Identafont) (send scanned images to the site for automatic recognition), "Show me more like this", TypeXplorer (font space browser), type designer and foundry info. The project manager is Laurence Penney. List of designers.

Postmortem: While it remains active, MyFonts and Bitstream were acquired by Monotype in 2012. It is bleeding on both ends---high-class outfits such as Hoefler, Tobias Frere-Jones, Commercial Type and Our Type run their own shops, and the middle class is scared off by the Monotype monopoly, the business-is-more-important-than-you atmosphere, and the friendlier hunting grounds of Creative Market and similar font truck vendors. Fontacular: monthly sales specials. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿


Myriad is a large humanist sans serif family developed from 1990-1992 by Carol Twombly at Adobe with the help of Robert Slimbach and Fred Brady. Originally a multiple masters font, it continues its life as Myriad Pro (opentype) today. It is used for both text and display. Since the launch of the eMac in 2002, Myriad has been replacing Apple Garamond as Apple Computer's corporate font. Adobe states: An Adobe Originals design first released in 1992, Myriad has become popular for both text and display composition. As an OpenType release, Myriad Pro expands this sans serif family to include Greek and Cyrillic glyphs, as well as adding oldstyle figures and improving support for Latin-based languages. The full Myriad Pro family includes condensed, normal, and extended widths in a full range of weights. Designed by Robert Slimbach&Carol Twombly with Fred Brady&Christopher Slye, Myriad has a warmth and readability that result from the humanist treatment of letter proportions and design detail. Myriad Pro's clean open shapes, precise letter fit, and extensive kerning pairs make this unified family of roman and italic an excellent choice for text typography that is comfortable to read, while the wide variety of weights and widths in the family provide a generous creative palette for even the most demanding display typography.

John Berry published two PDF files at Adobe with descriptions of Myriad Arabic and Myriad Hebrew.

The typophiles offer these suggestions for alternatives for Myriad in 2016: Open sans, Source Sans, Verb, FF Milo, FF Kievit, Seravek, JAF Bernini Sans, Fresco Sans. One could also add Interval Next (Mostar Design), Humanist 777 (by Bitstream), and the typeface it was originally designed to eplace, Frutiger (by Linotype). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Nancy Foster

[More]  ⦿

National Old Style and Nabisco
[Frederic William Goudy]

Two Goudy fonts, from 1916 and 1921, respectively. Goudy wrote about them, as reported in A Half-Century of Type Design and Typography: 1895-1945, Typophiles Chap Books XIV, 1946 at pages 99 and 110:

  • National Old Style (1916). Clarence Marder asked me later that same year whether I could use the lettering I had done for the National Biscuit Company in 1901 or 1902 and make a type approximating it in character. I called his attention to the fact that the lettering he referred to consisted of capitals only, and while it would be easy enough to make a type of those, it would be more difficult to make a lower-case which would not be rather freakish to go with them. However, I went ahead with the design, adding a lower-case in harmony with the capitals, and it is shown in the specimens of the company. I see it occasionally in printing; one use of it, I recall, is on the cover and title page of _Graphic Arts_ issued by the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_ for a selection of articles from its 14th edition. It has also been used for captions for movies, owing to its strong but even color. As a display letter it probably compares favorably with many others we could do without.
  • Nabisco (1921). In Chicago, in 1901 or 1902, I had hand-lettered the words "National Biscuit Company" for that concern. The commission came through their advertising executive, James Fraser, who did not tell me that twenty-five or more designers also had been given the same commission at the same time. A few days after I had delivered my drawing to Fraser, I received a telephone message from him requesting my presence at his office. On arriving there I was shown some forty other drawings of the same words I had drawn, and was then told that mine had won the competition. If I had known it was a competitive affair I might not have accepted the order at all, although _all_ the drawings were to be paid for. One nice thing occurred when I presented my reasonable bill: Fraser surprised me by tearing it up in my presence, and asked me to make out another for double the amount. Practically twenty years later, the New York advertising representatives of the company asked me to make a type for the National Biscuit Company, using letters of the character of those drawn so long before. I didn't like to tell them that I was not sure those letters were the sort that would make a good type to use for their announcements, booklets and advertisements; or that, since I had already made a type for the American Type Founders Company along the same lines, I feared any new attempt might prove too reminiscent of that type. However, I made drawings and had several sizes engraved by Wiebking. The Company named it "Nabisco" and used it frequently for booklets and small advertisements. Of late years I have not seen it so often, but I imagine it still is in occasional use. In 1912 one day while seated at my desk on Madison Avenue, a man came in with a package under his arm. He said he was a lithographer, and had an order to reproduce a drawing which by constant use over a period of years was in pretty bad shape for satisfactory reproduction ; he wondered if I could make a good copy of it for him. On opening the package I was amazed to find it was the original drawing I had made in Chicago in 1901 for the National Biscuit Company!

Mac McGrew: National Oldstyle was designed by Frederic W. Goudy for ATF in 1916. It is based on lettering he had done about fifteen years earlier for National Biscuit Company, hence the name. It was moderately popular for a while for publication and advertising display work, and for titles for silent motion pictures. Compare Nabisco.

Mac McGrew on Nabisco: Nabisco was designed by Frederic W. Goudy in 1921 as a private type for National Biscuit Company, based on hand-lettering of the company name he had done about twenty years earlier. As he had in the meantime drawn National Oldstyle (q.v.) for ATF, based on the same lettering, this typeface is consciously different although retaining the same general characteristics. Several sizes were cut by Robert Wiebking. The baking company was pleased. and used it frequently for several years.

For a revival of National Oldtsyle, see National Oldstyle NF (2014, Nick Curtis). For a revival and extension to bold, semibold and italics, see Goudy National (2018, Steve Matteson. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Necrocock in a Czech death metal group formed in 1992 that revels in perversity, burials and cremations. For some reason, unknown to the author, necrocock is also a tag word in typeface classification used to describe legible sans (or oddly serifed) typefaces that are a bit bumpy or shifty, as if spooked by glyph ghosts. Examples include Hubert Jocham's Versa Sans and Verse Serif, Vlad Viperov's Markofontina (2014), Richard Yeend's Burgstaedt Antiqua, ITC Biblon, Monotype's Buccardi, Tipotype's Sedan, and a large portion of Frantisek Storm's typefaces, who as a death metal activist himself, must be considered as the main representative of this genre. Storm's typefaces in this style include Academica, AndulkaSans, AnselmSans, AnselmSerif, DynaGrotesk-2014, Farao, Hercules, JannonSans, JohnSans, LexonGothic, Mediaeval, SebastianPro, and Serapion. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Nelson Beebe's bibliography on typographic fonts

[More]  ⦿

Nicholas Fabian
[Type Designs by Nicholas Fabian]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Nick Shanks
[Common Windows typefaces]

[More]  ⦿

Nick Sherman

[More]  ⦿

Nick Shinn
[Long S Code]

[More]  ⦿

Nick Shinn
[Globe and Mail]

[More]  ⦿

Nike 365

Nike 365 is a mysterious series of Linotype and Neufville Digital fonts. These include the traditional gothic style family Trade Gothic for Nike 365 (MyFonts link) and Futura ND for Nike 365 (MyFonts link). Who, what, where, how, I have no idea! I would like to see the context, and understand why each weight of Trade Gothic costs 147 dollars, and why MyFonts lists the design date as 2012? The multiweight Futura ND for Nike 365 font from Neufville has a cryptic text: These fonts are for Nike materials only. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Nikita Pashenkov
[AlphaBot: Nikita Pashenkov]

[More]  ⦿

Niko Skourtis

Niko Skourtis is a graphic designer practicing in New York since earning a BFA from California College of the Arts. For his thesis, he developed an interactive program called Typograph, which earned him the SOTA Catalyst Award in 2012. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Nina Hons

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿


The corporate font Nissan (for Nissan) is being sold by URW++. [Google] [More]  ⦿

NIST Reference on Constants, Units and Uncertainty

A goldmine of information on units of measurement and their symbols. This link contains a PDF file on typefaces containing the symbols for these units. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Type site in Germany. It has a truetype archive, and a nice timeline (in German) about the various eras in type. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Not my type: the centuries-long identity crisis of Scandinavian typography

Great article by Shane Wilson in the Harvard Independent on Scandinavian typography and type design. But the Scnadinavians won't like it: Wilson says that there is no such thing as a Scandinavian typographical identity. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Notes on type design
[Gunnlaugur Briem]

Gunnlaugur Briem's very informative on-line notes / course on type design, published in 1998-2001. Glossary. [Google] [More]  ⦿


An informal marker style font that comis with iOS on Apple's iPad, created by Patrick Griffin of Canada Type ca. 2009. It looks like, but differs from Filmotype Brooklyn, a Filmotype font digitally revived by Patrick Griffin for Stuart Sandler. [Google] [More]  ⦿


A digital typeface family launched in 1984 by Compugraphic. The premier edition of Novus type consisted of three type families with three weights each: Draco I, Draco II, Draco III; Pictor I, Pictor II, Pictor III; and Vela I, Vela II, Vela III. [Google] [More]  ⦿


An article about Times and Hoefler Text. About Hoefler Text, this quote: Hoefler Text makes me feel witty, and pretty, and gay. [Google] [More]  ⦿

OERT (Open Educational resources for Typography)

Open Educational Resources for Typography (OERT) is an open educational project available to everyone who wishes to broaden their knowledge of typography, including students, teachers, and individuals interested in the subject. The project is built upon the course material prepared by Pablo Cosgaya (FADU / UBA, Buenos Aires), a set of booklets that was initiated in 1994 and which is currently organized into three sections: theoretical, historical, and practical. The project aims at expanding, updating, and editing the current material in Spanish, to translate it into English, and to publish it online under a Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike license.

The editorial team consists of Pablo Cosgaya, David Crossland, Natalia Pano and Marcela Romero.

The OERT Team consists of FADU / UBA professors Pablo Cosgaya, Magdalena Fumagalli, Verónica García, Alvaro Ghisolfo, Malena Menéndez, Natalia Pano, Inés Pupareli, Marcela Romero and Julián Villagra. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Oficina Tipográfica
[Marcos Mello]

Marcos Mello and Cláudio Rocha run the Oficina Tipográfica site in Sao Paulo. Together, they are offering a number of typography courses. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Italian creator of a nice type poster called The Baseline Grid (2011). She is based in Rome. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Old style figures

Great essay by Ilene Strizver on old style figures. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Olivier Marcks

[More]  ⦿

Olivier Randier

[More]  ⦿

On the history of sans serif

Linotype had pages on the history of sans serif ("Grotesk" in German), from its inception in 1816 in England and the early versions of William Caslon and Vincent Figgins (1832), through the Akzidenz Grotesk (1900), Reform-Grotesk (1904) and Venus (1907). [Google] [More]  ⦿

On-screen typography

Article by Tomas Caspers, a free-lance designer from Cologne, on type on our screens. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Oodles of poodles

Words with holes, repetitive shapes, ambiguity, as listed by Nick Shinn and other typophiles: savvy, assesses, aggregate, modern, filling, banana, punctuation, filigree, graffiti, titular, boondoggle, representative, look, pool, room, marmalade, geostasis, illigitimate, assassinate, ignoble, narcissistic, atavistic, coterminous, arrogation, Yog-Sothoth, fabulous, buckety, poon, palpate, diminishing, Mississippi, syzygy, imminent, swimming, balaclava, horror-romance, Milli Vanilli, Bananarama, heavyweight, keyword, polyvinvyl, goggles, Beijing, bookkeeper, rhythm, unnecessary, aioli, teepee, minimum, oology, Hawaiian, huh, Ohio, suss, Qabalah, onomatopoeia, phlegm. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Opinionated Type
[Josh Farmer]

Josh Farmer commented on type news. Link died. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Optical kerning

Optical kerning refers to the placement of adjacent characters, not based on kerning tables. This process is useful as a final adjustment, or when neighboring characters are from different fonts. It can sometimes be automated (a very difficult thing to do!), but is often done manually. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Orange Soda Pop

A project by two designers who list 200 of their favorite fonts. However, there is no info on those fonts--no designers are named, no links given, no downloads available, no help given. The web page does not function on my system, the type is too small, and the information content virtually nil. The two designers do not even give their own names. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Orbis Typographicus
[Joshua Langman]

Orbis Typographicus is a set of twenty-nine 9x12 letterpress broadsides, designed by Hermann Zapf and printed by Philip Metzger of Crabgrass Press between 1970 and 1980. The broadsides feature quotations on art, science, nature, faith, and the human condition, from authors ancient and contemporary. The text includes poetry, prose, anagrams, and palindromes, in English, German, Spanish, French and Japanese. Hand set by Philip Metzger, the set showcases many of the typefaces of Zapf and his wife, Gudrun Zapf von Hesse.

In 2013, the web site Orbis Typographicus was set up by Joshua Langman. It features high-resolution scans, available for download, and a complete computer-searchable transcript. The web site also features an essay by Philip A. Metzger, the son of the printer, in which he shares his recollections of his father working on the project.

Joshua Langman is a freelance graphic designer and typographer based in New York. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Enrico Bravi's 3-d type project. Bravi graduated in Graphics at the ISIA in Urbino with a thesis titled Graphica Programmata. From 1999 to 2002 he collaborated with Nofrontiere Design in Vienna. He now lives and works in Vienna, Austria. Speaker at ATypI 2005 in Helsinki. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Oscar Bagur

Menorca-based Oscar Bagur iruns this wonderful type page (in Catalan). [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Carl Crossgrove]

A typeface made originally in 1928 by Monotype as a copy of Rudolf Koch's Neuland, and re-published by them in 2002. It was designed by Carl Crossgrove and Steve Matteson. The display typeface Monotype Othello Shadow has not been made in digital form yet. Finally, Othello should not be confused with the Othello from American Typefounders (1896). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Oxford University

At Oxford's Centre for Humanities Computing Software: A well-written introduction to fonts and font installation. Links and tips for many languages. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Discussion on the comp.fonts newsgroup about the (lack of) quality of Linotype Palatino. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Palatino's sizes

Ulrich Stiehl compares the 48p and 36p metal versions of Palatino, as found in Kurt Weidemann's book Typos. Das grosse Buch der Druckschriften (1964, Ravensburg). For example, in 48p, the central strokes of the E and F and the bottoms of the p and q have serifs, but not so in the 36p versions. Explanation: Weidemann showed one version from before 1960, and another from after 1960, the year in which Zapf redesigned Palatino a bit. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Panther Text Rendering

This article by John Gruber surveys screen typography, anti-aliasing and related issues before discussing screen rendering on Mac OSX. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Parametric Fonts (MyFonts)

MyFonts lists the active researchers in the field of parametric fonts. Never mind that I created all my fonts using self-coded parametric systems---I will humbly reproduce their list:
Benjamin Bauermeister
John Collins
Lucas de Groot
Peter Karow
Donald E. Knuth
David Lemon
Karl Leuthold
Yuri Yarmola
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Parametric type generation systems

Nicholas Fabian takes us from the Sumerians, via Metafont to Chameleon and extended "Parametric Type Generation" systems, in which parameters describe very general font properties. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Patrick Griffin
[A Case For Type Design Education]

[More]  ⦿

Patrick Griffin on the 1970s

When he released Borax in 2021, Canada Type's Patrick Griffin gave an insightful and slightly gonzo description of the 1970s in type design. The text below is a verbatim quote.

This font family is an ode to the typography scene of New York City and Chicago in the late 1970s, when ad agencies, design studios and typesetters used their cameras, geometry sets, drafting boards and cunning lingo to model an ideal life of consumption, and printed it all into a sleek culture everyone thought would last forever. By the time phototypesetting was peaking in the 1970s, interesting transformations in mainstream display typography were taking place. With typesetting tools having become more than capable of reconstructing and remixing the entire eras of type history in a short time, the classic workhorses were undergoing fresh scrutiny from more appreciative angles. New faces with too much personality were still being made, but high-level advertising typography was introducing classic elements back into the mix. Professional typesetters at the time were fascinated by the colour and apertures of the transitional genre, the contrast of the Didone, the delicate balance of flare-serifs, and how a magazine ad with a large enough x-height can be read from across the room. So the popular type houses began gradually scaling back on personality and producing designs with focus on classic legibility and contrast. Outfits like ITC and VGC in particular competed within that space, and from there set advertising typography on its way to quickly shed its dated ornamental skins. That formative period of a new typographic framework and perspective---particularly the early part when designers were trying to find a perfect balance between form and function within their field---was a fascinating time for type. Demonstrative designs from that era include Tom Carnese's Toms Roman and the numbered Caslon series, Dave Trooper's eponymous design, Tony Stan's not-really-Garamond, and Ed Benguiat's takes on classic American metal faces from a few decades earlier. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Patrick Griffin on variable fonts and the future of type

Reflecting on the future of type in 2021, straight from Patrick Griffin's desk: The Future Of Fonts (Maybe). ...whereby the (Maybe) in the highfaluting title being the necessary contextual hand-washing, since what we're really talking about here is a tech slugger's third at-bat, and the count is 0-2. Of course the grand allusion here is to variable fonts (or variation fonts, or font variations), a technology that has been around in one form or another for almost three decades. [...] Font interpolation. The condensed version of digital font interpolation history is this: In the early 1990s, both Apple and Adobe introduced their own interpolative font technologies, respectively called GX Variations and Multiple Master. Quite a few fonts were made in both formats in the 90s, but for various reasons they never really took off with layout artists. So type designers stopped releasing interpolative fonts, though they kept using the technology in the background to build large font families. Most individual fonts in large families in use now come from some kind of interpolation under the hood. In the fall of 2016, the Open Type specification added support for variations, and since then that has been the go-to subject of presentations in pretty much every type design conference out there. Support for the stuff was duly added to both major font-building apps, and here were are now, entertain us. The 0-2 count. GX Variations failed mostly because Apple insisted the technology would only work on the Mac, which turned off the major layout design software manufacturers (Adobe, Corel, Quark) who were heavily vested in Windows at the time. The Multiple Master tech failed mostly because most layout artists were confused by it, and whatever application support was there for it proved to be spotty at best. So attempts at using interpolative fonts in the mainstream pretty much altogether stopped in the late 90s. Some, perhaps even most, font makers held on to the Multiple Master technology as an internal process to produce families, because it helped speed things up, allowed for extreme precision and more impressive output and, well, nerds like us just like to play with such tools. The third at-bat. The GX and MM technologies failed during an ancient time, when the only beast roaming the planet was the Printosaur---a time when everything was judged by its potential for print, long before the interwebs was a thing. About a dozen years after the public burial of both technologies, people got their ducks in a row about using fonts on the web. At some point a few years later, a few young webheads thought, Hey, what if web fonts can be interpolated!? And that is how you make a snowball and roll it down a hill. With this latest at-bat now, the major difference is that we are almost positive that web-driven technologies (as opposed to print-driven ones) have a much better shot at survival, even better odds at flourishing and going mainstream. Case in point: Variable fonts can now be used in Adobe Illustrator CC, and Adobe Photoshop CC. And they work quite well, within an impressively simple and efficient interface implementation. [...] So here's to the future of fonts. Maybe. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Paul Baker

Paul Baker's type-related book, right here on the web. He created Alphabet26 in 2001, an implementation of a unicase font proposal by Bradbury Thompson. Writings on "Evaluating typography and typesetting". He digitized Andromaque Uncial (1958, Victor Hammer) in 1995. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Paul Barnes
[Modern Typography]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Paul Beaujon

Paul Beaujon was the pen name of Beatrice L. Warde. Born in New York in 1900, she died in London in 1969. A typographer, writer, and art historian, she worked for the British Monotype Corporation for most of her life, and was known for her energy, enthusiasm and speeches. Collaborator of Stanley Morison. She created a typeface called Arrighi. She is famous for The Crystal Goblet or Printing Should be Invisible (The Crystal Goblet, Sixteen Essays on Typography, Cleveland, 1956, and Sylvan Press, London, 1955), which is also reproduced here and here. The text was originally printed in London in 1932, under the pseudonym Paul Beaujon. Here are two passages:

  • Imagine that you have before you a flagon of wine. You may choose your own favorite vintage for this imaginary demonstration, so that it be a deep shimmering crimson in colour. You have two goblets before you. One is of solid gold, wrought in the most exquisite patterns. The other is of crystal-clear glass, thin as a bubble, and as transparent. Pour and drink; and according to your choice of goblet, I shall know whether or not you are a connoisseur of wine. For if you have no feelings about wine one way or the other, you will want the sensation of drinking the stuff out of a vessel that may have cost thousands of pounds; but if you are a member of that vanishing tribe, the amateurs of fine vintages, you will choose the crystal, because everything about it is calculated to reveal rather than to hide the beautiful thing which it was meant to contain.
  • Bear with me in this long-winded and fragrant metaphor; for you will find that almost all the virtues of the perfect wine-glass have a parallel in typography. There is the long, thin stem that obviates fingerprints on the bowl. Why? Because no cloud must come between your eyes and the fiery heart of the liquid. Are not the margins on book pages similarly meant to obviate the necessity of fingering the type-page? Again: the glass is colourless or at the most only faintly tinged in the bowl, because the connoisseur judges wine partly by its colour and is impatient of anything that alters it. There are a thousand mannerisms in typography that are as impudent and arbitrary as putting port in tumblers of red or green glass! When a goblet has a base that looks too small for security, it does not matter how cleverly it is weighted; you feel nervous lest it should tip over. There are ways of setting lines of type which may work well enough, and yet keep the reader subconsciously worried by the fear of 'doubling' lines, reading three words as one, and so forth.

Drawing of her by Eric Gill. Life story.

Beatrice Warde was educated at Barnard College, Columbia, where she studied calligraphy and letterforms. From 1921 until 1925, she was the assistant librarian at American Type Founders. In 1925, she married the book and type designer Frederic Warde, who was Director of Printing at the Princeton University Press. Together, they moved to Europe, where Beatrice worked on The Fleuron: A Journal of Typography (Cambridge, England: At the University Press, and New York: Doubleday Doran, 1923-1930), which was at that time edited by Stanley Morison. As explained above, she is best known for an article she published in the 1926 issue of The Fleuron, written under the pseudonym Paul Beaujon, which traced types mistakenly attributed to Garamond back to Jean Jannon. In 1927, she became editor of The Monotype Recorder in London.

Rebecca Davidson of the Princeton University Library wrote in 2004: Beatrice Warde was a believer in the power of the printed word to defend freedom, and she designed and printed her famous manifesto, This Is A Printing Office, in 1932, using Eric Gill's Perpetua typeface. She rejected the avant-garde in typography, believing that classical forms provided a "clearly polished window" through which ideas could be communicated. The Crystal Goblet: Sixteen Essays on Typography (1955) is an anthology of her writings. Wood engraved portrait of Warde by Bernard Brussel-Smith (1950). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Paul Renner
[Futura: Text by Mac McGrew]

[More]  ⦿

Paul Shaw
[The (Mostly) True Story of Helvetica and the New York City Subway]

[More]  ⦿

Paul Shaw
[The Digital Past]

[More]  ⦿

Paulo Heitlinger

Portuguese author of Tipografia: origens, formas e uso das letras (2006, Paulo Heitlinger, Lisbon) and Alfabetos, Caligrafia e Tipografia (2010, Lisbon). Born in Lisbon, he studied nuclear physics in Germany. He lectured on communication design at the Universidade do Algarve. His pages (in Portuguese) are quite complete, with a great glossary, a beautiful section on the history of type, a mag called Cadernos de Tipografia, links to type design in the world in general, and in Brazil, Spain and Portugal in particular, and more general information on type. Font-making how to. Useful timeline of 16th century writing manuals. An absolute must. He has also created or revived a number of typefaces, which can be bought on-line.

An incomplete list of his typefaces:

  • Sinalética: A sober serif typeface for excellent legibility.
  • CantoneirosRegular (2008), Cantoneiros-Thin (2008): art deco / avant-garde.
  • Transito (2008): the famous 1930s stencil face of Jan Tschichold at Lettergieterij Amsterdam, with reinvented forms for f, g and y. [Note: the pic on the right-hand-side is Transito, as grabbed from Heitlinger's page---the grammatical error is not mine.]
  • Sturmblond-Medium (2008): Revival of simple lettering of Herbert Bayer.
  • Bayer Condensed: Revival of simple lettering of Herbert Bayer.
  • Imperatorum (2008)
  • Ratdoldt (2008): a blackletter typeface made from scans, and attributed to Erhard Ratdolt.
  • Valentim (2008): a blackletter typeface made from scans of the book Vita Christi. Named after Valentim Fernandes, a printer active in Lisbon, ca. 1480-1519.
  • Incunabulo Normalizado (2008): a blackletter typeface made from scans of the book Vita Christi.
  • Uhertype-Medium (2007): Revival of another Bauhaus era typeface, by Joost Schmidt.
  • Arkitekto: A Bauhaus style piano key font based on an image found in a book of Kurt Weidemann.
  • His Spanish collection includes Bastarda de Francisco Lucas, a versão espanhola da Cancelleresca italiana do século XVI. Um ponto alto da Caligrafia del Siglo de Oro.
  • Redondilla de Francisco Lucas, a penmanship font based on Arte de Escribir (1577).
  • Gótica Rotunda Gans.
  • Juan Bravo, based on azulejos (tiles).
  • Segovia, a titling font.
  • Centauro, a decorative font.
  • Kurrsiva, inspired by scripts from the 1960s.
  • Deco de Avila, an avant-garde face.Bertrand (2008): an art deco typeface patterened after the shop sign of Livraria Bertrand in Chiado, Lisbon.
  • Rotunda:
  • Visigotica: based on the calligraphic writings of the 10th and 11th centuries. This font has many alternates. Based on scans of a text of the 10th century called Actas de Concilio de Caledonia de 451. Styles: Imperatorum, Isidoro.
  • Typefaces based on the calligraphic work of Francisco Lucas, 1570: Bastarda de Lucas Italic (2009), Bastarda de Lucas (2009), Redondilla de Lucas (2009).
  • Uncialis (2009): a Lombardian type based on a 16th century model of Giralde de Prado.
  • Escolar Portugal (Fino, Forte) and Escolar Brasil are school fonts of the "upright connected script" style that were made in 2008. For more on didactic fonts, read the booklet Caderno de Tipografia e Design Nr. 14 (March 2009).
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Péter Serfözö

[More]  ⦿

Pella Anderson
[Swedish newspaper typography, 1992-1999]

[More]  ⦿

Peter Bain: Film Type

Peter Bain surveys the era of photo-typography. His introduction: In the 20th century photo-typography fully displaced a 500-year-old tradition of metal type, only to be superseded itself shortly thereafter. Yet most appraisals of type technology and histories of proprietary typefounding still favor type for text instead of eye-catching display. One characteristic feature of 20th century typography was the great effort devoted to ephemera and advertising. This survey is a local view of a half-century, concentrating on display type in New York City. Since New Yorkers have been said to believe they are at the center of the planet, it is fascinating to find a time when it could appear nearly so, typographically. He goes on to explain why and how New york became the typographic center of the globe: The city in the first half of the 20th century was an established communications center for a burgeoning national market. There is ample evidence of local interest in unique letterforms. Sometime Queens-borough resident and typeface designer Frederic Goudy received a commission from retailer Saks Fifth Avenue. The successful New York illustrator and letterer Fred G. Cooper had his distinctive forms included in the same publications that featured an unrelated Windy City designer, Oswald Cooper. Architect H. Van Buren Magonigle and industrial designer Walter Dorwin Teague had both skillfully rendered capitals for print, while their Manhattan offices pursued projects in three dimensions. One of the more curious examples of this fluency in letterforms was a 1943 booklet issued by the Brooklyn-based Higgins Ink Co. The largest portion was a portfolio of thirty-two script alphabets and fictitious signatures by Charles Bluemlein, each accompanied by a handwriting experts interpretation of the admittedly invented specimens. The requirements of publicity and publishing helped drive the demand for handlettering. By 1955, one knowledgeable estimate placed over 300 professional lettering artists working in New York at both comprehensive (layout) and finished levels. It was in a landscape of album covers and bookjackets, magazine and newspaper advertising, trademarks and slogans, store signatures and letterheads, billboards and signs (created by sign artists, not usually graphic designers) that display phototype was emerging in sharp focus. This may have been the peak of market demand for lettering. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Peter Baker's old English page at the University of Virginia
[Peter S. Baker]

Peter S. Baker, an English professor at the University of Virginia, offers free TrueType and PostScript fonts. these include:

  • Anglo-Saxon Caps.
  • Beowulf-1 (1995, a pseudo-Gaelic face; BeowulfOT dates from 2018).
  • Bury Caps (2014, free at OFL). This decorative typeface was inspired by the display capitals in the 12th-century Bury Bible.
  • The elegant Carolingian typeface Eadui (2010), a reproduction of English Caroline Minuscule as written by Eadui Basan, a scribe at eleventh-century Christ Church, Canterbury.
  • Elstob (2018-2019). A variable font for for medievalists. He writes: The Elstob font, named for Elizabeth Elstob (1683-1756), a celebrated early scholar of Old English language and literature, is based on the Double Pica commissioned by Bishop John Fell (1625-1686) for the use of the Oxford University Press. Wherever possible, it is modeled on a specimen book printed in 1925 with type cast in the 1890s from the seventeenth-century matrices; digital images from the 1693 and 1706 Fell specimen books served as backup, and also an early eighteenth-century folio in which a lengthy dedication was printed in Fell's Double Pica. The type doesn't have a great reputation: the typographer Stanley Morison thought it amateurish in comparison with the excellent Fell English. However, its angular character (especially its flat or flattish serifs with minimal or no brackets) makes it well suited to adaptation as a variable font.
  • Interlace Set (2015). A dingbat font for making Hiberno-Saxon interlace patterns.
  • The important and well-designed Junius family (1996, modern hybrid Gaelic). This led to Junicode, the working name of a Unicode font for medievalists. The fonts in the latter project are Junicode-Bold, JunicodeItalic, Junicode (2002), and are by Peter S. Baker and Briery Creek Software. André G. Isaak writes: Junicode isn't the only free font for mediaevalists out there, but it's certainly one of the two most well-designed ones (the other being Andron Scriptor). I used to teach courses on the history of English and I used Junius (the predecessor of Junicode) for many of my handouts because I preferred it to all of the commercial fonts which I had looked at. In 2020, Junicode was rebuilt into JuniusX or Junicode New.

Alternate URL. Dafont link. Open Font Library link, where he is known as psb6m. Fontspace link. Link to his foundry, Thornbec Staefwyrhtan. Github link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Peter Bilak

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Peter Bilak

Slovakian type designer (b. 1973), who lives in The Netherlands. Bio at FontFont. Designed: FF Atlanta, FF Craft (Kafkaesque), Champollion, Collapse, Didot Sans (unpublished), Decoratica (great display font, unpublished), Desthetica (grunge, but nice!), FF Eureka, FF Eureka Sans (2000), FF Eureka Mono (2001, FontFont), FF Eureka SansCond, FF Eureka Symbols (2002), FF Eureka CE, FF Eureka Sans CE, FF Eureka Sans Office (2011), FF Eureka Mono Office (2011), Fountain Pen (free fountain pen nib dingbat font), FF Masterpiece (wacky), FF Orbital, Fedra Sans (2001, a de-protestantised version of Univers, originally a corporate font for Bayerische Rück, a German insurance company), Fedra Bitmap (2002), Euroface (1996, Typerware, a scribbly font allegedly more legible than Helvetica at 80km/h), HolyCow and The Case. Essays on typography and design. Editor of dot dot dot. He also made AccentKernMaker, a font utility. Peter Bilak now lives in The Hague, The Netherlands, at the same address as Paul van der Laan. Free dingbat font FountainPen (Mac). At ATypI 2004 in Prague, he spoke about white spaces in typography. Speaker at ATypI 2005 in Helsinki. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Peter Gabor
[Design & typo]

[More]  ⦿

Peter Karow's K-coefficient

Peter Karow of Ikarus and URW fame designed a mathematical formula, the K-coefficient, for measuring the boldness of a typeface. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Peter Reichard
[Spatium Newsletter]

[More]  ⦿

Peter S. Baker
[Peter Baker's old English page at the University of Virginia]

[More]  ⦿

Philadelphia Lining Gothic

A late-nineteenth-century gothic sans typeface that originated with MS&J. MS&J cut it in many weights. Mac McGrew: In 1912 Monotype copied one of these, which would have been known as Bold Condensed except that the foundry designated variations only by numbers; this was No.8. As a foundry type it was notable for the number of versions available; as a single Monotype typeface it is undistinguished. ATF continued to cast the family for a decade or so after the merger in 1892, then replaced these typefaces with the News, Alternate, and Franklin Gothic families. The Monotype copy lasted much longer. Hansen's Extended Lining Gothic was a copy of Philadelphia Lining Gothic No. 14. Compare Mid-Gothic, Wide Line Gothic.

For digital revivals, see the free font Philadelphian Gothic (2015, Paul Davy). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Philippe Coueignoux
[The Coueignoux system]

[More]  ⦿

Philippe Marquet's Bookmarks

List of typographical links. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Pictograms, pictotype

In a 2011 issue of Typo (Vol. 45), Victor Garcia makes an argument in favor of the words pictogram for a dingbat and pictotype for a dingbat font. Other terms he discusses include pictographs and iconics. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Pierre Terrier

[More]  ⦿


Jonathan Hoefler explains the origins of the pilcrow: Like most punctuation, the paragraph mark (or pilcrow) has an exotic history. It's tempting to recognize the symbol as a "P for paragraph," though the resemblance is incidental: in its original form, the mark was an open C crossed by a vertical line or two, a scribal abbreviation for capitulum, the Latin word for "chapter." Because written forms evolve through haste, the strokes through the C gradually came to descend further and further, its overall shape ultimately coming to resemble the modern "reverse P" by the beginning of the Renaissance. Early liturgical works, in imitation of written manuscripts, favored the traditional C-shaped capitulum; many modern bibles still do. A capitulum is by no means out of place in a modern font, either: top row center is H&FJ Didot, whose neoclassical origins suggested the inclusion of a shape from antiquity. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Four crazy women (Aurie, Crystal, Kiana and Sheila) have a nice FAQ for typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Placard MT Condensed

The compact sans typeface family Placard Monotype dates from 1958. It was based upon Placard by the Lange Type Foundry in Saint Petersburg, Russia. That font in turn was an adaptation of Hermes Grotesk (Wilhelm Woellmer, 1911). Digital versions were created by Monotype, Monotype again (as Placard Next, 2018, by Malou Verlomme), Softmaker (P760 Sans), Tagir Safayev / Paratype (Hermes, 1993) and Castcraft (OPTI Pilsen Bold Condensed). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Planète Typographie

Jean-Christophe Loubet del Bayle's web site on typography. In French. Besides articles, there are also useful type links. Old pages. Temps typographiques. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Planet Typography

Type news. Type museum. Small archive. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Podium Sans

Wiki page on Podium Sans from which I quote: Podium Sans is the typeface used on all models of iPod with color displays. When the iPod photo was first announced Apple claimed [1] that the device featured a "new Myriad typeface," stating "Now in living color, it's easier to read than ever. Thats thanks in part to the clarity of the display it offers 220x176-pixel resolution and in part to the new Myriad typeface." The use of Adobe Myriad would have been the first example of Apple using the same font in branding and user interface and indeed the high-res Photoshop mock-ups clearly used the font. However, at the time few noticed that the font on the devices was missing Myriad's trademark features, such as its 'k' and 'K', its splayed 'M' and distinctive 'y'. Some of these changes, such as the straightening of the 'M', could be explained by Apple's designers simplifying the design to accommodate the small size and low resolution of the device compared to print, however other changes are harder to explain. Whether Podium Sans started life as Myriad or another humanist sans-serif font is up for debate, but Apple no longer mentions the Myriad typeface in connection with the iPod user interface. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Point Central

French typographical non-profit organization, run by Guillaume-Ulrich Chifflot, but now off-line. It had sections entiteled "Font user's guide', "Anatomy of a font", "Bibliography", "Intro to wood type" (Stephen O. Saxe, 1983), "Font-making tutorial". [Google] [More]  ⦿


French type and web typography site, with commentary and tips. [Google] [More]  ⦿

PowerPoint Is Evil

Not directly a type issue, but something I take to heart anyway: the decline in the quality of presentations due to PowerPoint. The argument here is made by one of the world's best speakers, Ed Tufte (Yale University), and the full frontal attack is in his 2003 book, The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint, available from Graphics Press. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Gerrit van Aaken]

Gerrit van Aaken's essays on and dissections of some free fonts. In German. Gerrit also designed the free experimental typeface Gerrystyle (2005, 26plus-zeichen), by extreme manipulation and alteration of Aldo Novarese's Eurostile Bold (1962). At iFontMaker, Gerrit made the hand-printed Gerry Sans (2010). [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Laurens Leurs]

Laurens Leurs' page, with special attention paid to PostScript errors. It contains a database of known PostScript errors and offending commands, including tips on how to get rid of the errors (if possible). Also included is a brief history of the world's 30 most important typefaces. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Preußisches Bleisatz-Magazin
[Georg Kraus]

Substantial German web site about metal type run by Georg Kraus (Ratingen, Rheinland). It has a fantastic collection of JPG samples of old metal specimen, all precisely dated and attributed, an invaluable historic record for those who do not have access to the old specimen books. Unfortunately, Kraus passed away at the young age of 55, as reported by Rainer Zerenko, his Austrian friend: One of our typophiles, Georg Kraus, has passed away on July 22nd 2010. He was a man with character, who didn't refuse to tell his own opinion, especially if it is against the mainstream. He was a keeper of lost typefaces, a provider of vintage typespecimen; a fighter for the black art, for mankind, for his home country. He lost his last fight this July. I will always remember you, Georg. Gott grüß die Kunst. Martin Z. Schröder's obituary of Kraus. Pic. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Printer.com: most economical fonts

Dutch page in which the ink cartridge costs are calculated for ten popular fonts. The famous Ecofont got actually beaten by Century Gothic. The table:
Position   Font  Size  Coverage  Annual costs (private)  Annual costs (business)
1 Century Gothic 10 2,96% 36,82 161,64
2 Ecofont 10 3,17% 39,43 173,11
3 Times Roman 11 3,25% 40,43 177,48
4 Calibri 11 3,44% 42,79 187,85
5 Verdana 10 3,89% 48,39 212,43
6 Sans Serif 11 4,38% 54,48 239,19
7 Trebuchet 11 4,43% 55,10 241,92
8 Arial 11 4,47% 55,60 244,10
9 Tahoma 11 4,68% 58,21 255,57
10 Franklin Gothic Medium 11 4,97% 61,82 271,40
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Publications GUTenberg

The Cahiers GUTenberg and La Lettre GUTenberg are French publications dealing with all typographical matters. They are situated on the threshold between good typographical practice and the development of related software. Archives GUTenberg. Run from IRISA in Rennes. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Pulleys and planks

Apostrophe on a type designer's passions. [Google] [More]  ⦿


In 2002, Jared Benson and Joseph Pemberton formed PUNCHCUT in Emeryville, CA, where they "design, operate and produce Typophile, a collaborative, online typographic community."

In 2012, they published the free sans typeface Amble at Fontsquirrel. Pemberton writes: In 2010 Sun licensed it for inclusion in the JavaFX SDK for mobile handsets. Any similarity to Droid stems from a similar creative brief over at Ascender Corp. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Python for designers
[Roberto Arista]

A page on Python for designers brought to you by Roberto Arista. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Quiet Pleasures

Fantastic pages about typography by Gunnlauger Briem. Some wonderful advice for web page typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Quixote Digital Typography

Publishers of Serif, The Magazine of Type and Typography, edited by Don Hosek. Page disappeared. [Google] [More]  ⦿

R. Altman

An on-line article by R. Altman and Associates entitled "Drawing Conclusions Fighting the Font Wars": it explains how to handle fonts on PCs. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ralf Hermann
[The main type mistakes]

[More]  ⦿

Ralf S. Engelschall

[More]  ⦿

Ralf Turtschi
[Arial: ein Nekrolog]

[More]  ⦿

Ralph C. Coxhead
[Varityper: 1946 Catalog]

[More]  ⦿

Randa Abdel Baki

Randa Abdel Baki is a scholar, graphic designer and artist, currently living in Beirut. She chairs the Graphic Design Department and is an Assistant Professor at Lebanese American University. Among the courses she teaches are Intro to Typography and Advanced Typography classes with an emphasis on Arabic type and layout design. Currently, her interest is on highlighting successful bilingual compositional methods, solving the challenges of Arabic and Latin bilingual type layouts. Speaker at ATypI 2010 in Dublin where she explained bilingual (Latin&Arabic) layout systems. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ray Larabie on Helvetica

Ray Larabie's axiom: If you work on a font long enough it will turn into Helvetica. [Google] [More]  ⦿


German lobby for good handwriting. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Recognizing a Bembo
[Coulton Thomas]

Coulton Thomas (Kansas City, MO) shows the features of Aldus Manutius's Bembo in 2016. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Recuperacion de la tipografia Ibarra
[Sandra Baldassarri]

Short course by Sandra Baldassarri, Universidad de Zaragoza, on typography. In Spanish. Dead link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Reddoor Blog

Great design blog with "free lessons", including several ones on typefaces and typography. Located in El Segundo, CA. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Règles de typographie française

Rules of French typography (punctuation, etc.), compiled by people at the Université René Descartes in Paris. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Useful tips for starting font collectors. A few solid starter links. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Review of Adobe Type on Call CD v4.0

By Lawrence Hurlbert, Alamo PC. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Review Of Astigmatic One Eye

By Chris MacGregor. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Review of Big Daddy

Designed by Two Moon Media, this 10 dollar shareware font was rated 5/10 by Typeslug. Typeslug writes: " Before you go to this site to download Big Daddy or any of their other fonts, let me warn you that they only come in enormous archives and the connection to their site is incredibly unreliable. I attempted to download Big Daddy 16 times before it worked, and it was only an 899k file. Most of the others are pushing 2mb in size. You may wonder why a shareware, truetype font comes in such a huge package, well it's because it includes three weights and four styles of the face, so you're getting 12 fonts, except that they aren't in postscript format or available for the Macintosh, so to some degree the effort is wasted. That said, Big Daddy seems to be a pretty nice font. It is a sans-serif typeface which more than fits the appelation 'grotesque'. The characters are very fat towards the bottom and taper on curves and towards the top. Even in the lighter weights the font has a heavy look, ... (etcetera)". [Google] [More]  ⦿

Review Of Brian Sooy

By Chris MacGregor. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Review Of CHANK, aka Charles Anderson

By Chris MacGregor. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Review of Chapparal

Adobe's MM font Chapparal (by Carol Twombly) discussed by Charles Hedrick from Rutgers University. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Review of Minion

Robert Slimbach's Minion is reviewed by Tim Rolands. Dead link? [Google] [More]  ⦿

Review of Monotype Bulmer

Ron Carpenter's Monotype Bulmer is reviewed by Tim Rolands. Dead link? [Google] [More]  ⦿

Review of P22 Kells

P22's Kells is reviewed by Cindy Farmer. Dead link? [Google] [More]  ⦿

Review of PMN Caecilia

Peter Matthias Noordzij's PMN Caecilia discussed by Charles Hedrick from Rutgers University. [Google] [More]  ⦿

RibbonType: Josh Nimoy
[Josh Nimoy]

Davenport Sans is a typeface that is formed by positioning six brushes. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Richard Rutter

Exemplary web page by Brighton-based Richard Rutter on web typography. He showcases the first few pages of Robert Bringhurst's book. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Rob Saunders
[Letterform Archive]

[More]  ⦿

Roberto Arista
[Python for designers]

[More]  ⦿

Robin Williams: Type Talk

Great essays by Robin Williams at EyeWire about type. The excellent piece by Garrett Boge, A good font is hard to find, is a must. Link disappeared. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Roboto (or: Google Android Design)
[Christian Robertson]

In October 2011, Google unveiled its in-house production, Roboto, a sans typeface developed by Christian Robertson for Android 4.0, that can be downloaded here, here, and here.

John Gruber: I wouldn't call it a Helvetica rip-off (like Arial), but Android 4's new system font Roboto is definitely a lot more Helvetica-esque than Droid Sans (the old Android font) was. I'd say it's like a cross between Helvetica and DIN, but inherited more of Helvetica's genes. Here's a comparison I just whipped up between the two---each word set once in each font. (Helvetica on the top, Roboto on the bottom, in case you can't tell the difference.) I doubt most people could tell them apart, and the uppercase R is almost shameless. Definitely a better-looking typeface than Droid Sans, though, that's for sure.

Stephen Coles writes that Roboto is a Four-headed Frankenfont. Excerpts: Its parents are a Grotesk sans (like a slightly condensed Helvetica) and a Humanist sans (like Frutiger or Myriad). There is nothing wrong with combining elements of these two styles to create something new. The crime is in the way they were combined: grabbing letters---almost wholesale---from the Grotesk model, along with a Univers-inspired Y and G, welding them to letters from the Humanist model, and then bolting on three straight-sided caps à la DIN. When an alphabet has such unrelated glyphs it can taste completely different depending on the word. Fudge is casual and contemporary. Marshmallow is rigid and classical. This is not a typeface. It's a tossed salad. Or a four-headed Frankenstein. You never know which personality you'll get. For now, I can only speculate on how this beast came to be. The font files credit the design to Christian Robertson, whom I know to be a very bright professional with some decent work under his belt, including the convincing handwriter Dear Sarah and the adorable Ubuntu Titling font. Either Google tied him down and made unreasonable demands or there's something nasty in the water down in Mountain View. To be fair, I haven't seen the fonts on a phone, in person, and Google promises that they are built specifically for that medium. But I can't imagine that would erase the inherent problem with the design. There are some good shapes in Roboto, they just belong in multiple typefaces. In any event, Roboto probably won't terrorize mobile screens for very long. Helvetica and Frutiger are immortal. Hodgepodge brutes like these usually have a short lifespan. Image by Stephen Coles.

Later additions include Roboto Mono (2015) and Roboto Slab (2013). Someone posted the free derived fonts Franko and Franco, both dated 2013, in 2016 on the Open Font Library site, the names referring to the four-headed Frankenstein Stephen Coles described. Franzo (2016) is a reworking of Roboto Slab.

Google Web Fonts download link. Fontspace link. Dafont link. Download at CTAN. Roboto Mono (2015) at Google Fonts. Google Plus link. Klingspor link. FontShop link. [Google] [More]  ⦿


French type information site, with a bibliography, a type classification according to Vox, a glossary (in french), and type anatomy pages. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Frank Hinman Pierpont]

Rockwell is a slab serif typeface designed at Monotype in 1934 under the supervision of Frank Hinman Pierpont. Rockwell is geometric (very circular O and o) and distinct (A has a roof). Because of its monoweight stroke, Rockwell is primarily a display face. Rockwell is based on an earlier, more condensed slab serif design called Litho Antique (1910, Inland Type Foundry). Litho Antique is considered as the first geometric slab serif typeface.

This typeface is called Geometric Slabserif 712 at Bitstream, and L850 Slab, Rambault and Stafford at SoftMaker.

Images by Viktoria Smykova: i ii, iii, iv. Poster by William Cundall. Rockwell poster by Hugo Ugaz. Rockwell poster by Jess Langley. Rockwell poster by Jessica Cantu. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Roger C. Parker

Ideas for successfully communicating in-print, on-screen and in-person. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Roger Excoffon
[Antique Olive]

[More]  ⦿

Roger Hersch

Professor Hersch heads the Peripheral Systems Laboratory at the EPFL. His team is exploring new paradigms in colour imaging and media, such as colour prediction, colour reproduction, artistic imaging, anti-counterfeiting and digital typography techniques. He has written extensively on pixelization and screen imaging for typefaces. See, for example, Roger Hersch, Jacques André, and Heather Brown: Electronic Publishing, Artistic Imaging, and Digital Typography (Springer Verlag, 1998). He has also worked on parametrization and modularization of typefaces, e.g., in the paper by C. Hu and R.D. Hersch, Parameterizable Fonts Based on Shape Components, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 21, pp. 70-85, 2001. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Roger McGough poem

but now i'm sadly lowercase
with the occasional italic [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ron Sellers
[Typography 1]

[More]  ⦿

Ross Evans on Japanese font technology

An essay by Ross Evans, president of Fontworks, about the creation of Japanese fonts, and in particular about Fontworks' "2x2" stroke-based tool. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Comments on Otl Aicher's Rotis by Robert Kinross and Erik Spiekermann.

    Robert Kinross: Isn't the truth about Rotis, that the sans works quite well in very large sizes, as an architectural and signing letter (as Foster Associates realised); but that it is just mediocre (the sans) or actually incompetent (the seriffed fonts) as a typographic letter; ductus is pretty important in the way letters work together. I cant see that these ill-fitting, ill-suited letters are even an honourable failure, as has been suggested warm-heartedly, because its not clear that their designer had any coherent purpose in mind. Otl Aicher was a good graphic designer, a fine photographer, made some very nice posters, and did some pretty good magazine design work, but despite what he liked to think he wasn't a good typographer or book designer. His work in that sphere is very formalist: just disposing areas of grey texture around the page. He thought lines of text should form an even block of tone, without visible line space (he told me this proudly when I interviewed him, and it is explained in his book Typographie, as I remember). I suppose Rotis was made with that view of text in mind.
  • Erik Spiekermann: Isn't the truth about Rotis, that it has some great letters, but they never come together in one typeface. It looks best on gravestones and similar large architectural applications, as Robin suggests. We have a word for that in German: Rotis is a Kopfgeburt, it is born from (by?) the head. Aicher wrote a great theory about how one would have to make the most legible typeface ever but then proceeded to prove with Rotis that a theory makes a typeface not. He was a graphic designer, and the difference between us and them is that they start with an image of a page (preferably with all type looking evenly grey) and assemble elements images, headlines, text until that mental image corresponds to the look of the page. We the typographic designers read the text, think about who might read it and where, choose a size for the publication, a typeface, a column width, margins, etc. The resulting page may never win prizes and certainly won't be art (in the creative sense), but it will be legible, even readable and it should also be aesthetically pleasing. As many designers seem to lack critical faculties (present company obviously excepted), they judged Rotis by the theory cleverly provided and not by the evidence in front of their eyes. Whenever I speak out against Rotis, I am accused of jealousy and not giving credit to a fellow typedesigner. It is interesting to note that not one real type designer considers Rotis a typeface. Aicher certainly didn't do himself a favour by aiming so high with his first proper type design (he had previously adapted Univers for Bulthaupt and the Traffic typeface for Munich airport).

View digital typefaces that are like Rotis. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Sander Neijnens

[More]  ⦿

Sandra Baldassarri
[Recuperacion de la tipografia Ibarra]

[More]  ⦿

Sans Serif Font Identification Guide

Mike Yanega's useful guide for identifying sans serif typefaces, based on an ae / Gg grid, and on a My / aR grid. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Scalable fonts

Deirdre Saoirse writes about a talk on scalable fonts by Curvesoft's Munagala V.S. Ramanath. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Scannerlicker on finding fonts

Scannerlicker guide on finding fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Schrift der Eurokennzeichen

About the type used on German license plates. FE-Schrift by Karlgeorg Hoefer (1914-2000) replaces the older DIN-Schrift. FE Schrift is based on the letterforms of a little known typographer (the article does not say who). [Google] [More]  ⦿


German page about typography. Has some history, and a glossary. Link died. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Horst Enzensberger's pages on German ways of writing, and type forms. He deals briefly with these type forms: Antiqua; Bastarda; Beneventana; Buchschrift; Capitalis; Fraktur; gotische Minuskel; Halbkursive; Halbunziale; Kalligraphie; Kanzleischrift; karolingische Minuskel; Kurrentschrift; Kursive; Lateinschrift; Ligatur; Nationalschriften; Rotunda; Textura; Unziale; Urkundenschrift. [Google] [More]  ⦿


A box of 180 type cards can be bought from this Swiss company. The instructive set was designed by Richard Frick and Samuel Marty. In German. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Wonderful German site concerned with typography. Plus a German glossary. Small free font archive. Type in use on posters, such as this beautiful 1964 poster by Lou Dorfsman (1918-2008).

Their type classification:

  • Venetian renaissance antiqua (15th through 17th centuries). Called humanians in England, and humanes in France. Slightly left-leaning axis. Mostly characterized by a sloped stroke on the e. Includes Deepdene, Horley Old Style, Jersey.
  • French renaissance antiqua (15th through 17th centuries). Also called garaldes. More left-leaning axis than the Venetians, and more contrast-rich as well. Examples include Sabon Antiqua, Goudy Old Style, Palatino, and all Garamonds.
  • Baroque antiqua (17th through 19th centuries). Called transitionals in anglophone countries. These typefaces have more contrast than the old style (or antiqua) typefaces. Examples include Caslon, Baskerville and Times New Roman.
  • Klassizistische Antiqua, didones, or modern typefaces, developed between 1750 and 1800. Characterized by high contrast, ball terminlas, thin square serifs and a logical design, these include Walbaum, Caledonia, Didot and Bodoni.
  • Slab serifs or Egyptiennes or mechanistic typefaces, 19th and 20th centuries. Blocky serifs with some didone influences left in the glyphs. Examples incluude Clarendon, Impressum and Lubalin Graph.
  • Sans serifs, aka lineales in French and lineals in English. Developed starting in the 19th and 20th centuries, the sans serifs include Franklin Gothic, Avant garde and Helvetica.
  • Antiqua variants, and incised typefaces.
  • Scripts.
  • Hand-drawn antiqua. These include Delphin, Time Script and Ondine.
  • Gebrochene Schriften
  • Non-Latin scripts.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Scotch Roman

Great discussion on Typophile regarding Scotch Roman. We have two different opinions on the source of Scotch Roman: Linotype gives it to Richard Austin, while DeVinne credits Samuel Nelson Dickinson with modelling the first Scotch in Boston in 1837. Both sources agree that it was first cut by Alexander Wilson and Son in Glasgow. In 1839, Dickinson opened his foundry with the Scotch matrices.

Scotch is a great book and magazine typeface (short ascenders and descenders, good width, strong capitals, bracketed serifs, moderate contrast, calligraphic italics). Scotch typefaces initially come from Scottish foundries, which were popular in the United States in the late 18th century, through the Victorian era and even most of the 20th century among books, magazines, newspapers, and advertisements. It has always been more popular in the USA than elsewhere.

Scan of 6-50pt Scotch Roman from the 1912 ATF book. And of 34-60pt. Summary of some Scotch typefaces:

  • Dwiggins' Caledonia.
  • Matthew Carter created many Scoth Romans. Witness his FB Miller, Georgia ("Scotch Roman for screen"), Vincent, Big Figgins, Elephant, Caledonia (for Time magazine), and Linotype Monticello (after Binny & Ronaldson's Pica Roman No. 1, done for Princeton University Press).
  • Another font in this gene is FB Scotch (1993) by David Berlow (for Newsweek), based on the original Scotch and on Dwiggins' Caledonia.
  • Scotch Roman (Linotype), traced back to A.D. Farmer, 1904.
  • Scotch Roman by Nick Shinn.
  • Schorel (2019). A 54-style Scotch roman by Jeremy Dooley.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Scott Kim

Scott Kim received an interdisciplinary Ph.D. in Computers and Graphic Design from Stanford University, where he was supervised by Don Knuth. At Xerox PARC he worked under Adobe founder John Warnock, and programmed images in JaM, a predecessor of PostScript. He has designed logos for Silicon Graphics and the Game Developers Conference, and designs puzzles for computer games and print. His lettering designs appear in his book Inversions, and on his web site. The inversions are about ambigrams, words written so that that they can be read in several ways, either after reflection or rotation. Recipient of the Digital typography prize at the Tokyo Type Directors Club TDC 2003 competition. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Screen fonts: a fresh start

Dead link. An informative article by David Berlow. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Sean Cavanaugh

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Sean Hodge
[Twelve sources of inspiration]

[More]  ⦿

Sebastian Kosch
[Kerning: A survey]

[More]  ⦿

Sebastian Kosch

[More]  ⦿

Sebastien Morlighem
[Fat Faces: origins]

[More]  ⦿

September 11

A font consisting of nothing but question marks, each designed by a different type designer. Sold by Myfonts.com, the proceeds will go to the American Red Cross. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Serif: The Magazine of Type & Typography

Edited by Don Hosek. Type links. Complete table of contents. This publication seems to be in limbo as this Feb 24, 2003 posting by Hrant Papazian shows: "Dear Mr Hosek, Normal channels of communication have failed. The last time this happened, a post to Typo-L succeeded in getting through to you, so here I am again, trying to get a refund on Serif, which has not shipped an issue in about three years. This past September you wrote on Typo-L: "I'll give refunds to the impatient"*. I declared myself as impatient and asked for a refund. I was advised on September 26 that the refund has been issued but it would take upto two billing cycles. It's now been about four cycles, and still nothing. Could you please let me know what to expect? Is there perhaps some information I could throw at my bank?" [Google] [More]  ⦿


Floodfonts discusses serifs: oldstyle serifs, transitional serifs, hairline serifs, unbracketed and bracketed slab serifs, wedge serifs. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Seven free tools to identify a font

Font recognition tools and strategies::

[Google] [More]  ⦿

Sexy type from Toronto

An article by Erin Kobayashi in the Toronto Star about Nick Shinn's types. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Shady Characters The secret life of punctuation
[Keith Houston]

UK-based Keith Houston's blog about the unusual stories behind some well-known marks of punctuation. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Shape Method
[Mark MacKay]

An on-line learning game for creating perfect Bezier shapes for letters. Created by Mark MacKay, the game presents you with a single mis-shaped character, encouraging you to adjust multiple Bezier handles until you have smoothed out its curves and corners. It can be played on a desktop, iPhone or iPad. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Shaun Coke

Graphic designer in Bozeman, MT. He created some nice posters that explain the different features of typefaces as well as the classification of types: Anatomy, [continued], Modern typefaces, Old style typefaces, Sans serif, Slab serif, Transitional typefaces. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Shealyn McGee

Traverse City, MI-based graphic designer and photographer, who studies at Grand Valley State University. She made some helpful type posters that illustrate typeface classification. A | B | C | D | E. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Short Cuts

ATypI Fringe newspaper from October 1997. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Sibe Kokke
[Type Generator]

[More]  ⦿

Silo Design
[Susanne Cerha]

Brooklyn, NY-based multidisciplinary design company of New Yorker Susanne Cerha and her Norwegian husband Terje Vist. In the type world best known for their spectaculrly beautiful Flash-based web page Type Is Art, where one can interactively make art from parts of typefaces. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Simon Garfield
[The 8 Worst Fonts In The World]

[More]  ⦿

Simon Loxley

Author of Type: The Secret History of Letters (2004, I.B. Taurus, London, UK). See also Google books. Cover of that book. Anatomy of type drawing from that book. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Slab serif

An article by Keith Tam: "The revival of the slab serif typefaces in the 20th century". [Google] [More]  ⦿

Slab Serif Fonts

Linotype piece on slab serif typefaces, with its own classification into Clarendons, Contemporary Text Faces, Classic Text Faces, Standard-Bearers, and Massive Display Examples. Slab serifs started in industrial England in the 19th century and are also called Egyptians.

  • Clarendons: The first Clarendon was introduced in 1845 by R. Besley&Co, The Fann Street Foundry. It is one of the more refined slab serif typefaces. Monotype, Adobe and Linotype each have their own Clarendon families.
  • Contemporary Text Faces: PMN Caecilia (by Dutch typeface designer Peter Matthias Noordzij) starts off this list, followed by Diverda Serif, Aptifer Slab, Generis Slab, Amasis, Calvert, Chaparral, Compatil Letter, HoTom, ITC Officina Serif, Siseriff and Soho.
  • Classic Text Faces: Newspaper types like Excelsior, Impressum and Ionic, or solid slab serifs like Memphis, Egyptian 505 (by Gürtler) and Egyptienne F (by Frutiger).
  • Others: Apollo, Breughel (1982, Adrian Frutiger), ITC Century, New Century Schoolbook, Joanna, Linoletter, Nimrod, Linotype Really (1999, Gary Munch), Perrywood and Scotch (surely, the latter is a mistake).
  • Standard-Bearers: Started by Memphis (1929, Rudolf Wolf) and Beton (Heinrich Jost), and followed by the sixties typeface Glypha (Frutiger). Others: Candida, Courier, Epokha, ITC Magnifico, Rockwell, Venus Egyptienne.
  • Massive Display Examples: Dark and heavy, this group includes Aachen, Linotype Authentic, Figaro, Jeunesse Slab, ITC Lubalin Graph, Neo Contact, Old Town No 536, Playbill, Princetoiwn, Retro Bold, Wanted, Waterloo Bold, Westside. Many of these are so-called Western saloon or wanted poster fonts.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Society for Italic Handwriting

Was run by Christopher Jarman. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Society of Graphic Designers of Canada

[More]  ⦿

Society of Typographic Designers

Association run by David Quay and Freda Sack of The Foundry (London). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Sofia Open Content Initiative
[Carolyn Brown]

Carolyn Brown's on-line course notes on Creative Typography, done in 2004 at the Foothill-De Anza Community College. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Soldiers of lead

A discussion of the origins of the beautiful quote: With twenty-six soldiers of lead I can conquer the world. Francis Meynell in "Typography" (Pelican press, 1923) seems to place the date at around 1640. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Sommaire ete

Dead link. Typographical discussions and annotated links. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Sooraj Negi

Mohali, India-based designer of the Periodic Table of Typefaces (2017). Behance link. [Google] [More]  ⦿


The Society of Typographic Aficionados (SOTA) was founded in 1997 by Bob Colby. One of its first presidents was Tony Di Pietro. He was succeeded by Tamye Riggs, and Deborah Gonet. [The presidents were originally called directors and then chairs.] The main activity nowadays is the organization of the annual TypeCon conference. Its current mission: "The Society of Typographic Aficionados" is an international not-for-profit organization dedicated to the promotion, study, and support of type, its history and development, its use in the world of print and digital imagery, its designers, and its admirers."

In 2018, the (entirely North-American) Board of Directors consisted of Neil Summerour (Chair), Sharon Oiga, Delve Withrington, Mary Catherine Pflug, Theresa Dela Cruz, Grant Hutchinson, Xerxes Irani, Frank J. Martinez, Erin McLaughlin, Matthew Carter, James Grieshaber, Allan Haley, Richard Kegler, and David Pankow. Interestingly, while society has a strict DMCA policy, the board has people who have a checkered past in this respect. [Google] [More]  ⦿

SOTA Catalyst Award

The Society of Typographic Aficionados created the Catalyst Award in 2010 to recognize young people who have created original work in type design, type history, or other areas related to typography. Each year, the award is presented to someone who shows both current achievements and future promise in the typographic fields. The primary purpose of the award is to act as a catalyst in the career of a young person who does not yet have broad exposure in the profession. The award is presented at the annual TypeCon conference. Recipients: Satya Rajpurohit (2010), Erin McLaughlin (2011), Niko Skourtis (2012), Kyle Read (2013), Krista Radoeva (2014), Shiva Nallaperumal (2015), Roxane Gataud (2016), Ramakrishna Saiteja (2017), Frida Medrano (2018), Ruggero Magrì (2019), and Anagha Narayanan (2020.) [Google] [More]  ⦿

Space characters

Microsoft's page on space characters, with precise definitions. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Spanish characters

[Google] [More]  ⦿

Spark 34: Words

A CBC piece by Nora Young on type and words, broadcast on April 23 and 26, 2008. It features parts of an interview of Patrick Griffin of Canada Type. [Google] [More]  ⦿


A famous geometric sans style started at ATF in 1936, now know as Linotype's answer to Futura. Mac McGrew writes: Spartan as produced by Linotype and ATF is equivalent to Futura (q.v.). Although it is claimed to have been derived from several similar European typefaces, the differences between it and Futura are so slight that for most practical purposes they are almost interchangeable. Linotype announced Sanserif 52 and Italic early in 1939; later in the same year these typefaces were offered as Spartan Black, along with light, medium, and heavy weights, all with italics. In 1941 ATF cut some of these typefaces; by arrangement with Mergenthaler the small sizes were cut to match. Over the following dozen years or more, additional weights and widths were drawn by Bud Renshaw and Gerry Powell for ATF, and by Linotype staff designers. Renshaw's Spartan Medium Condensed, drawn in 1953, is wider than the corresponding typefaces in other families. In 1955 Linotype announced Spartan Bold, "the latest member of the Spartan family; slightly larger on the body than Spartan Heavy and more compactly fitted." Spartan Extra Black is heavier than the comparable typefaces from other sources. ATF made supplementary Advertising Figures, Decimal Figures, and Fractions for several weights of Spartan. Spartan Circuit and Spartan Circuit Heavy are 1964 adaptations of the design by Linotype for Teletypesetter use, requiring modification of character widths. Compare Erbar Bold. Also see Classified Display, Tempo Alternate, Twentieth Century.

Digital descendants abound:

  • League Spartan (2014). Only in one weight, Bold, this is free and well executed. It was extended to seven weights in 2017 by Matt Bailey as Spartan MB. In 2020, League Spartan Variable was released, thanks to Micah Rich and Tyler Finck.
  • Spartan Book Classified and Spartan Heavy Classified by Linotype. The original date of the metal version is 1951. Linotype admits to the origin of this face: This typeface is Mergenthaler Linotype's unlicensed version of Futura, copied weight by weight from Bauer. It was produced in 1939 when Metro failed to gain a significant share of the market, and was later adopted by ATF. The small sizes of Book and Heavy cut for classified are original.
  • Adobe's Spartan Classified pair of typefaces mimicks the Linotype set. If in doubt, use Futura instead of Spartan for applications.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Spatium Newsletter
[Peter Reichard]

German site concerned with typography, type news, interviews, links, and discussions, and masterfully managed by Peter Reichard (Offenbach) and Christopher Lindlohr (Frankfurt). It was active from 2002 until 2012. Peter designed the cute dingbat font PixelheadHandmadeBeta (2001). Pixel font links. Typosition is an on-line type-in-design mag (free, PDF format). Now also in print. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Specialty Fonts

By DesktopPublishing. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Nick Sherman]

A net web site by Nick Sherman, which shows oversized specimen of fonts with links to MyFonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Spiekermann on Adobe's Futura

Comments by Erik Spiekermann on Adobe's Futura when he had to try to get his client, Volkswagen a decent geometric typeface: "The version from Adobe is clearly badly digitized. [...] If Futura's O is supposed to look like a perfect circle, why does it look like an egg? And look at the counters in a, g, and e! Those are also supposed to be circular, not egg-shaped. So we took the typeface apart and reassembled it." [Google] [More]  ⦿

Spy Graphics

Electronic publishing consultants (London, UK). Includes articles, written by members of the team. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Stan Schwartz
[Cont Ed Typography]

[More]  ⦿

Star Office

StarOffice, known briefly as Oracle Open Office before being discontinued in 2011, was a proprietary office suite. It originated in 1985 as StarWriter by Star Division, which was acquired by Sun Microsystems in 1999. Sun Microsystems, in turn, was acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2010. StarOffice supported the OpenOffice.org XML file format, as well as the OpenDocument standard, and could generate PDF and Flash formats. It included templates, a macro recorder, and a software development kit (SDK). The source code of the suite was released in July 2000, creating a free, open source office suite called OpenOffice.org, which subsequent versions of StarOffice were based on, with additional proprietary components.

Proprietary components of Star Office included twelve Latin fonts and seven Asian language fonts. The Latin fonts have copyrights that refer to Agfa/Monotype or Monotype, and are dated between 1998 and 2001. The list of Latin fonts: Albany-Bold, Albany, Albany-Italic, Albany-Bold-Italic, Andale-Sans-Regular, Andale-Sans-Bold, Andale-Sans-Bold-Italic, Andale-Sans-Italic, Andale-Sans-UI, Arial-Narrow, Arial-Narrow-Bold, Arial-Narrow-Bold-Italic, Arial-Narrow-Italic, Arial-Black, Broadway, Cumberland-Bold, Cumberland-Bold-Italic, Cumberland, Cumberland-Italic, Garamond-Bold, Garamond-Bold-Italic, Garamond-Italic, Garamond, Imprint-MT-Shadow-Italic, Imprint-MT-Shadow, Kidprint, Kidprint-Bold, Palace-Script-MT, Palace-Script-SemiBold, Sheffield-Bold, Sheffield-Italic, Sheffield, StarSymbol, Thorndale-Bold, Thorndale, Thorndale-Italic, Thorndale-Bold-Italic. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Stealing sheep

In 1936, Frederic Goudy received a certificate of excellence that was handlettered in blackletter and immediately stated, Anyone who would letterspace blackletter would steal sheep, and this hurt the calligrapher's feelings. Goudy's statement has been misquoted for many years as Anyone who would letterspace lowercase would steal sheep. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Stefan Lundhem

[More]  ⦿

Stephen Coles

[More]  ⦿

Stephen Coles's Flickr page

Over the years, Stephen Coles's Flickr page has grown to a real resource, and also a valuable source of inspiration. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Steve Dell

Steve Dell teaches digital art design at Miami ad School in California. His site has an Adobe InDesign course, where one can find a beautiful type history primer, and a zipped font folder with these fonts: ACaslonPro-Italic, AGaramondPro-Regular, AJensonPro-Regular, ArnoPro-Bold, ArnoPro-Italic, ArnoPro-Smbd, BickhamScriptPro-Bold, BickhamScriptPro-Regular, BlackoakStd, GrotesqueMTStd-Black, GrotesqueMTStd-Bold, GrotesqueMTStd-BoldExtended, GrotesqueMTStd-Condensed, GrotesqueMTStd-ExtraCond, GrotesqueMTStd-Italic, GrotesqueMTStd-Light, GrotesqueMTStd-LightCond, GrotesqueMTStd-LightItalic, GrotesqueMTStd, HelveticaNeueLTStd-Bd, HelveticaNeueLTStd-Blk, HelveticaNeueLTStd-It, HelveticaNeueLTStd-Md, HelveticaNeueLTStd-Roman, MFCFranklinCornersFive-Regular, MFCFranklinCornersFive-Regular, MFCFranklinCornersFour-Regular, MFCFranklinCornersFour-Regular, MFCFranklinCornersSix-Regular, MinionPro-Regular, MyriadPro-Bold, MyriadPro-It, MyriadPro-Regular, NewsGothicStd-Bold, NewsGothicStd-BoldOblique, NewsGothicStd-Oblique, NewsGothicStd, NuevaStd-Bold, NuevaStd-BoldCond, NuevaStd-Regular. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Steven McCarthy
[Eric Gill and Jonathan Barnbrook: Designers as Authors at the Poles of the Twentieth Century]

[More]  ⦿

Steven McCarthy
[Helvetica, the Voice of Opposition]

[More]  ⦿

Strathmore Oldstyle

ATF writes in 1906 when it introduced Strathmore Oldstyle: Strathmore was designed by a well-known Eastern artist who has had much to do with the work on editions de luxe brought out in recent years by some of lour greatest publishing houses. He ...partly adopted a style considerably used by Spanish sculptors and artists hundreds of years ago, then considered paramount in all things pertaining to art.

Mac McGrew does not like it though: In spite of this build-up, it is a rather clumsy face, with awkwardly short descenders. The Monotype typeface has modified character proportions. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Style Guide 2.0

Style guide for typography, by the Type Club of Toronto. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Various digital revivals of the slab serif typeface Stymie (1931, Morris Fuller Benton) are shown here and here. These include: Adobe (Rockwell), Bitstream (Stymie), Elsner+Flake (StymieEF), Font Bureau (Constructa), Jeff Levine (CrownHeightsJNL and Eastport JNL (2019)), Lanston Type Company (LTC Squareface), Linotype (Stymie), Nicks Fonts (KenotaphNF), Red Rooster Collection (Karnak Pro), Scangraphic Digital Type Collection (StymieSB), Scangraphic Digital Type Collection (StymieSH), URW++ (Stymie). The green posters below are by Sean Gabay (2013).

Mac McGrew on the ATF contribution from 1931: Stymie Bold is a redesign of Rockwell Antique (q. v.), which in turn was a reissue of Litho Antique, introduced by Inland Type Foundry in 1910. Rockwell appeared in 1931, but Morris Benton redesigned it as Stymie Bold in the same year, refining some characters and generally tightening the fit. Stymie Light and Medium and their Italics were also drawn by Benton in 1931, and the series quickly became very popular. Stymie Bold Italic followed a bit later. Elongated Ascenders and Descenders for Stymie Light, Medium, and Bold are a whimsical idea borrowed from the Parsons series (q.v.). Eleven characters as shown are offered for each weight from 15-point up, but there are actually only nine different characters, with an extra band in each set to invert for p and q. The ascenders are cast to proper alignment for reasonably easy use, but the descenders must be carefully justified vertically. They were short-lived.

Monotype exercised its option to copy ATF typefaces soon after the introduction of these typefaces---too soon, in fact, because they copied Rockwell and in some literature called it Stymie Bold, and there has been confusion between the two typefaces ever since, with some Monotype users applying the latter name to the older face. The actual Stymie Bold was duplicated by Monotype about 1936.

The Monotype contributions: Monotype did its part in expanding the family. Sol Hess designed Stymie Extrabold in 1934, a year before Morris Benton drew Stymie Black. These heavy versions differ slightly from each other and from the lighter typefaces. It's a matter of opinion as to which is more compatible with other Stymies. Sol Hess and Monotype also produced Stymie Light Condensed, Medium Condensed, and Extrabold Condensed, in 1935 and 1936. Gerry Powell drew the last major member of the family in 1937, with Stymie Bold Condensed, which departs a little more than the others from family characteristics. Trials of a medium condensed version at ATF were abandoned in favor of Tower (q.v.). Along the way Powell had also engineered the production in 1936 of Stymie Light Title and Stymie Medium Title, all-cap versions of their respective weights with several sizes cast on 6- and 12-point bodies in the manner of Copperplate Gothic.

Back to supersized Stymie versions at ATF. McGrew: But there is more to the Stymie story. Shortly after the introduction of the family, perhaps as early as 1932, ATF undertook a program of producing type (Stymie continues) in extra-large sizes. Some of the Stymies were cast up to 144-point, along with a number of other designs, but even that was not enough. Stymie Compressed was cast in 288-point from drawings by Wadsworth A. Parker, head of the ATF specimen department. This is believed to be the largest complete font ever cast in regular type molds. However, apparently there never was a 288- point mold. Instead, all characters are designed to cast the long way in smaller molds, from 30-point for the I to 144-point for the W, each 288 points "wide." Round letters were virtually flush to the edges of the body-4 inches high! Fonts included capitals, figures, and ampersand, with an undersize dollar mark on 120-point body; for punctuation marks the foundry recom- mended using available sizes of Stymie Bold or Medium. One type each of all 38 characters weighed about 47 pounds, and sold originally for $28.05. The cap W alone weighed about 2 pounds! Stymie Stylus, the second largest type font, followed. It is an experimental font, with each character including lowercase cast on the minimum body with no unnecessary metal. There are five different body sizes in the one font, ranging from 96-point for lowercase letters without ascenders or descenders to 180-point for caps and 204-point for lowercase j. Like the previous face, these characters were cast sideways in smaller molds. Specimens said, "The letters justify quickly with point spacing material." This specimen has type bodies indicated for several letters. !?) were the only punctuation marks. And apparently this was the last of the giant typefaces produced. Stymie Inline Title was designed by Parker about 1931. It follows the basic Stymie Bold pattern but is cast full face, without lowercase. ATF literature lists a Stymie Open, but no specimen or other evidence of it has been found. Stymie Intaglio Figures are the Stymie Bold design reversed on black squares. Stymie Bold Open as offered by Baltimore is a copy of Beton Open from Germany, while Baltimore's Stymie Bold Open Condensed is a modifica- tion by pantagraph of the same face, offered in 1948. Stymie Shaded or Rockwell Shaded as offered by some secondary sources is Antique Shaded (q.v.). ATF offered alternate, condensed figures for Stymie Bold, but these were actually Foster Condensed (q.v.), with only a general similarity. Sixty-point Litho Antique as cast by Inland was oversize by about 5 points. This peculiarity is carried over into members of the Stymie family-even on Monotype. But in some versions of ATF Stymie, 60-point after a time was replaced by 66/60-point, wherein descenders are cast on the larger body. Compare Beton, Cairo, Karnak, Memphis. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Subject search at TYPO-L

Search for discussions in this mail group on any topic in typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Super Grotesk

One of the classic German geometric sans workhorse typefaces made by Arno Drescher in 1930 for Schriftguss. Digital versions include:

  • FF Super Grotesk (1999, Svend Smital for FontFont). [Note: FF Bauer Grotesk (2014, Thomas Ackermann and Felix Bonge) is a revival of a slightly different German grotesk of that era, Friedrich Bauer Grotesk, released between 1933 and 1934 by the foundry Trennert & Sohn.]
  • Drescher Grotesk BT (2001, Nicolai Gogoll).
For images of original catalogs, see . [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Jemma Gura]

Surfstation is Jemma Gura's web site. This is also a collective type project. Free original typefaces: Fructosa (grunge, 2000, German Olaya), Space Paraphernalia (dingbat in the making), Deuzhood (2000, by Wolfgang and Peter Bruhn), Fango (2000, German Olaya), Foodshow (1999, German Olaya), Mest (2000, grunge typeface by Errol Richardson), T-Series (2000, modern stencil typeface by Stephen Payne). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Survival of Roman types

A paper written by John Maxwell in 1995 on the survival of Roman types in the typeface of technological changes. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Susanne Cerha
[Silo Design]

[More]  ⦿


The Swastika symbol

  • History of the symbol: Indians associate the swastika with good luck and protection from wrath. They mark it on doors, walls, shrines, and their own bodies. It can represent the sun, the god Vishnu, or the 'world-wheel.' The swastika is commonly used on Japanese maps to indicate the location of a buddhist temple. It was also widespread among Native American peoples, and appeared in ancient Oriental, Egyptian, and Irish cultures. In the late nineteenth century, the swastika symbolized a movement celebrating Germanic culture, heritage, and nationalism. By 1912, this movement began to take on anti-Semitic undertones. Later, Adolph Hitler chose the swastika to be the symbol of the Nazi Party. The Nazi swastika was a clockwise pointing swastika, whereas most Buddhist versions are counterclockwise.
  • In a fit of political correctness, Microsoft removed the Swastika symbols from its Bookshelf Symbol 7 font in December 2003.
  • Insightful discussion (and indignation) on Typographica after the Microsoft flap.
  • Kagijuuji: a font made in 2004 by yours truly with nothing but swastika symbols.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Swedish newspaper typography, 1992-1999
[Pella Anderson]

Article in Swedish by Pella Anderson. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Swiss 911 BT

Bitstream's clone of Helvetica Compressed. The latter was developed by Hans-Jörg Hunziker and Matthew Carter in 1974. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Symbol character set

Essay by David D. McFarland on the use of Adobe's Symbol font in web pages. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Great pages with over 2500 western symbols categorized, classified and explained. [Google] [More]  ⦿

T. Kengo
[Font School]

[More]  ⦿

Taller de tipografia digital

Fantastic Spanish on-line course on type design. The section on optical effects is excellent--a must read. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Typography links. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ten most menacing font foibles

Kathleen Tinkel writes on frustrating font problems, and discusses some solutions. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Terrence Chouinard

[More]  ⦿

Terry Lee
[Veil of Perception]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Text font discussion group

Peter Lofting at Apple started this "list for the discussion of text-based sources for fonts. It is intended as an open forum to arrive at as wide as possible a consensus over various text representations of font tables and data." [Google] [More]  ⦿

TFA Type Foundries Archive

Listing of the main commercial type foundries in the world. Their top ten at the end of 2012: b+p swiss typefaces, Colophon Foundry, Commercial Type, Grilli Type, Klim Type Foundry, MilieuGrotesque, Optimo, RP Digital Type Foundry, Typotheque, Village. By 2021, they featured about 350 foundries, mainly from Europe and the Americas. For example, there are only four foundries from Russia, six from Japan and one from Indonesia. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The 8 Worst Fonts In The World
[Simon Garfield]

Simon Garfield is a British journalist and non-fiction author. In Just My Type: A Book About Fonts (2011), he wrote a section on the eight worst fonts in the world. Written to amuse typophiles, it has some amusing passages.

  • #1. About The London 2012 Olympic Typeface, which is called 2012 Headline, he cites this description by Alice Rawsthorn in the International Herald Tribune: it looks increasingly like the graphic equivalent of what we Brits scathingly call dad dancing, namely a middle-aged man who tries so hard to be cool on the dance floor that he fails. Garfield adds: It also has a vaguely Greek appearance, or at least the UK interpretation of Greek, the sort of lettering you will find at London kebab shops and restaurants called Dionysus.
  • #2. Ransom Note.
  • #3. Neuland Inline. He says about Rudolf Koch's typeface often associated with Jurassic Park: It is a dense and angular type, suggestive of something Fred Flintstone might chisel into prehistoric rock. The inline version is bristling with energy and a quirkiness of spirit, a bad type predominantly through its overuse rather than its construction.
  • #4. Papyrus. Overused. Garfield especially objects to its use in Avatar (the movie): Avatar cost more to make than any other film in history but it did its best to recoup whatever it spent on 3-D special effects and computer-generated blue people by using the cheapest and least original font it could find: Papyrus, a font available free on every Mac and PC.
  • #5. Brush Script. Garfield: If, during the 1990s, you ever perused the menu of a local restaurant (the sort of restaurant opened by people who on a starlit evening thought, "I'm a pretty good cook--I think I'll open a restaurant!"), then that menu had a good chance of featuring Pear, Blue Cheese and Walnut Salad on a Bed of Brush Script.
  • #6. Gill Sans Light Shadowed. This Eric Gill design, one of the first in the shadow style of the 1930s, like Plastika and Umbra, triggers this reaction: Gill Sans Light Shadowed is the sequel that should never have been made--a font that pleases the taxman and no one else. It's hard to believe that this is what Eric Gill had in mind when he first picked up chisel and quill--a type design that would combine the look of both but ultimately end up redolent only of crackly Letraset on a school magazine.
  • #7. Souvenir. Garfield gets help here from type scholar Frank Romano: "Real men don't set Souvenir," wrote Frank Romano in the early 1990s, by which time he had already been performing character assassination on the type for over a decade. At every opportunity in print and online, Romano would have a go. "Souvenir is a font fatale . . . We could send Souvenir to Mars, but there are international treaties on pollution in outer space . . . remember, friends don't let friends set Souvenir." He also gets help from Peter Guy, who has designed books for the Folio Society: A souvenir of every ghastly mistake ever made in type design gathered together--with a few never thought of before--into one execrable mish-mash.
  • #8. Ecofont. The string vest and Swiss Cheese of fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Alphabet Julen

Julia Hayden's pages on typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Alphabets of Europe

Michael Everson's maginificent discussion of all European alphabets and the Unicode issues related to them. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The balance between legibility and economy of design

Article (in Spanish) by Victor Gaultney. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Black Stump Web Development Page

Useful jump page for web page designers. Many font links as well. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Characters of our Content

Dan Pulcrano's essay on type. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Cooper Union

The Cooper Union School of Art is a famous design (and type design) school in New York City. Starting in the fall of 2010, the Continuing Education Department of The Cooper Union, in conjunction with the Type Directors Club, offers a Certificate Program in Typeface Design, called Type @ Cooper. The faculty in 2010 included Jesse Ragan, Ken Barber, Stephen O. Saxe, Roger Black, Mark Jamra and Christian Schwartz. In 2019, the teachers were Karen Charatan, Ewan Clayton, Andy Clymer, Cara Di Edwardo, James Edmondson, St&eacue;phane Elbaz, Hannes Famira, Berton Hasebe, Daniel Morris, Jean François Porchez, Jesse Ragan, Christian Schwartz, Sara Soskolne, Sumner Stone, Alexander Tochilovsky, and Just van Rossum. Cooper Union Typography is a jump site for many typographic treasures. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Coueignoux system
[Philippe Coueignoux]

Nicolas Fabian writes: In the Coueignoux system, custom software combines predefined graphic component parts to form finished characters. This concept was the basis of his doctoral thesis "Generation of Roman Printed Fonts" in 1975 at MIT. In addition to synthetic type generation, Dr. Philippe J. M. Coueignoux also did original research on Perspective Mapping of Planar Surfaces, Texture Mapping, Anti-Aliasing, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), and other advanced graphic subjects. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The cracked guide to fonts

Funny piece on overused fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Design Cubicle
[Brian Hoff]

Typography and design blog and tips by Brian Hoff (Philadelphia, PA), started in 2008. Topics discussed include beautiful ampersands, and typical typographical mistakes. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Dezine Cafe

The Dezine Cafe (Semiotx Inc) is an on-line magazine and place for feedback and a rendez-vous. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Digital Past
[Paul Shaw]

Article by New York-based calligrapher and type specialist Paul Shaw. It talks about the main events in the timeline of digital type (but forgets to mention Computer Modern, does not stress Metafont enough, and omits any mention of the work of Bezier and de Casteljau on Bezier curves), and ends by formulating a strategy for increasing the price of type. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The disappearance of Times New Roman

Extensis Community Blog discussing the decision by Microsoft to drop Times New Roman font in 2006-2007 as the default font and to replace it by a sans serif, Calibri across Microsoft Office. In support, we have opinions like: Times New Roman was, is an anachronism chosen without much care, a font that represents the blandness and lack of brio in business-speak. In support, some people point to the US State Department's decision in 2004 to replace Courier 12 by Times New Roman 14, and to the good design of Times New Roman. Several people blasted Microsoft for replacing a serif typeface by a sans typeface as the default. There was support for Microsoft's contribution to fonts that work well on screen. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Evolution of Type
[Michael Brandt]

History of type. Type glossary. Links. Site maintained by Michael Brandt and Oriana Anholt of mediumbold. Old URL.

Micael Brandt is also the author of The Evolution of Type. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Faces behind the Faces

Discussion of some typographers by Terri Stone. Included are Jeremy Tankard, Josh Darden, Jonathan Hoefler, Tobias Frere-Jones, Carlos Segura, Tim Glaser, Just van Rossum and Erik van Blokland. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Faces of Microsoft
[John D. Berry]

John D. Berry talks about the people behind Microsoft's typography group, from the eighties until today. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Font Review Journal
[Bethany Heck]

The Font Review Journal was created by Bethany Heck, a design director and typographic enthusiast who specializes in multi-typeface systems. The Font Review Journal is home to reviews and analysis of typeface designs both new and old. The site is aimed at designers who want to discover new typefaces to add to their arsenal, or those who want to learn to appreciate old favorites on a deeper level. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Garamond mess

The choice of Garamonds is confusing, and so is the name Garamond when associated with typefaces. In fact, the most faithful of all garamonds is not even called Garamond. So, here is a brief overview.

  • Typefaces with Garamond in the name that are based directly on Garamond's work: Stempel Garamond, and Berthold Garamond.
  • Typefaces not called Garamond, but still faithful to Garamond include, principally, Linotype's Sabon, designed by Jan Tschichold. Linotype explains: In the early 1960s, the German masterprinters' association requested that a new typeface be designed and produced in identical form on both Linotype and Monotype machines so that text and technical composition would match. Walter Cunz at Stempel responded by commissioning Jan Tschichold to design the most faithful version of Claude Garamond's serene and>Bitstream's Cursive is a return to the form of one of Garamond's late italics, recently identified. Punches and matrices for the romans survive at the Plantin-Moretus Museum. The name refers to Jacques Sabon, who introduced Garamond's romans to Frankfurt, although the typefaces that Sabon himself cut towards the end of the sixteenth century have a faintly awkward style of their own. The other typeface in this category is Granjon.
  • Typefaces based on the work of Jean Jannon, an early seventeenth century French punchcutter whose work was confused with Garamond's early in the twentieth century, a mistake that was not corrected until 1926 by Beatrice Warde: Garamond 3, Monotype Garamond, Simoncini Garamond, and Deberny & Peignot's Garamont.
  • Cousins twice removed include ITC Garamond, a distant relative of Jannon, and Ludlow Garamond, which can almost be considered as an original design by Robert Hunter Middleton---few Garamond genes remain in the latter face. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Good, The Bad and the Ugly

Great explanation on font quality, at the technical level. By Fred Showker. A must read. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Grid System
[Antonio Carusone]

Great discussions of and links to the grid system, the basis of good typography. From the web site: Made popular by the International Typographic Style movement and pioneered by legends like Josef Müller-Brockmann and Wim Crouwel, the grid is the foundation of any solid design. The Grid System is an ever-growing resource where graphic designers can learn about grid systems, the golden ratio and baseline grids. Created by Antonio Carusone, graphic designer and author of the design and typography blog AisleOne. Special thanks to Duane King for his help and wisdom. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Helvetica Killer
[Bruno Maag]

Bruno Maag gives an interview for Creative Review in 2010 in which he purges all Helvetica cells from his system. He also announces the creation of a new sans family by Ron Carpenter at Dalton Maag, Aktiv Grotesk (2010)---first he kills Helvetica, and then he creates another lookalike sans family. Excerpts: it is vanilla ice cream. In my whole career in typography, starting with my apprenticeship, I have never used Helvetica. Being a Swiss typographer, it's always been Univers. [...] Univers was released in 1956 by Deberny&Peignot, a small French foundry. Helvetica was released a year later with the full might of the Linotype marketing machine behind it. Linotype stuck it on every single typesetting machine they could and took it round the market, particularly around the New York advertising scene. And there was little Deberny&Peignot with no marketing budget. It's a fluke of marketing that Helvetica now is this incredibly popular typeface. [...] And there are a lot of things wrong in the design of Helvetica once you start going in to the detail. I can appreciate why a lot of designers like Helvetica compared to Univers - Univers has a starkness about it, it's cold. Maybe because of the antique-ness of Helvetica it has a certain charm that Univers lacks and at the same time has this neutrality, so I can see why people go for it, but if you start analysing it and going into the nitty gritty it is quite a horrendous font. It's quite poorly crafted and has become completely overused. [...] Some of the character forms in Helvetica are very ambiguous because they are so uniform. In the movie, [Erik] Spiekermann says it very well, that they are like soldiers on parade and that is detrimental to legibility. People just use Helvetica because they have heard of it, it's on everyone's computer and everyone else uses it. [...] I do find it an inferior typeface. I would choose Univers every time - it's crafted better, the proportions are better, it is a modern typeface that doesn't pretend to be something it isn't which Helvetica does.

Reaction by the typophiles is swift: Some agree, most disagree partially. William Berkson compares Univers and Helvetica [Univers on top] and sums it up like this: Note how Helvetica is wider and set tighter, and Univers is narrower, and set looser. Compare the word "love" in "Handgloves" and you see the power of Helvetica. But this same quality of being "fat in the middle" as Erik Spiekermann put it in the movie, and tightly spaced, makes it horrible in text. I think it has limited use, and is so overused and wrongly used that it makes me scream, but to deny its obvious virtues it seems to me to undermine the real case against its widespread use. Univers is way better in text, but then I think Frutiger and Avenir are still better.--And I think that sans in general are limited in how good they can be for extended text. Personally, I never liked the aesthetic of Univers-too cold. But I was surprised by the warmth and attractiveness of the examples of hot metal Univers in Frutiger Typefaces: The Complete Works. It has real charm there, and is said to be Frutiger's favorite version by far. Univers Next is an effort of Frutiger and Linotype to capture that, but I don't know how well it succeeds.

Finally, Erik Spiekermann compares Helvetica, Arial, FF Meta and FF Unit in a poster that show the word millimeter. His poster is entitled Helvetica Sucks. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Human Side of Sans Serifs

John Berry reviews the main choices of digital sans serifs today (2002). [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Latex Font Catalogue

A great annotated and categorized list of fonts that TeX enthusiasts will appreciate. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Linotype machine

The Linotype machine is a line casting machine used in printing. Along with letterpress printing, Linotype was the industry standard for newspapers, magazines and posters from the late 19th century to the 1960s and 70s. The name of the machine comes from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once, hence a line-o'-type, a significant improvement over the previous industry standard, i.e., manual, letter-by-letter typesetting using a composing stick and drawers of letters. The machine revolutionized typesetting and with it especially newspaper publishing, making it possible for a relatively small number of operators to set type for many pages on a daily basis. Before Mergenthaler's invention of the Linotype in 1884, no daily newspaper in the world had more than eight pages. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Lioness

American art student who made a Bodoni type anatomy poster in 2011. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The main type mistakes
[Ralf Hermann]

Ralf Hermann lists the main type mistakes in German (in German): quotes, apostrophes, the dieresis, &eszet;, small caps. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The (Mostly) True Story of Helvetica and the New York City Subway
[Paul Shaw]

Article by Paul Shaw that starts out like this: There is a commonly held belief that Helvetica is the signage typeface of the New York City subway system, a belief reinforced by Helvetica, Gary Hustwit's popular 2007 documentary about the typeface. But it is not true-or rather, it is only somewhat true. Helvetica is the official typeface of the MTA today, but it was not the typeface specified by Unimark International when it created a new signage system at the end of the 1960s. Why was Helvetica not chosen originally? What was chosen in its place? Why is Helvetica used now, and when did the changeover occur? To answer those questions this essay explores several important histories: of the New York City subway system, transportation signage in the 1960s, Unimark International and, of course, Helvetica. These four strands are woven together, over nine pages, to tell a story that ultimately transcends the simple issue of Helvetica and the subway. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Offices of Kat Ran Press
[Michael Russem]

Beautiful pages on typography by Michael and Katherine Russem, Syracuse, NY. They also print, and sell type ephemera. Of particular interest is a collection of images of postage stamps created by type designers. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The optimism of modernity

A study of modernism in British typography between 1945 and 1979, undertaken by the University of Reading teachers Paul Stiff and Petra Cerne Oven. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The PC Type 1 fonts message board!

Cindy's 1999 upstart message board. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Solus story

Keith Bates from K-Type tells us the story of his revival of Eric Gill's Solus (1929), which has never been digitized. His revival is also called Solus (2004). [Google] [More]  ⦿

The State of Web Type

"Can I Use" for typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The story of Bembo
[Joel Friedlander]

Bembo's story told by Joel Friedlander (1948-2021) in 2009. He recalls that Bembo is first and foremost an oldstyle typeface [bracketed serifs with a curved connection between serif and stem; the axis drawn through the thinnest part of the round letters leans to the left]. Aldus Manutius and Francesco Griffo created Bembo in 1496 for use in Pietro Bembo's book, De Aetna. Friedlander goes on: The design of Bembo was a clear attempt to bring the humanist script of the finest scribes of the day to the printed page, without slavishly following the more formal lettering of the day. It would later serve as the chief inspiriation to Claude Garamond, among others. Typefaces based on his work include Poliphilus, Cloister Old Style, Aetna, Aldine, Griffo Classico, Dante, and Adobe Minion. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Symbols Collection

A listing of symbols available in Arial. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The TDC Medal

The TDC Medal is awarded to those who have made significant contributions to the life, art, and craft of typography. The recipients: Hermann Zapf (1967), R. Hunter Middleton (1968), Frank Powers (1971), Robert Leslie (1972), Edward Rondthaler (1975), Arnold Bank (1979), Georg Trump (1982), Paul Standard (1983), Herb Lubalin (1984 (posthumously)), Paul Rand (1984), Aaron Burns (1985), Bradbury Thompson (1986), Adrian Frutiger (1987), Freeman Craw (1988), Ed Benguiat (1989), Gene Federico (1991), Lou Dorfsman (1995), Matthew Carter (1997), Rolling Stone Magazine (1997), Colin Brignall (2000), Günther Gerhard Lange (2000), Martin Solomon (2003), Paula Scher (2006), Mike Parker (2011), Erik Spiekermann (2011), Gerrit Noordzij (2013), David Berlow (2014), Louise Fili (2015), Zuzana Licko (2016), Gerard Unger (2017), Fiona Ross (2018), Wim Crouwel (2019), Ruben Fontana (2020), Akira Kobayashi (2022), Jan Middendorp (2023).

Link to the Type Directors Club, which hands out the awards. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Tragicomedy of Digital Fonts
[Frank Adebiaye]

A poignant article from November 2021 by Frank Adebiaye, after Hoefler sold out to Monotype. Frank gives a bird's eye view of the recent past in digital typography, with Monotype as the villain in the drama. He begins with: Digital fonts are born and killed off over and over again. Due to Windows domination on desktop computers, for most people, Arial, designed in 1982 and released as a TrueType font in 1992 is the typical digital font. It was already a mockery of Helvetica, born in 1957. He reminds us of the popular Comic Sans, Times New Roman (1932), once celebrated but now a bland typeface, and Microsoft's Calibri, now also about to be superseded. Google and Monotype got their hands on the Droid fonts, and the Open Sans and Noto superfamilies that have taken over web typography.

He writes: Monotype was saved from bankruptcy by making Arial for Microsoft, preventing the latter from paying huge royalties for Helvetica, then a Linotype asset. Linotype was eventually acquired by Monotype in 2006, so both Arial and Helvetica are Monotype assets now. But Arial and Helvetica are not the same typeface, Arial seems to be a kind of displacement of Helvetica, sharing mostly the same metrics but borrowing its shape from something much older. Google launched Roboto in 2011---a monstrosity or Frankenfont according to type curator Stephen Coles., borrowing from Helvetica, Univers, Myriad, FF Din among others. In 2014, Google developed an improved and more accepted version of Roboto. Today, Noto and Roboto are the leading actors in today's digital font tragicomedy, according to Frank.

On to the Montserrat story: Montserrat is also an informative case. From a practical point of view it is an efficient and sufficient substitute for Gotham. Despite its popularity Gotham mostly missed the webfont explosion because of licensing hassle, and the Hoefler&Co pricing strategy for the web. So Montserrat came up and filled that void. However, it seems that Hoefler&Co made some link-building using the Montserrat name to attract customers. If Montserrat is a substitute for Gotham, then Gotham is also a substitute for Montserrat. Anyway, now it is probably too late, I am afraid, Gotham is a Monotype asset, superseded on the web like many Monotype iconic assets are now.

Frank illustrates the exit of the type drama by citing Erik Spiekermann's Fira (to replace his own FF Meta) and IBM's Plex (to avoid the licensing hassle of Helvetica). [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Type Club of Toronto
[Brian Maloney]

The Type Club of Toronto is headed by Brian Maloney, who is the Club's Director. The aim of the Club is to "promote typography." It hold events four to six time per year with with one or two presenters, usually at the Arts&Letters Club at 14 Elm Street in downtown Toronto. It was founded by Rod McDonald and Martyn Anstice. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Type Gallery

Web page owned by 3IP (Three Islands Press). [Google] [More]  ⦿

The typeface of uniformity

Nick Shinn's brilliant and emotional article about the overuse of Helvetica. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Typographic Archives

Also called Graphion's Online Type Museum, or earlier, Graphion, a site by Michael sanbon that disappeared in 1999. Subsections:

[Google] [More]  ⦿

The typography of code
[Hamish Macpherson]

Hamish Macpherson discussed and illustrated his five favorite fonts for showing programs, after discussing the pioneering code font, Courier (1956, Howard Kettler for IBM).

Blog readers also suggested Osaka Mono 13pt, Deja Vu Mono (an update of Bitstream Vera Mono), Kyle, Panic Sans (rehinted version of Deja Vu Mono), Proggy Clean 11pt, Droid Sans Mono, Akkurat, Inconsolata, Terminus (bitmapped), Rockwell, Verdana, ProFont, Monaco, Dina. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The world's writing systems

This web site presents one reference glyph and basic information for each of the world's writing systems. It is the first step of the Missing Scripts Project, a long-term initiative that aims to identify writing systems that are not yet encoded in the Unicode standard.

The Missing Scripts Project is a joint effort of Atelier National de Recherche Typographique (ANRT), Nancy, France, Institut Designlabor Gutenberg (IDG), Hochschule Mainz, Germany, and the Script Encoding Initiative (SEI), Department of Linguistics, UC Berkeley, USA. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The X in X-Files

Interview by Larry Smith: Erik Van Blokland on Trixie. [Google] [More]  ⦿

The Yale Typeface
[Matthew Carter]

Typeface specially designed in 2004 by Matthew Carter for Yale. It is free for all units at Yale University. From the press release: Yale is inspired by the late fifteenth-century Venetian typeface that first appeared in Pietro Bembo's De Aetna, published by Aldus Manutius. [...] In 1929, Stanley Morison of the Monotype Corporation in England led a project to revive Aldus's De Aetna face. The resulting typeface, Bembo, proved to be one of the most widely used and highly regarded book typefaces of the twentieth century. It continues regularly to appear in Yale publications. Unfortunately, the more recent photocomposition and digital versions of Bembo lack the vigor, weight, and formal integrity of either the De Aetna typeface or of the original Monotype version of Bembo. Matthew Carter's Yale recovers the strength of the Aldine original, and updates it by sensitively simplifying the basic letterforms and their details. Aspects of the vigor and "color" of the well-known typeface Galliard, an earlier Carter design, are also evident in the new Yale face.

The fonts include YaleAdministrative Roman, YaleAdministrative Italic, Yale Design Roman, Yale Design Italic, Yale Small Capitals, Yale Web Small Capitals, Yale Street and Yale Street Aligning Figs. later additions include YaleNew, Yale Display, and Mallory (a companion font designed in 2015 by Tobias frere-Jones).

Free download. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Markdown conversion of the Adobe Tech notes 5176 and 5177 about CFF. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Theodore Rosendorf

The Typographic Desk Reference (Oak Knoll Press, New Castle, DE, 2009) is Theodore Rosendorf's useful reference guide of typographic terms and type classification. There is a foreword by Ellen Lupton. The much larger Second Edition (2015) is coauthored wit Erik Spiekermann. Theo Rosendorf is based in Decatur, GA. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Therese Harrah

Creator of a great type design timeline poster in 2013, during her studies at the School of Art Institute of Chicago. Behance link. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Claudio Piccinini's type pages for critiques and showcasing. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Three chapters in the development of Clarendon---Ionic typefaces
[Mitja Miklavčič]

Essay by Mitja Miklavčič on the history of Clarendon and Ionic, written at the University of Reading in 2006. Figures/scans by him: Construction of Egizio Italic by Nebiolo, a comparison between Egyptian, roman and ionic. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Three Studio

Entertaining interactive typography site run by Takayuki Mitsugi. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Tidningstypografi 1992-99

Pelle Anderson writes about the use of typefaces in Swedish newspapers (in Swedish). This article has interesting statistics, showing the demise of Times in the 1992-1999 period in favor of Nimrod (by Robin Nicholas, Monotype) and Century (Morris Fuller Benton). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Tim Donahue on Kerning

Great article by Tim Donahue on kerning. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Times New Roman
[Eamon Dyas]

An article by Eamon Dyas entitled The changing typeface of The Times - Times New Roman. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Times Roman and Times New Roman
[Charles Bigelow]

Charles Bigelow on the Times trademark. "Times" refers to the typeface produced for "The Times" by Monotype. Yet, it was trademarked by Allied Corporation (ex-USA parent of Linotype), as Bigelow explains: "During WWII, the American Linotype company, in a generous spirit of Allied camaraderie, applied for registration of the trademark name "Times Roman" as its own, not Monotype's or The Times', and received the registration in 1945. In the 1980's, all this was revisited when some entrepreneurs, desirous of gaining the rights to use the name, applied to Rupert Murdoch, who owned The Times; separately, a legal action was also initiated to clarify the right of Monotype to use the name in the U.S., despite Linotype's registration. The outcome of all of the legal maneuverings is that Linotype and its licensees like Adobe and Apple continue to use the name "Times Roman", while Monotype and its licensees like Microsoft use the name "Times New Roman". " [Google] [More]  ⦿

Times Ten

Times Ten (Adobe, 1988-1990) was the house font used by the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. It has an Adobe version with Greek, called Times Ten Greek Upright (1988-1991). The full family can be found here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Tipi e Controtipi

PDF files of Stephen Moye's book Type by Design - The Art and Science of Digital Typeface Design. [Google] [More]  ⦿

tipoGráfica buenosAires

Meeting in Buenos Aires in 2001 to celebrate the 15th anniversary of the magazine tipoGráfica. An extraordinary delegate report by Rubén Fontana was published at ATypI. I cite things I will be quoting for the rest of: In Latin America, we propose to socialise this vast, historic fund of knowledge, by means of an approach to variations of what we know and by learning through the discovery of that which we do not know. Like air, like water, the knowledge itself, like ideas, typography is a social asset that provides people with equal opportunities. A veritable universal heritage. [...] Seven hundred people attended the three-day sessions of tipoGráfica buenosAires, typography for real life. Many travelled from the interior of Argentina, while others arrived from Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Uruguay and other Latin American countries. [...] Typography must perforce be available to everyone since it is an ingredient inherent to communication. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Colombian type cartel consisting of Manuel Eduardo Corradine, Carlos Fabián Camargo, John Vargas and César Puertas. The site is run as a blog and has several type education videos. In Spanish. Alternate URL. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Croatian introduction to typography and fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Spanish language type site. It has links to mags, discussions of books, a type forum, manuals of Pfaedit, Fontographer and Fontlab, and information on font software. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Spanish pages on type: the history, the type families, design with type, the works. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Titania is a typeface that was issued by Haas'sche Giesserei before 1906. It was also cast by Berling and by Bertrand (as Grasses modernes). Societa Augusta had a related typeface, Titania chiara (before 1914). It was also cast by Trennert.

In the phototype era, Titania appeared at Berthold. Aldo Novarese did a related typeface, Floreal Haas (1983), for Haas'sche Giesserei.

Digital versions: Titania (1993, Rick Mueller), Klarissa (2000, Dieter Steffmann; with Contour and Shadow styles), Titania (2001, Dieter Steffmann; with Outline and Shadow styles), Karissa (Bright Ideas), EFN Mellotron/Melody (2004, Eurofonts), Athenia/Athenian (Thomas Harvey). [Google] [More]  ⦿

TM--N Digital

Clive Bruton's site. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Todd Roeth

Todd Roeth's outline of his intro to typography class at Marietta College in Marietta, OH. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Tokyo Type Directors Club

Created in 1987 along the model of the New York Type Directors Club, and led by Katsumi Asaba. It organizes an annual type competition. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Tom Geller's Writings

Tom Geller reviews some fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Tracy and Spacing

A gorgeous summary by Andy Crewdson on the spacing rules suggested by Walter Tracy in Letters of Credit. The page is off-line now. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Tracy Todd Pearson's lecture notes

Tracy Todd Pearson's lecture notes on typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Trajan Alphabet
[Wolfgang Beinert]

Wolfgang Beinert's piece in German on the Trajan all-caps alphabet (without H, J, K, U, W, Y, Z) created by Syrian engineer Apollodoros from Damaskus for the Roman Emperor Marcus Ulpius Traianus (53-117). The Trajan Column near the Basilica Ulpia in Rome dates from 113. People inspired by the elegant lettering include Fernando Ruano, Vespasiano Amphiarea, Wolfgang Fugger, Geoffroy Tory, Albrecht Dürer, Francesco Torniello, Luca Pacioli, Damiano da Moile, Leonardo da Vinci, Felice Feliciano, Claude Garamond, Jan Tschichold (see his book Meisterbuch der Schrift, Otto Maier Verlag, Ravensburg 1952), Günter Gerhard Lange (see his book Die römische Kapitalschrift, Jahresgabe der Typographischen Gesellschaft München, München 1983), and Carol Twombly (who made a digital font called Trajan at Adobe in 1989). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Translation and typesetting

Gabe Bokor's intro to typography. Gabe Bokor is co-owner of AB Typesetting. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Hrant Papazian has a wonderful explanation of trapping at the MicroFoundry. [Google] [More]  ⦿

TrueType, PostScript Type 1,&OpenType

TrueType, PostScript Type 1,&OpenType: What's the Difference? is the title of a comparative article by Thomas W. Phinney, written in 2002. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Tschichold's Canon of Book Design

Tschichold's ideas on book layouts. Written by William I. Johnston. [Google] [More]  ⦿

TTX The Type Experience

A series of one to 2-hour videos and interviews related to typography and type design. In Portuguese or Spanish, this is organized by dooType (Eduilson Coan and Gustavo Soares). Videos by or about Jackson Alves, Rodolfo Franca, Elaine Ramos, Gustavo Greco, Alceu Nunes, Paulo Chagas, Daniel Coutinho, Felipe Luize, Samia Jacintho, Allysson Lucca, Fabio Lopez, Claudio Santos, Daniel Souza, Niko Fernandez, and Crystian Cruz. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Twelve sources of inspiration
[Sean Hodge]

Sean Hodge reviews sources of inspiration for type designers. I can imagine that these tips could form the basis of a course in type design.

  • Bring your own analysis. Care about details.
  • Study type design history.
  • Learn the process of type design. The workflow.
  • Look at market needs.
  • Choose your heroes.
  • Open up to the world around you.
  • Set limitations and constraints and flesh out an idea within these boundaries.
  • Subscribe to typeface design catalogues, feeds and magazines.
  • Utilize your tools.
  • Hunt and gather.
  • Experiment. Let it all hang out.
  • Follow your (other) interests. Do what excites you.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Twisted Onion

Typeface design discussions by Walsh. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Type designers interest group. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Tyler Brulé, Monocle, Plantin

Tyler Brulé is the founder of Wallpaper, a mag for art, design, lifestyle, interiors and fashion. He also founded the snobbish mag Monocle, whose typography was discussed by Stephen Coles. It only features Helvetica and Plantin.

Coles: I am convinced that Monocle, now 2 years old, has almost single-handedly given new life to Plantin. The early 20th century relic is suddenly appearing in other magazines and brands after years of relative obscurity. It's not just a copycat trend. With its solemn tone, paper-conserving width, and large x-height, Plantin has definite merit as an alternative to Times and other magazine text typefaces. Monotype recently released Pro versions of the fonts with small caps, fractions, and both text and lining figures built in. But David John Earls replied to that: Lovely design, unfathomably bad and pretentious content. What a waste of Plantin. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type 101

Dead link, kept for historical accuracy. Font Bureau's (defunct) didactic blog on type. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Camp

Type Camp takes place in exotic or secluded places, and lets a small (<20) group of participants interact and learn from type design or typography pros, at an all-inclusive weekly cost of 2,500 US dollars, or registration costs of the order of 100 to 500 dollars. Past instructors have included Shelley Gruendler, Marian Baantjes, Tiffany Wardle, Stephen Coles, Jan Middendorp, John Hudson, Laura Worthington, Eric Scheichelbauer, Kevin Larson, Dyana Weissman, Jay Rutherford and Richard Kegler. In 2011, Type Camps were planned in Rome, California, Weimar, and India. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Connection
[Aura Seltzer]

An on-line type matching game created by Aura Seltzer, based on typefaces from the collections of Adobe, Monotype, Hoefler & Frere-Jones, and Process Type Foundry. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Crime: Rated R
[Jay Miller]

An animation by Jay Miller in which four capital R's battle it out: Helvetica (quirky), Arial (big and sloppy), Futura (kicking from the groin), and Interstate (on a cane). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Culture
[Mark Jamra]

Advertised as Mark Jamra's Portland, ME-based digital type foundry and an academic resource. There is an extremely useful research directory, a great jump point for learning about type and its history. The site also has useful articles such as Jamra's article on optical image support and his article on form and proportion in a typeface. Mark Jamra (b. 1956) lives in Portland, Maine, where he designs type and teaches letterform and graphic design at the Maine College of Art. He did postgraduate work at the Basel School of Design, Switzerland, 1980-83, then worked for URW in Hamburg (where he lived for 12 years), and set up Jamra Design there. He left Germany in 1995. Fonts by Jamra:

View Mark Jamra's typefaces. Brief bio. Speaker at ATypI 2006 in Lisbon. FontShop link. Speaker at ATypI 2018 in Antwerp on the topic of a multi-script type system for Africa. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Type Design Credits

Paul Neubauer (Ball State University) reviews many fonts in this informative page. For example, he has pointers to many monospaced fonts. Dead link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type design hot takes

A hot take is a "piece of deliberately provocative commentary that is based almost entirely on shallow moralizing" in response to a news story. It is "usually written on tight deadlines with little research or reporting, and even less thought". So here are some hot takes by some type designers published in 2022 at Typedrawers:

  • I really hate small caps and I wish they would go away forever. I already have lowercase letters---I don't need mini version of capitals that look dorky. (Ray Larabie)
  • I find f-ligatures distracting when I'm reading. I can see how useful they are but when I'm reading, they often trip me up and I prefer a natural fi or fl gap in most cases. (Ray Larabie)
  • Comic sans is excellent. Not in a "it has its uses" kind of way. I think it's an all-around good typeface. (Ray Larabie)
  • Papyrus is one of the all-time greats. (Ray Larabie)
  • All currencies should forgo symbols and just use letter abbreviations. (Craig Eliason)
  • Much of Zapf's type is technically impeccable but really boring. (Stephen Coles)
  • The four cardinal mortal sins of typography: The design of Helv*****. To use Helv*****. To design anything like Helv*****. To cherish Helv***** or any of its superfluous pastiche mockups. (Andreas Stötzner)
  • Revivals are the most boring thing ever. (Christian Thalmann)
  • Historicity is vastly overrated. Design for the future. (Christian Thalmann)
  • Syntax looks like it's made entirely from elbows. I'm grateful for its contribution to the rise of the humanist sans, but gods it's ugly. Gill Sans, on the other hand, is cute. (Christian Thalmann)
  • All script typefaces look the same. (Christian Thalmann)
  • All Jan van Krimpen' s typefaces are stiff and unattractive. (Ramiro Espinoza)
  • All fonts should be libre. (Dave Crossland)
  • Massimo Vignelli was and is to this day, the object of a personality cult. He was driven by a massive craving for notoriety to make controversial, even outrageous pronouncements to hold the loyalty of his followers. His legacy cannot be trusted. (Russell McGorman)
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Design Resources: Justin Penner
[Justin Penner]

A list of type design resources compiled by Justin Penner. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Design Tips

Various type design tips. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Designer and Punchcutter
[Hans Reichardt]

A PDF filewith the names of nearly all past and present type designers and punchcutters, compiled by Hans Reichardt in 2002 and regularly updated. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Designers Forum

Michel Bujardet's open list has been created as an electronic way to continuing the spirit found by participants at the TypeCon 98 conference, in Westborough, Massachusets, where type designers met in a relaxed setting, to discuss their hopes, concerns, and projects. The archives. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Designs by Nicholas Fabian
[Nicholas Fabian]

The informative home page of Nicholas Fabian, who died in April 2006. Check out his gorgeous fonts, like Fabius Art Deco and Fabius Durer. Also nice discussions of typographical issues such as TrueType versus PostScript. And pages on the history of type. He also sold Ugarit fonts. Early masters of type design. Alternate URL. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Type Directors Club

Type Directors Club is an international organization for all people who are devoted to excellence in typography, both in print and on screen. Founded in 1946, today's TDC is involved in all contemporary areas of typography and design, and welcomes graphic designers, art directors, editors, multimedia professionals, students, entrepreneurs, and all who have an interest in type: in advertising, communications, education, marketing, and publishing.

Past presidents of this New York-based organization include James Montalbano and Mark Solsburg.

The highest award of the TDC is the TDC Medal. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Directors Club Deutschland

German faction of the Type Directors Club of New York. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Dreams

A feature article in the Time Digital October 2000 issue (vol. 5, no 6). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Foundry Directory
[Matthew Smith]

The Type Foundry Directory is a curated index of type foundries by Matthew Smith of Morning Type. Lots of missing foundries including all major ones: FontShop, Monotype, Linotype, Bitstream, Adobe, Production Type, Canada Type, and basically all Indonesian, Japanese and Chinese type foundries. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Generator
[Sibe Kokke]

Type Generator is a very interesting software project by Dutchman Sibe Kokke. It generates fonts based upon a set of parameters such as contrast, x-height, point positioning and curves, a bit in the style of metafont, and was developed with the help of tools like Drawbot and Robofab. Sibe Kokke is also the designer of experimental typefaces such as The King (pixel family), Mullerpier (grunge), Glue Print (grunge) and Arab (Arab type simulation in Latin handwriting). Sibe obtained a Masters in type design at KABK. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Hype
[Lothar Südkamp]

Lothar Südkamp's page on type (in German). There are about 80 brief bios of type designers, as well as a German type lexicon, and some notes on the history of type. [Google] [More]  ⦿

type me, type me not

Experiments in computational typography at MIT's Media Lab by John Maeda and his group, including Peter Cho. John Maeda's award-winning poster at the 1997 Tokyo Type Directors Club competition. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Minds

Richard Sine on type: a discussion on the design of type, featuring Sumner Stone, David Siegel and Carole Twombly. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Museum

Dead link. The Type Museum was started by Matthew Desmond in 2007 as a sort of type wiki. The site disappeared a few years later. Themes included

[Google] [More]  ⦿

Type on the Web

Essay by Mark Eastman for Communication Arts on where to find type information on the web. Geared towards commercial products. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Record

Typeface database set up in 2013 by Indra Kupferschmid and Nick Sherman. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type specimen at Flickr

Flickr type specimen group. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Specimen of the Adagio Press

Paul R. Sternberg sells this unique book for 60USD (email him). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Topics (Adobe)

Intro to typefaces at Adobe. Tips for type on web pages. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Trends 2020

A book by Zetafonts, and some interesting survey results on likes and dislaikes. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type type type eh Mr. Christensen?

Carefully selected type links. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Worship
[Jamie Clarke]

Type Worship is the official blog of 8 Faces magazine. Featuring inspirational typography, beautiful lettering, reviews, interviews with leading designers, and exclusive content from the coveted bi-annual publication. Curated by Jamie Clarke (London) with Elliot Jay Stocks.

Over four years and across eight issues they interviewed 64 world-renowned designers and asked them for their favorite fonts. These designers were Erik Spiekermann, Jessica Hische, Ian Coyle, Jason Santa Maria, Jos Buivenga, Jon Tan, Bruce Willen, Nolen Strals, Martin Majoor, Ale Paul, Stephen Coles, Tim Brown, Nick Sherman, Rich Rutter, Veronika Burian, José Scaglione, Ellen Lupton, Frank Chimero, Steve Matteson, Mark Caneso, Vincent Connare, Yves Peters, Jason Smith, Phil Garnham, John Boardley, Craig Mod, Kris Sowersby, Doug Wilson, Nadine Chahine, David Brezina, Silas Dilworth, Neil Summerour, Jonathan Hoefler, Tobias Frere-Jones, Mark Simonson, Trent Walton, Keetra Dean Dixon, Peter Bilak, Gerry Leonidas, Mark MacKay, Simon Walker, Dan Rhatigan, Seb Lester, Nina Stössinger, Grant Hutchinson, Mike Kus, Eric Olson, Nicole Dotin, Michael Bierut, Tomas Brousil, Georg Salden, Hannes von Döhren, Phil Baines, Ken Barber, Rudy VanderLans, Zuzana Licko, Elliot Jay Stocks, Jeremy Leslie, Jan Middendorp, Robert Slimbach, Steven Heller, Fiona Ross, Erica Jung and Ricardo Marcin. The top 25 fonts coming out of this poll are, in order [with quotes and discussion taken from Jamie Clarke's piece]:

  • Georgia. Matthew Carter, 1993. Originally designed for clarity on low resolution screens, for Microsoft, it is the counterpart to Verdana, which also appears in this list. Georgia has a large x-height and ascenders that rise above the cap height. It's a sturdy yet friendly typeface, with a wonderful flowing italic, that features on millions of websites.
  • Gotham. Tobias Frere-Jones, 2000. Famously used for Barack Obama’s 2008 presidential campaign.
  • FF Scala. Martin Majoor, 1990.  FontShop International’s ‘first serious text face’.
  • Futura. Paul Renner, 1927.  This immortal ‘modern’ typeface with its uncompromising shapes has become the benchmark geometric sans for almost 80 years.
  • Gill Sans. Eric Gill, 1926.  A quintessential British design; though it’s eccentricities make it notoriously tricky to use well. A blend of humanist and geometric shapes.
  • Garamond. (Claude Garamond, c. 1480–1561), Several derivatives of the Parisian punch cutter’s design have been chosen, including; ITC Garamond (Tony Stan), Adobe Garamond &amp; Garamond Premier (Robert Slimbach). 
  • Caslon (Adobe Caslon). (William Caslon I, 1722) Carol Twombly, 1990.  Gave rise to a printer’s saying ‘When in doubt, use Caslon’. Also a favourite of Benjamin Franklin.
  • Akzidenz Grotesk. H. Berthold, Berthold Type Foundry, 1898.  The first widely used sans serif typeface.
  • Alternate Gothic. Morris Fuller Benton, 1903.  Designed for the American Typefounders Company (ATF). All three weights are bold and narrow. Currently used on YouTube’s homepage logo.
  • Helvetica. Max Miedinger with Eduard Hoffmann, 1957.  Helvetica needs no introduction as the planet’s most famous typeface—it even inspired a very good film. 
  • Metro. William Addison Dwiggins, 1930.  Designed out of a dissatisfaction with the san serifs of the time like Futura.
  • ITC Franklin Gothic. Morris Fuller Benton, 1902.  Created for the American Type Founders Company and named after Benjamin Franklin.
  • Meta Serif. Erik Spiekermann, Christian Schwartz and Kris Sowersby, 2007.  The serif companion to Eric Spiekermann’s influential sans serif, FF Meta. Also designed to work well with FF Unit and FF Unit Slab.
  • Trade Gothic. Jackson Burke, 1948/1960. 
  • Adelle. José Scaglione and Veronika Burian, 2009.  Adelle is a slab serif typeface conceived for intensive editorial use, mainly in newspapers and magazines but its personality and flexibility make it very adaptable.
  • Caecilia. Peter Matthias Noordzij, 1990.  A humanist rather than geometric slab serif, aiding its legibility.
  • Chaparral. Carol Twombly, 2000.  A
  • DIN. Albert-Jan Pool, 1995.  This clean geometric sans is based on the German standard typeface, DIN 1451, used for official documents and street signs etc. DIN stands for Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute of Standardisation). The font was added to the MoMA Design Collection in 2011.
  • Hoefler Text. Jonathan Hoefler, 1991.   Designed for Apple to demonstrate advanced type technologies it reintroduced type design traditions once central to fine printing like ligature sets, engraved capitals, ornaments and arabesques.
  • Quadraat. Fred Smeijers, 1992.  An original typeface Combining Renaissance elegance with contemporary ideas on construction and form. Named after Smeijers’ design studio in Arnhem, of the same name.
  • Sabon. Jan Tschichold, 1964.  An oldstyle serif typeface based on Garamond. A distinguishing feature of Sabon is the same width occupied by characters in the Roman and Italic styles, and the Regular and Bold weights.
  • Sentinel. Jonathan Hoefler &amp; Tobias Frere-Jones, 2009.  
  • Verdana. Matthew Carter, 1996.  It was created specifically to address the challenges of on-screen display. Verdana’s large x-height, wide proportions, generous letter-spacing and large counters are key to its legibility at small sizes.
  • Fedra Serif. Peter Bilak, 2003.  A highly original text typeface. Shaped by a unique blend of technological considerations while maintaining hand-written forms.
  • Feijoa. Kris Sowersby, 2007.  Aiming to create a feeling of softness, Feijoa has an almost complete absence of straight lines. Feijoa successfully avoids the sense of coldness that Kris had felt with some previous digital typefaces.
  • Officina. Erik Spiekermann, 1990. A paired family of serif and sans serif typefaces, originally designed as a typeface for business correspondence but found a much wider, trendier audience.

Credit for some images below: Danielle West. [Google] [More]  ⦿

TypeArt Foundry (or: Digiteyes Multimedia TypeArt Foundry)
[Lloyd Springer]

TypeArt is the commercial foundry of Lloyd Springer (Vancouver), est. 1992. His typefaces from before 2003:

  • Bitmap fonts: CitymapRounded, LoveBytes, Letterstitch.
  • Comic book: Disorder, Scratchpad, Sideshow, Superhero, Verbal Cues, Balloons, Buffalo Joe, Frontline.
  • Western: Outlaw, Eastside.
  • Typewriter: Courier Ragged, Double Hitter, Firenza, Keystoned, Romanstone, Streetwise, Writing Machine, Firenza Text, Dear John.
  • Stencil: Mediocre, Boxcar.
  • Serif: Burlington (1997, roman caps only), Miracolo (2002, art nouveau), Saltzburg (1999, a bit art nouveau), Steinburg Modern, Sundance.
  • Script: Prints Charming, Sideshow, Dream Lover, Falcon Casual, Falcon Brushscript.
  • Fifties: Golden Age, Golden Day, Flingaling.
  • Monster: Braindead, Horror Show, Junglemania, Newman, Frankenstein, Frontline, Mixed Breed.
  • Label type: Dimeotype, Label Gun, Liteweit, Silverscreen (1998, a condensed sans ideal for movie credits), Total Disorder, Letterstitch.
  • Inline: Puzzler, Scratchpad, Steelyard.
  • Grunge: Amnesia, Bellamie, Bighead, Braindead, DeviantStrain, DoubleHitter, DoubleVision, Fi ngerprint, LabelGun, Meanstreak, Phantom, Poorsport, Social Menace, Streetwise, TotalDisorder, Mixed Breed, Tapeworm, Typochondriac.
  • Display and decorative fonts: Niteweit, PostIndustrial, Tolstoy (1996, art deco), WhatTheHell, Xheighter, Bossman, Eucaliptus (art deco), Fishboners, Strangelove (1999), Charbonne (art deco), Reerspeer (2002), Freakshow, Underground, Tipemite, Spaced Out, Sunday Best, Eye Doctor, Foreign Language, Hammerhead, Sidewalker, Wendy Woo, Post Industrial, Starship Command, Venus Envy.

The 2003 collection includes Natalian, Amusement, and Finders. MyFonts link. In 2007, MyFonts started selling his fonts: Amnesia, Bellamie, Bighead, Bossman, Boxcar, Buffalo Joe, Charbonne, Courier Ragged, Dead Zone, Dear John, Deviant Plain, Deviant Strain, DimeOtype, Disorder, Double Hitter, Double Vision, Dream Lover, Eastside, Eucaliptus, Eye Doctor, Falcon Brushscript, Falcon Casual, Frankenstein, Frontline, Golden Age, Golden Days, Horror Show, Junglemania, Keystoned, Label Gun, Letterstitch, Letterstitch Plain, Letterstitch Script, Liteweit, Miracolo, Outlaw, Prints Charming, Reerspeer, Romanstone, Saltzburg, Sidewalker, Silverscreen, Spaced Out, Starship Command, Steelyard, Strangelove, Sundance, Superhero, Tapeworm, Time Machine, Tolstoy, Typochondriac, Venus Envy, Verbal Cues, Writing Machine, Xheighter Condensed.

View the TypeArt typeface library. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿


The team at Typecache consists of Taro Yumiba (an interactive designer/editor), Akira1975, Shohei Itoh (engineer), Shinsuke Okamoto (engineer), and James Chae. They write: Typecache.com is an online index for type foundries and font sellers, and showcases their collections of type. As typographic literacy grows, the site will hopefully be a useful resource for designers, art directors, and type enthusiasts.

Useful subpages: Helvetica alternatives. DIN alternatives. Rounded blunt-cornered fonts.

Direct link to the news. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Entertaining and witty piece by Mark Simonson on anachronistic type in movies. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Article about the renaissance of type design in Eastern Europe. Written in 2000 by Adam Twardoch. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Educational resources for the type design students of Hannes Famira. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typeface is not a Font
[Jon Tangerine]

Jon Tan explains the difference between a typeface (a design, a more virtual thing), and a font (a mere implementation of one style). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typeface name check

Checking if a name already exists for a typeface? By far the best way is my own search engine. But after reading the discussion on Typedrawers (see also here), one could also check Lars Schwarz's Fontdata (which failed on some test fonts I threw at it) and Identifont (it too failed on my test set). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typeface or font?

Quoting Mark Simonson: The physical embodiment of a collection of letters (whether its a case of metal pieces or a computer file) is a font. When referring to the design of the collection (the way it looks) you call it a typeface. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typefaces available from US foundries

List of all (metal) typefaces available for sale from these six US typefounders:

  • M & H Type (Mackenzie & Harris), 1802 Hays Street, San Francisco, CA 94129

  • Swamp Press, 15 Warwick Road, Northfield, MA 01360

  • Barco Type (F & S Type Founders Inc.), 237 S. Evergreen, Bensenville, IL 60106

  • Quaker City Type Foundry, 2019 Horseshoe Pike, Honey Brook, PA 19344

  • Michael and Winifred Bixler, Box 820, Skaneateles, NY 13153

  • Harold Berliner, Printer, P.O. Box 6, Nevada City, CA 95959
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Typefaces reveal personality traits

Robert Uhlig discusses Aric Sigman's claim that the choice of a font could reveal someone's character. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typefaces---a free tutorial
[John Magnik]

Link gone. John Magnik's tutorial on typefaces and typographic terminology. Type classification. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Russian type design association. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Christoph Koeberlin]

Informative pages about typefaces and typography, by Christoph Koeberlin. In German. Contains subpage on the best fonts and the best free fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Unsure what this is. The International Type Index is a free project from a non-profit organisation. The objective is to build a searchable database of all fonts from all foundries, from all the world, to the benefit of both users AND authors. As a non-profit project, TypeIndex.org is 100% user-built : the font database grows through submission of missing foundries, fonts, and reviews. Well, there you have it. There is type news, a type handbook, downloads of free fonts, links to commercial fonts, and a type museum. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Website that will soon go live. Apparently, this site was bought by Brian Willson for Tamye Riggs, who used to work at Garagefonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿


A foundry index made and maintained by Mark Johnson and Thomas Drach. The list covers about five percent of the commercial foundries in Europe and the Americas. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Heike Häser]

German on-line type and web design mag run by Heike Häser (in German). Nice subpage on high quality free fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Emil Olsson]

Dead link, kept here on purpose for historical completeness. TypeNeu had type news for professionals. Originally founded in January 7, 2008 by digital designer Emil Olsson, it thrived for a while. In 2008, he was joined by Andreas Pihlström. Some years later, the site died. [Google] [More]  ⦿

TypePhases (was: vigital tipografia)
[Joan Marti Mas]

Joan Marti Mas' dingbats and fonts. Joan Mas is a Catalan type designer, illustrator and graphic designer in Palma, who offers free and commercial fonts. His free fonts include Cu-tbo-rough (2004, handwriting), Dalicanya (2004), Pero Jefe (2004), Corbatins (2004), Cartelia (2004), Carusses (heads), Ataques, Scroonge (grunge), Tooman (tribal dingbats), Kinky Boots (2004), Viatge Quimic (2004, psychedelic face), Kool Aid Acid Text (2004), CU-TBO (2004, comic book family), Psychopaths (2002), CapsBats (2002), Plantiya (1999), Illustries (2000), Illustrisms (2000 and 2012: vintage scanbats), Amano (handwriting, 2000), DeskSpace dingbats, Bruegheliana, Fazzes, Whimsies (2000), Defora (grunge), Antypepatics (great facial caricatures, some even Picasso-esque), Honcho, Ataques, Taques au gogo, Scroonge, Lletraparits, Collbats (named after the cartoon artist Josep Coll, 1924-1984), Homoningos (2002-2004, human figures), Viatge Quimic (2002, lettering based on ideas of Austrian designer Alfred Roller from the early 20th century), Mandicho (child's hand), Sinky (comic book), Tipejos (human figure outlines), Embrush.

Commercial fonts: Merry Mob (2020), Genteta I, II and III, Absurdies (mad men dingbats), The Joy of Reading (2001), Fontorio (handwriting), Simpa (handwriting), Entestats (2004, dingbats of heads), Incipials 1, Deaf Crab, Racana, Emplomada, Phalopha, Feedback, DaMarka, Bizarries, Brrrush, Threedee, Capsbats 1,2&3 (very original: human heads with things in them), Manualita (handwriting), Ombres 2&3. He (note: Joan is a man's name in Catalonia) also has a sub-page on font creation and typography. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿


Lots of interviews and radio clips, nicely organized by person, font, location, and event. This will be a vlauable historic record of the state of the art of type design. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typesetting Tips

Great typesetting tips by R. Michael Conner (Austin, TX). [Google] [More]  ⦿


Klaus-Dieter and Monika Bartels run this web site in Ahrensfelde, Germany. No idea about its purpose. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Informative visual pages about type form and history. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Test your type identification skills on-line. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Jeremiah Shoaf]

Type site that showcases great font usage on web sites and discusses the main commercial fonts. Run by Jeremiah Shoaf, this site also maintains a list of the most popular fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Manuel Bieh]

On-line type advice by Dortmund-based Manuel Bieh. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Pages with links for beginners in typography. Nicely put together. The basics. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Fantastic German collection of web pages with a glossary of sorts. More an encyclopedia of typography, really. By Karen Wegehenkel, Technical University of Dresden. Has a good bibliography of type books as well. Link died. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typo 2004 vol 08

46-page article about the design of symbolism and typefaces in the subway systems of Prague, Paris and London. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typo Goemo

German language typography site. Has a glossary, type history, HTML tips, and useful type information. By Götz Morgenschweis. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typo Knowledge Base (tkb)
[Kai F. Oetzbach]

A type portal managed by teachers and students at the Fachhochschule Aachen, Germany, in German. The page contains the basic rules of legibility and good typography. There is a historic timeline, a list of famous type designers, a list of famous typefaces, a timeline of the great typefaces, anatomy of a letter (glossary), lecture notes, and font downloads of fonts that were developed in the courses of K.F. Oetzbach. The latter include Fegron (Marcel Feiter) and Unperfekt, Semiperfekt and Sansperfekt (Niels Vollrath). Finally, there are many useful book reviews. The site was started by K. F. Oetzbach, André Berkmüler, Natascha Dell and Simon (Burschi) Becker. There are about 25 people participating in the growth of this type portal. K.F. Oetzbach is the codesigner in 2005-2006 with Natascha Dell at Fontfarm of several fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Wonderful and useful archive, beautifully presented by the most generous of fontaholics, Petra Heidorn, a.k.a. CybaPee. Includes nice type art. The web presentation and the categorization are exemplary. Dingbats are used in a creative way to spice up things, and CybaPee juggles Paint Shop Pro like no one else. The growing archive is especially strong for decorative, blackletter, alchemy, Xmas, Celtic, and display fonts. The newest sub-page features Asian fonts (that is, Asian-style Roman letters). These pages are perfect: enjoy them! [Google] [More]  ⦿


The site of the Basel Typostammtisch, started in 2011. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Typographic organization in UK. Organizes seminars and talks. Started by Erik Spiekermann in the 70s, it is now headed by Phil Jones of London's Real Time Studio. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Terrence Chouinard]

Terrence Chouinard's pages: Typocurious is an archive of print-based typographic material culled from the teaching files once owned by Alexander S. Lawson and Archie Provan, his colleague at the Rochester Institute of Technology School of Printing. Its biweekly posts will be direct transcriptions of previously published material, supplemented with accompanying images when possible, introduced with a few brief sentences when necessary, and conclude with a link to a pdf for our readers' downloading pleasure. Requests for material on certain topics are welcome. As this material is culled from the teaching files of Professors Alexander Lawson and Archie Provan, there is an abundance of type specimens, promotional material, and fistfuls of information on Goudy&Dwiggins. Otherwise, selection of the material will be based solely on the interests&current research of the moderator. Great biographies of type designers.

In 2012, Typocurious was pronounced dead by its founder: The future of typocurious.com is uncertain. It may be dumped upon the internet scrap heap completely or its content may be folded into the upcoming reiteration of ithacatype.com. All its pre-gobblety-gook content is safe on the laptop, but I haven't the time, patience or love to care for typocurious anymore. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Helmar Fischer]

General type site (in German) run by Helmar Fischer from Dresden. Type history. Pages about educational fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typografie in der Schule

General links on typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿


A German typography site with pages on classification, news, designers, a type glossary, and tutorials. Run by Ralf Hermann. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typografische eenheden

Dutch page with all typographic measurements. Also, many punctuation and other symbols are explained. Carefully prepared by Oscar van Vlijmen. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Frank commentary and commercial type news, compiled by David Earls. As he states: "Typographer.com only covers commercial typeface releases and very carefully selected others." Archives. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Yves Peters]

Yves Peters now runs this page, which was originally set up by David Earls. Not active since several years ago. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographia: Ligatures

Short essay on ligatures. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographic 56

British outfit with extremely annoying web pages with moving things, small print, hidden buttons, and pop-ups that take over your screen. After reading all their stuff, I still don't know what they are up to, except that they are interested in on-screen typography. The members include Nicky Gibson, Fred Flade, Dionne Griffith, Richard Ho, Mike Reid, Pete Everett, Fred Wheeler, Ghazwan Hamdan, Phil Bulley, Chanuki Sereshine, Punyd Sakharet and Frances O'Reilly. Sorry for the misprints, because I could not read some of the characters in the names. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographic Circle (official site)

The Typographic Circle is dedicated to promoting type and typography in all fields. London-based. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographic Collaboration (or: Typophile.com)
[Jared Benson]

Executive Creative Director and Punchcut Founder. Typophile.com is run by Jared Benson, who is Jonathan Hoefler's webmaster since 1999, from San Francisco. Incredible web pages! Jared designed Review Beta, Yakuza (Japanese letters), Benson Caps (pixel font), Benson Linear (pixel font), Pixeltrap (2003), Bitmuni (2003, based on San Francisco MUNI train windows: a fantastic creation!), Trinary (2003, a crazy bar-coding typeface invention), Benson Nonlinear (another font for small point sizes), Freiburger (2003, based on a scan from from D.B. Updike's Printing Types, Vol 1, pg. 87. This was the type used for the first Bible printed in France: Freiburger, Gering and Kranz, Paris 1476) and Academic. At FontStruct, he created the Singularity family in 2009. Typophile.com is a general information site on type with essays, discussions, tutorials, examples, beautifully organized. On April 8, 2002, Jared spilled hs coffee on one of the most interesting places in the type world with this message: While we encourage healthy debate and meaningful discussion, posts containing inflammatory remarks and/or personal attacks will be deleted in their entirety by the board moderator. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Typographic Principles

CD ROM with lectures on typography, by Don Barnett and Lynda Weinman. Don Barnett is an illustrator and type designer who lives just outside the Seattle, Washington area. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographic Sins
[Jim Godfrey]

Jim Godfrey (Utah Valley University) published his 34 typographic sins. PDF file. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographic Voices

Essay by Mark Eastman for Communication Arts on the use of typography in design. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Stephen Coles]

The official title of Stephen Coles' revival of the Old Typographica is Typographica. Type Reviews, Books, Commentary. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographie et Civilisation

Typography site maintained by Jean-Christophe Loubet Del Bayle. Has sub-pages on Bertham, Bookman, Chelthenham, Clarendon, Copperplate Gothic, Garamond, Garamond ITC, Garamond No3, Goudy Mediaeval, Goudy Old Style, Goudy Sans, Granjon, Optima, Sabon, Stempel, Collection Claude Garamond, Collection Frederic Goudy. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographie française

French typographical rules, explained by Yvonne Méchaly from the Université René Descartes. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographie für Webautoren

A fantastic tutorial on typography for HTML and web pages (in German). It deals with selections of quotes and apostrophes in many languages, the minus sign, the hyphen and dash, spaceds, the colon, the dieresis, numbers, and scientific and financial units. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographie sur le net

Alex Gulphe's fantastic typographical thesaurus. In French. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographie und Layout

Fifteen chapters on typography and page layout. In German. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographische Gesellschaft München

Type association in München. Has lots of seminars and presentations. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographische Gesellschaft München e.V.

Large type society in München, est. 1890. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typographische Gesellschaft München (tgm)

Type club in München. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Kosal Sen]

Type jokes. Page run by Kosal Sen. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typography 1
[Ron Sellers]

Typography classes on the web, by Ron Sellers. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typography and Issues with Type

Great typographical advice. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typography and the User Interface

Insightful article by Daniel Kuo on screen fonts with a surprising conclusion ("use only Verdana or Tahoma") and a good grasp on screen technology. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typography for Mobile Devices
[M. Whitney]

Article by M. Whitney on typography for small devices, dated April 2008. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typography News

Typography news bulletin managed by Microsoft. Very useful! [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typography: the good, the bad and the ugly

A nice discussion of the quality of type by Fred Showker of &Type. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typography Workshop

Interesting pages at the University of Delaware on letterspacing and other typographic matters. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Type jump pages. [Google] [More]  ⦿


German site concerned with typography. Web master Peter Reichard. Nice links to mostly German type sites. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typolis (German version)
[Michael Bundscherer]

"Schrift, Typografie und Gestaltung" is a general typographic site kept by Michi Bundscherer. Alternate URL without Shockwave. Michael Bundscherer made these fonts with iFontMaker: TabletSans, TabletTimes. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Typologic is a studio for type design, typography, and code run by Nina Stössinger. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Russian typography page by Novikov Design (Sergei Novikov). [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Martin Pecina]

Martin Pecina's type blog. Subpage on typography. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typophile: Type designers

Typophile's list of type designers. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Ralf S. Engelschall]

TypoPRO is at once a repository of free fonts and a site that offers recommendations. Started in 2013, it is continuously updated by its founder, Dr. Ralf S. Engelschall (Munich, Germany), b. 1972. Dr. ret. nat. Dipl.-Inf. Univ. Ralf S. Engelschall is the the founder of the popular Open Source software organizations Apache Software Foundation, OpenSSL, OpenPKG and OSSP. He is an active developer in Apache, FreeBSD and GNU software development projects. He studied computer science at TU Munchen (class of 1999) and obtained a PhD in computer science from the University of Augsburg in 2018.

In 2020, TypoPRO consisted of 1613 individual fonts or 182 hand-picked font families. He provides this table of his favorite fonts in the collection:
Sans Serif: Slab Serif: Serif: Monospaced: Script: Display:
Fira Sans Roboto Slab Merriweather DejaVu Sans Mono Handlee Bebas Neue
Roboto Aleo Droid Serif Source Code Pro Journal Overlock
Source Sans Pro Bitter Lora Anonymous Pro Delius Yanone Kaffesatz
Open Sans Andada Source Serif Pro Latin Modern Mono Kalam Poetsen
Lato Crete Round Libre Baskerville Fira Mono Nautilus Pompilius Quando
[Google] [More]  ⦿


Typographical rules for German printing. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Monthly type and beer gathering in Frankfurt. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typotabular Gothics

From Mac McGrew, about this metal type family by ATF, 1915: Typotabular Gothics are a group of typefaces on 6-point body specially cast to a minimum number of set widths, from two to four widths per font. Introduced by ATF in 1915. Designs include two sizes of Lightline Gothic with lowercase for one of them, one size of Monotone Gothic, and several other plain gothics, as follows:

  • No. 1-6-pt. Gothic No. 44
  • No. 2-6-pt. Lining Gothic No. 528
  • No. 3 Unidentified
  • No. 4-6-4 Lightline Gothic
  • No. 5-6-2 Lightline Title Gothic
  • No. 6-6-4 Monotone Title Gothic
  • No. 7-6-72 Copperplate Gothic Extended
  • No. 8-6-pt. Alternate Gothic No.1
The foundry explains: "These Gothic letters have been selected as representing the typefaces used on card index and blank form work, and are cast on em body, en body, and 2/3-em body, with a few exceptions. As will be appreciated by every printer, it is not possible to obtain first-class typographical results with letters cast on a uniform set, but the saving in time is so great that in many cases-and especially on low-priced blanks-it is price and not typographical excellence that secures the order." The result in most cases was a spotty appearance, as though the word or line had been irregularly letterspaced, but it served a purpose. (The specimen is simulated by careful spacing of Lightline Gothic.) Compare Quick-Set Roman. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Peter Bilak]

Typotheque is an initiative of Peter Bilak and ui42 out of Bratislava (Slovakia), and later, The Netherlands: Typotheque is an Internet-based independent type foundry. It offers quality fonts for PC and Macintosh platforms in standard European character set and in CE (central european) character set. All fonts have full (european) character sets, are thoroughly tested and manually kerned.

Typotheque also offers its own type utilities: AccentKernMaker and FontAgent. In 2000, with Stuart Bailey, Peter Bilak co-founded art and design journal Dot Dot Dot. Along with Andrej Kratky he co-founded Fontstand.com, a font rental platform. Peter is teaching at the Type & Media postgraduate course at the Royal Academy of Arts, The Hague.

Free fonts: Remix Typotheque and RaumSüd.

Commercial fonts: Fedra Sans (2001, 30 weights), Holy Cow (2000), Champollion (2000), Eureka (2000), Eureka Phonetik (2000), Eureka Arrows (2000), Eureka Glyphs (2000), Jigsaw (Light and Stencil, 2000, by Johanna Balusikova), Fedra Mono (2002), Fedra Bitmaps (2002), Fedra Serif (2003, 48 weights, with a characteristic shy female A, toes pointing inwards), Fedra Serif Display (2006) and Fedra Arabic (2006) .

Greta (2006-2007, Greta Text and Greta Display) is a newspaper type family designed initially for the main Slovak newspaper, SME. Greta Text won an award at TDC2 2007. It is also being used by the Sunday Times (along with Sunday Times Modern by Emtype and Flama by M. Feliciano). Greta Symbol (2012) is a 10-style 1200-glyphs-per-style superfamily of symbols commonly used in newspapers, magazines and online publications. Finally, Greta Mono (by Peter Bilak and Nikola Djurek) saw the light in 2015. Codesigner with Daniel Berkovitz of Greta Sans Hebrew (2015), which won an award at TDC 2016 and was released in 2017. Greta Sans supports Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Armenian, Arabic, Hebrew, Devanagari, Thai and Hangul. Greta Sans was designed by Peter Bilak, produced together with Nikola Djurek. Irina Smirnova designed the Cyrillic version. The Latin part has been published in 2012, the Cyrillic and Greek in 2015. In 2015, Greta Sans was recognised by the Tokyo TDC. The Arabic version was designed by Kristyan Sarkis and published in 2015. Greta Sans Devanagari was published in 2017, designed by Hitesh Malaviya at ITF under the supervision of Satya Rajpurohit. The Thai version was designed by Smich Smanloh from Cadson Demak, and published in 2019. This Hangul version was designed by Sandoll designers Yejin We and Jinhee Kim, and directed by Chorong Kim.

In 2005, Collins Fedra Sans and Serif were published for use in the Collins dictionaries. A slightly modified version of Fedra Sans is used by the Czech Railways.

In 2008, Peter Bilak, Eike Dingler, Ondrej Jób, and Ashfaq Niazi created the 21-style family History at Typotheque: Based on a skeleton of Roman inscriptional capitals, History includes 21 layers inspired by the evolution of typography. These 21 independent typefaces share widths and other metric information so that they can be recombined. Thus History has the potential to generate thousands of different unique styles. History 1, e.g., is a hairline sans; History 2 is Peignotian; History 14 is a multiline face; History 15 is a stapler face, and so forth.

In 2009, Bilak published the extensive Irma (Sans, Slab) family, which includes a hairline. Typotheque's other designer is Johanna Balusikova.

Collection of over 90 articles on type design by by Stuart Bailey, Michael Bierut, Peter Bilak, Andrew Blauvelt, Erik van Blokland, Max Bruinsma, David Casacuberta, Andy Crewdson, Paul Elliman, Peter Hall, Jessica Helfand, Steven Heller, Roxane Jubert, Emily King, Robin Kinross, Rosa Llop, Ellen Lupton, Martin Majoor, Rick Poynor, Michael Rock, Stefan Sagmeister, and Dmitri Siegel.

In 2011, he created Julien, a playful geometric display typeface loosely inspired by the early 20th century avant-garde. It is based on elementary shapes and includes multiple variants of each letter. It feels like a mix of Futura, Bauhaus, and geometric modular design.

Julien (2012) is a playful geometric display typeface loosely inspired by the early 20th century avant-garde.

Karloff (2012, Typotheque: Positive, Negative, Neutral) is a didone family explained this way: Karloff explores the idea how two extremes could be combined into a coherent whole. Karloff connects the high contrast Modern type of Bodoni and Didot with the monstrous Italians. The difference between the attractive and repulsive forms lies in a single design parameter, the contrast between the thick and the thin. Neutral, the offspring, looks like a slab face. They were made by Peter Bilak, Nikola Djurek and Peter van Rosmalen.

Lumin (2013) is a family that includes slab-serif, sans serif, condensed and display typefaces, and no attept is made to make them uniform in style.

Lava (2013) is a magazine typeface originally designed for Works That Work magazine. It was extended to a multilingual workhose typeface family. It as extended in 2021 to Lava 2.0, at which time they added a variable version of Lava that does this size-specific tracking optimization automatically---Typotheque calls it optical spacing. By 2021, Lava covered Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Devanagari, Telugu and Kannada. Typotheque collaborated with type designers Parimal Parmar, who drew the Devanagari; and Ramakrishna Saiteja, who drew Kannada and Telugu companions for Lava Latin, designed by Peter Bilak.

For Musée des Confluences in Lyon, France, Typotheuqe designed the custom sans typeface Confluence (2014).

For Buccellati Jewellery and Watches in Milan, Typotheque made the classy sans typeface Buccellati in 2013.

In 2016, Peter Bilak, Nikola Djurek and Hrvoje Zivcic published the Uni Grotesk typeface family at Typotheque. It is based on Grafotechna's 1951 typeface Universal Grotesk, which in turn is based on 1934 design by Vladimir Balthasar. Noteworthy also is the prismatic style Uni Grotesk Display.

In 2016, Peter Bilak designed the wayfinding sans typeface family November for Latin, Greek, Cyrillic and Hebrew. Its rounded version is October. November, co-designed by Peter Bilak, Irina Smirnova and Kristyan Sarkis, won two awards at Granshan 2017. November Stencil was published in 2018.

The Q Project was conceived in 2016 by Peter Bilak, and published in June 2020. Nikola Djurek produced the Q Shape 01, loosely based on the Edward Catich's basic brush strokes from his book The Origin of the Serif: Brush Writing and Roman Letters. Bilak explains: The Q Project is a game-like [modular] type system that enables users to create a nearly infinite number of variations. Inspired by toys like Lego or Meccano, Q invites you to explore its vast creative space and discover not only new solutions, but also new problems. Q consists of ix uppercase Base fonts and 35 attachments that can be added as individual layers (Q Base and Serifs). It also comes with a variable font with a motion axis (Q Mechanic), as well as three levels of basic shapes that can be combined into new forms (Q Shapes).

In 2021-2022, Typotheque custom-designed the humanist sans typeface NRK Sans for the Norwegian broadcaster, NRK.

History won an award at ProtoType in 2016.

Behance link. Typedia link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿


German type wiki. Has a German glossary. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typo.z (was: Designiq)
[Filip Blazek]

Filip Blazek (alias Filip de Sign, b. 1974) writes about typography and ran Filip de Sign--Czech Graphic&Design Studio, founded in 1997 in Prague [in 2003, its name was changed to Designiq]. In 2000, he graduated from the Faculty of Arts at the Charles University in Prague. He regularly contributes to professional periodicals in the field of graphic design.

His typefaces include Pozorius, Studnicka Antikva and Duboryt. In 2013, he designed Smalt, a typeface for the street signs in Prague. He explains: Until very recently, the typefaces used on enamel street signs were drawn by hand. Unfortunately the producers introduced computers to the process which resulted in brutal degradation of the typographic quality of street signs. Two years ago, I was invited to organize a typographic workshop at the Academy of Art, Architecture and Design, Prague, and I asked a group of students to create a typeface for Prague street signs based on the letterforms used between 1890s and 1990s. The result was very impressive, so I decided to undrego the process of countless negotiations with Prague municipality. The project has a happyend: Last year, Prague mayor accepted the proposal and all street signs in the capital of the Czech Republic are required to use the students' typeface system and follow certain guidelines. No more Helvetica Condensed Bold extended to 130 percent but a beautiful typeface Smalt (Czech for enamel).

Alternate URL. Very useful pages for Central European typography, with plenty of links and practical information. Interview. Blazek's old site, still jam-packed with font information. Coauthor of Typography in practice (Praktická typografie), published by ComputerPress, 2000, 2004. Founder of Typo Magazine, which focuses on typography, graphic design and visual communication.

Speaker at ATypI 2006 on diacritics (PDF of Filip's presentation). At ATypI 2009 in Mexico City, he spoke on posters from the 1989 Velvet Revolution. Speaker at ATypI 2011 in Reykjavik. Speaker at ATypI 2013 in Amsterdam: Typeface for Prague enamel street signs. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ultra Thin Fonts

Sonja Mansfield selects a few ultra thin fonts for designers. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Underware is a (typo)graphic design-studio which is specialized in designing and producing typefaces. These are published for retail sale or are specially tailor-made. The company was founded in 1999 by Akiem Helmling, Bas Jacobs and Sami Kortemäki. Since 2002 Hugo Cavalheiro d'Alte is also part of the studio. They are based in Den Haag, Helsinki and Amsterdam. In 2017, they joined Type Network.

Bas Jacobs and Akiem Helmling designed Dolly (2001), a 4-font book typeface with flourishes, brushy, sturdy, Dutch. They created Sofa, a precursor of Sauna (2002; +Sauna Mono Pro), which won an award at the TDC2 2003 competition. In 2002, they made Stool for a Finnish printing house, Salpausselän Kirjapaino Ltd. Ulrika is a custom display typeface designed for Proidea Oy (a Finnish film and video production company).

Unibody 8 and 10 (2003) is a free OpenType pixel font optimized for FlashMX.

In 2004, they created Auto, about which they write: Auto is a sans serif typeface which has three different models of italics, each with its own flavour. The font family consists of 3 x 24 fonts. With its three italics, Auto creates a new typographic palette, allowing the user to drive through unknown typographic and linguistic possibilities. Auto is fully loaded with both full Western and Eastern European character sets. Auto won an award at the TDC2 2005 type competition.

Additional material on the web page: a wonderful intro to type basics, and an intro to OpenType.

In 2004, they published the comic book / signage family Bello, which won an award at the TDC2 2005 type competition.

In 2005, Underware joined the type coop Village.

In 2006, they published Fakir, a blackletter family with Hindi inspirations. Fakir won an award at TDC2 2007.

Interview in 2008.

In 2009, they published the connected script brush typeface Liza (+Text, Display, Caps, Ornaments), which has several versions for each letter.

In 2015, Bas Jacobs, Akiem Helmling and Sami Kortemäki published the stencil family Tripper Pro.

Zeitung Pro (2016) is a substantial sans family, designed for micro and macro use, with optical sizes, and a Zeitung Flex variable Opentype font to boot.

Custom types: Stockmann Sans (2012, with Kokoro & Moi: for the Scandinavian department store), Kone (2012: for the elevator company), Mr. Porter (script with a dozen alternatives for each glyph to better simulate real handwriting; it was awarded at TDC 2012 and at Tokyo TDC 2012), Stool (Headline, Thin, Grand), Sauna Mono (for the Danish Jyske Bank), Fated (fat), Ulrika (rounded and informal, slightly plump: for Proidea Ltd, a Finnish video production company), Suunto (2012; for sports watches, i.e., Suunto's Cobra2, Vyper2 and Elementum).

Underware received a prize in the TDC Tokyo Type Directorts Club 2020 awards for Grammato, a contribution in the area of animated and automated typography. Their typeface Y (2020) is an OpenType Variable Display typeface, based on higher order interpolation. It won an award at 23TDC.

In 2021, Underware released Plakato Pro, a stencil family that expanded into the neon, outline, inline, video game, grunge, kitchen tile and prismatic versions.

MyFonts interview. Type Network link.

View Underware's typeface library. Speaker(s) at ATypI 2019 in Tokyo, where they introduce the notion of grammatography: writing with letters that are not prefabricated, but that react to the user and reader---grammatos. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿


Univers is a sans-serif type system designed by Adrian Frutiger in 1956. Both Univers and Helvetica take inspiration from the 1896 typeface Akzidenz Grotesk. Both arrived in the heyday of Swiss type design. Helvetica became more prominent, but Univers is more logical: different weights and variations within the type family were designated by the use of numbers rather than names. The original Univers type family consisted of 14 weights plus 16 variants with central European (CE) and Cyrillic character sets. In 1997 Frutiger reworked the whole Univers family at Linotype, thus creating Linotype Univers, which consists of 63 weights. By reworking the Univers more "extreme" weights as Ultra Light or Extended Heavy were added as well as some monospaced typefaces. The numbering system originally created by Frutiger was as follows:
First digitSecond digit
  1. Ultra Light
  2. Thin
  3. Light
  4. Normal, Roman, or Regular
  5. Medium
  6. Bold
  7. Heavy
  8. Black
  9. Ultra or Extra Black
  1. Ultra Extended
  2. Ultra Extended Oblique (Italic)
  3. Extended
  4. Extended Oblique (Italic)
  5. Normal
  6. Oblique (Italic)
  7. Condensed
  8. Condensed Oblique (Italic)
  9. Ultra Condensed
So, for example, Univers 25 is a regular ultra light version. A modified version is being used by the new Swiss International Air Lines (the old Swissair used the typeface Futura), Deutsche Bank and for signage all over the world. General Electric used the font from 1986 to 2004 before switching to GE Inspira. Apple Inc. uses this typeface as well as its condensed oblique variant for the keycaps on many of its keyboards. The Paris Metro, Montreal Metro, San Francisco BART [2], Frankfurt airport and the Walt Disney World road system also make extensive use of this font. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Universal Grotesk
[Vladimir Balthasar]

This typeface became famous for its use on traffic signs in Czechoslovakia. It was designed in 1951 by an unknown type designer at the Czech type foundry Grafotechna.

Free download of two fonts made in 2010 and 2012 respectively, also by an unknown designer. One of these fonts claims in its metadata that the original is due to Vladimir Balthasar in 1934. In 2016, Peter Bilak reports that Indra Kupferschmid told him that Universal Grotesk is basically Kristall Grotesk (1937, Wagner & Schmidt in Leipzig). As Wagner & Schmidt morphed into the East-German type foundry TypoArt some time after 1945, Bilak conjectures that Grafotechna got its matrices from Wagner & Schmidt.

Digital descendants:

  • The free typefaces Universal Grotesk and Universal Grotesk Tucny (2010 and 2012). Unknown designer. These fonts have irregular stroke widths and awful spacing.
  • Globe Grotesk Display (2014, Jan Charvat).
  • Uni Grotesk (2016, Peter Bilak, Nikola Djurek and Hrvoje Zivcic) is another outgrowth.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

University Roman

University Roman is usually attributed to Michael Daines and Philip Kelly at Letraset who designed it from 1972 until 1983. However, the origins go back much further. There are two sources that are contradictory, so I will cite both:

  • FontShop gives it to George Hunt in 1937.
  • Bitstream writes: A fanciful burlesque of an old typeface revival designed by Ross F. George after the principles of his mentor, William Hugh Gordon. It appears in Speedball lettering catalogues of the late thirties as Stunt Roman. This typeface is the culmination of Gordon's style, stated in Cincinnati in 1918 as "Use full round ovals, condense the vertical elements", and a slightly broken alignment adds to the unique appearance of the entire production. Revived in the late sixties by Paul Bailey at Lettergraphics as Forum Flair, a film font for headlines, the design was widely copied, with Letraset achieving the greatest popularity with their slightly more disciplined version, University Roman.

Implementations include University Roman (Letraset), University Roman (Tilde), University Roman (Monotype Imaging), University Roman (ITC), University Roman (Bitstream), University (Adobe), Hacky Sack NF (Nick Curtis), Finura (Dino dos Santos), and Speedball (Intellecta).

View the most representative digital versions of University Roman. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[José Ramón Penela]

Very didactic and insightful Spanish language web site devoted to typography and its history. Pages by freelance graphic designer José Ramón Penela from Madrid. Check Penela's comparison of truetype and postscript. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Uppercase and lowercase numerals

John Berry's great piece on why old style figures belong with lowercase, and lining figures with uppercase. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Urban Insect Evening (was: Nekton Design)
[Don Barnett]

Grade Script, Plankton-B, Plankton Larvae, BugLight, Gracie Script, Larvae Symbold and Nekton Numbers are gorgeous grunge creations by Don Barnett. Truetype fonts at about 30 dollars per face. Beautiful web page as well.

Klingspor link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Urban Politics of Type

This page has many typographic examples of historic importance. [Google] [More]  ⦿

US bans Courier New 12

Starting February 1, 2004, the US State Department replaced Courier New 12, the official document font before then, by Times New Roman 14. [Google] [More]  ⦿

US Government's toner-efficient fonts

In a publication entitled PrintWise Seven Steps to Lowering Print Costs Within 90 Days (2012), the U.S. General Services Administration recommends the use of the three toner-approved fonts, Times New Roman, Garamond, and Century Gothic. We read: The use of toner-efficient fonts can reduce toner costs by up to 30% By using more toner-efficient fonts, the government can create an average savings of $.0020 cents per page, resulting in government-wide savings up to $30 million annually. [Google] [More]  ⦿

VAG Rounded

A typeface family developed for Volkswagen in 1979. It became an Adobe family, produced in 1989 and updated in 1995. The original designers were David Bristow, Gerry Barney, Ian Hay, Kit Cooper, and Terence Griffin. The latest revival is VAG Rounded Next (2018, Monotype). Developed under the direction of Steve Matteson, it has new weights and adds support for Greek and Cyrillic.

View digital implementations of VAG. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Varityper: 1946 Catalog
[Ralph C. Coxhead]

The Vari-Typer manual of 1946 was published by Ralph C. Coxhead Corporation, New York City. It contains a number of font specimen for the Varityper machine, predominantly typewriter-style typefaces and type for astrology, chemistry, mathematics and other specialized subjects. A small sample is reproduced here. The original PDF file was created at the University of Wisconsin. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Veil of Perception
[Terry Lee]

Terry Lee is a graduate of the University of Kansas. He worked for Hallmark Cards in Kansas for some time. His typefaces there include Runyan, which is based on lettering by Terry Runyan, Write Typer (typewriter emulation), and Ultra Jason, which is based on lettering by Amber Goodvin.

In 2015, he set up his own type foundry, Veil of Perception. His typefaces at his own foundry include Feverish (2017; well, this one is made by Bill LaFever for Veil of Perception), Tragicomic (2016: a comic book typeface), Occam (2016: an informal calligraphic script face) and Hadron (2016, a gothic calligraphic typeface family). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿


Essay by Brian Sooy on the making of the font family Veritas. See also http://ww2.fontzone.com/zine/features/fz33519.html. Site under reconstruction. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Vítor Quelhas

[More]  ⦿

vigital tipografia

Joan Mas provides typographic discussion. In Catalan. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Virgin America

The house type at Virgin America is also called Virgin America. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Visible Language

Started in 1967 as The Journal of Typographical Research. Now called Visual Language, it rarely publishes relevant typographical articles. The best issues are the ones from 1967-1970. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Visibone font survey

Most specified fonts on web pages. In order, all over 90%: Arial, Times New Roman, Arial Black, Courier New, Verdana, Comic Sans, Courier, Trebuchet, Georgia, Impact. A bit down the list, we find Lucida Sans Unicode (74%), Palatino Linotype (69%), Sylfaen (46%), MS Mincho (34%), Batang (33%), SimSun (32%), Tunga (32%), Gautami (31%), Raavi (31%), Shruti (31%), and Andale Mono (25%), to name a few. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Vista fonts: a comparison

The NeoSmart blog discusses the 2006 Vista fonts. The outcome: Calibri (sans-serif), the new default for Office 2007 where it replaces Times New Roman, got good reviews. Cambria and Constantia are solid serif fonts. People liked that Cambria comes with Cambria Math. Consolas is the new typewriter font. Corbel and Candara, both thinner sans serifs than Calibri, got some support as well. Segoe UI was disliked, and not just because it is close to Frutiger. Segoe Print and Segoe Script are script fonts that are not so easy to read. And people are raving about Nyala, John Hudson's Latin component of an Ethiopian script face. It is certainly my own favorite in the bunch. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Visual Telemetry

"Visual Telemetry is a collaborative partnership between Gab Gaither and Robyn A. Harton". Based in Richmond, VA. They specialize in high-quality graphics based in part on Gabrielle's fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

vivid studios

A design company based in San Francisco. The site includes an interesting article on "Information Interaction Design". [Google] [More]  ⦿

Vladimir Balthasar
[Universal Grotesk]

[More]  ⦿

Vladimir Yefimov: Obituary by Maxim Zhukov

Maxim Zhukov's obituary was posted precisely 40 days after Yefimov's passing. I quote from that letter:

The fortieth day of passing is widely observed in Russia, not only by the Orthodox faithful.

Vladimir Venediktovich Yefimov, the pre-eminent Russian type designer and typographic expert, known to his friends as Volodya, or Jeff, died on the 23rd of February, at the age of 62.

Vladimir was born in Moscow on May 6, 1949. He graduated from Moscow Printing Institute in 1973 with a major in graphic art and design. Vladimir began his career as a staff designer at the Type Design Department of the National Printing Research Institute (NIIPoligrafmash). His professional development was influenced by his senior fellow colleagues Mikhail Rovensky, Isay Slutsker, Lyubov' Kuznetsova, and Nikolay Kudryashov, all outstanding design professionals. From 1992 to 1998 Vladimir worked as a senior designer at ParaGraph International; in April 1998 he became one of the founders, and the art director, of ParaType, Inc.

Since then Vladimir designed more than 60 type families (more than 200 type styles), of which many are now well known, without exaggeration, to any Cyrillic user. Among them are Pragmatica (1989), Adver Gothic (1989), Newton (1990), Petersburg, Didona (1992), Octava (1966), ITC Charter Cyrillic and Kis Cyrillic (1999).

Vladimir's typefaces are widely recognized in the professional community world-wide for their superb quality. They won awards at many exhibitions and competitions, including the Certificate of Merit of the Academy of Graphic Design; the Grand Prix of the Golden Bee, Moscow International Biennial of Graphic Design; the Certificate of Design Excellence of the Type Directors Club, and others.

Vladimir taught a course in the history of type design at a number of Moscow-based design schools: Stroganov State University of Industrial Art; Higher Academical School of Graphic Design, British Higher School of Art and Design.

He authored, edited, and contributed to, many books on type design and typography, including a series "Great typefaces" (Book 1: The Beginnings. Moscow: ParaType, 2006; Book 2: The Serifs. Moscow: ParaType, 2007); Language Culture Type: International Type Design in the Age of Unicode, John D. Berry, ed. (New York: Graphis, 2002); Russian editions of Peter Karow's Font Technology: Description and Tools (Moscow, Mir Publishers, 2001), Erik Spiekermann's Über Schrift (Moscow: ParaType, 2005), Robert Bringhurst's The Elements of Typographic Style (Moscow: D. Aronov, Publisher, 2008), Jan Tschichold's The Form of the Book (Moscow: Art. Lebedev Studio, 2008).

Vladimir's mastery of design, his talks at the international typographic fora, and his multiple, productive contacts with foreign colleagues, his profound and multi-faceted erudition, his irresistible charm and charisma, have secured the international recognition of the achievements of the Russian type design school. It is not least due to his efforts that the type design and production in Russia has been revived, and has caught up with the current international level.

Vladimir was a full member of the Academy of Graphic Design (since 1995), and its Vice-President (since 2012), a member of the Association Typographique Internationale (since 1996), and a member of the Moscow Artist Union (since 1997).

Vladimir's typefaces, his books, his gentle charm and his lovely smile will remain with us forever.

Memory eternal. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Vogue Fonts and more

"Miss at le Playa" takes through a tour of fonts used by fashion mags and fashion houses. On its cover, Vogue uses Didot Display, while Vogue Paris uses the free Exotica and Dogwood, as well as Romantiques. Chanel's logo uses