TYPE DESIGN INFORMATION PAGE last updated on Mon Mar 30 12:31:54 EDT 2015






Photo and film type era

[Headline set in Quadra 57 BQ, a phototype era slab serif designed by Karl-Heinz Domning in 1974]


A. Bihari

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Aase (1977), Round Black (1977), DoublePipe (1975), and Corvina Black (1973). Corvina Black was revived and modified by Patrick Griffin in 2005 as Gaslon (Canada Type). Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

A. Jaget

American designer of the rounded sans typeface Jaget Doron and the piano key typeface Jaget Rina (VGC). [Google] [More]  ⦿

A. Mailay

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as the rounded sans typeface Arpad (1971). Arpad was modernized and extended by Jonathan Hill in 2010 as Brion. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Aaron Burns

An expert typographer from the film type era, he set up a type division at Rapid Typographers. There he helped promote the Typositor, or Photo Typositor (invented in Miami by Murray Friedel in 1959), which improved over the first photo type machine, the Rutherford. Rapid Typographers organized the Visual Graphics Corporation (or VGC) to make the best use of this new technology. Peter bain writes: The owners of Rapid Typographers were impressed enough by Friedels invention to organize the new Visual Graphics Corporation. Initially the endeavor split its headquarters between the existing typographers address in midtown Manhattan and sunny South Florida. The Photo Typositor allowed an operator to see composition letter-by-letter as it was exposed, unlike the Rutherford. It also offered many of Photo-Letterings capabilities at a reduced price. The Typositor, as it became known, ingeniously used the same 2-inch film font format as the Filmotype. It speeded fashionably tight letter and word spacing, achievable in metal only with a razor blade after proofing, and had none of the size limitations of foundry type. VGC and its backers proceeded to convert metal faces to film, and pursued licensing with typefounders. Burns guided the development of the type library at Rapid Typographers / VGC. In 1970, ITC was founded by Aaron Burns, Herb Lubalin and Edward Rondthaler (from Photo-Lettering Inc.). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

ABC Types (was: Absolutetype)
[Tony Mayers]

ABC Types is Tony Mayers' foundry. Identifont link. Tony produced film titles in London's West End. He learned the craft of phototypesetting. In 1979, he moved to Manchester, where he founded The Quick Brown Fox Company. He created Concept Crisis (grunge face), Concept Sans, De-Generation, Generation Gothic, Generation Graffiti, Generation Headline, Generation Lost, Generation Open, Generation Pixel, Generation Uncial, Monolith Roman, Monolith Sans, Poster Gothic, Ranger, Society, and Text Gothic. Before ABC Types, he ran Absolutetype, where he sold the faces mentioned above. The typefaces are now digitally available from Cedars, PA-based International Type Founders (ITF), which was created by Steve Jackaman. The latest address for ABC Types was in Cedars, PA. It is identical to that of ITF. Tony Mayers has died.

Ascender also sells its collection. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Ad Werner

Dutch type designer from the phototype era. His paperclip typeface from 1974 inspired Afrojet to create the FontStruction Paperclip (2010), and Wilson Thomas followed that up with Werner Paperclip (2010). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Adrian Frutiger

Famous type designer born in 1928 in Unterseen, Switzerland. He closely cooperates with Linotype-Hell AG, after having been artistic director at Deberny-Peignot in Paris since 1952. He established his own studio in 1962 with André Gürtler and Bruno Pfaftli. Art director for Editions Hermann, Paris 1957 to 1967. Frutiger now lives near Bern, Switzerland, and is primarily working with woodcuts. In 2009, Heidrun Osterer and Philipp Stamm coedited Adrian Frutiger Typefaces The Complete Works (Birkhäuser Verlag), a 460-page opus based on conversations with Frutiger himself and on extensive research in France, England, Germany, and Switzerland. Quote: Helvetica is the jeans, and Univers the dinner jacket. Helvetica is here to stay. He designed over 100 fonts. Here is a partial list:

  • Président (Deberny&Peignot, 1954). Digitized by Linotype in 2003.
  • Delta.
  • Phoebus (Deberny&Peignot, 1953).
  • Element-Grotesk.
  • Federduktus.
  • Ondine (Deberny&Peignot, 1953-1954). The Bitstream version of this font is Formal Script 421. Adobe, Linotype and URW++ each have digital versions called Ondine. Bitstream's Calligraphic 421 is slightly different.
  • Méridien (Deberny&Peignot, 1955-1957). Digitized by Adobe/Linotype in 1989.
  • Caractères Lumitype.
  • Univers (Deberny&Peignot, 1957). About the name, Frutiger wrote I liked the name Monde because of the simplicity of the sequence of letters. The name Europe was also discussed; but Charles Peignot had international sales plans for the typeface and had to consider the effect of the name in other languages. Monde was unsuitable for German, in which der Mond means "the moon". I suggested "Universal", whereupon Peignot decided, in all modesty, that "Univers" was the most all-embracing name!. Univers IBM Composer followed. In 2010, Linotype published Univers Next, which includes 59 Linotype Univers weights and 4 monospaced Linotype Univers Typewriter weights, and can be rented for a mere 2675 Euros.
  • Egyptienne F (1955, Fonderie Deberny&Peignot; 1960, for the Photon/Lumitype machine).
  • Opéra (1959-1961, Sofratype).
  • Alphabet Orly (1959, Aéroport d'Orly).
  • Apollo (1962-1964, Monotype): the first type designed for the new Monotype photosetting equipment.
  • Alphabet Entreprise Francis Bouygues.
  • Concorde (1959, Sofratype, with André Gürtler).
  • Serifen-Grotesk/Gespannte Grotesk.
  • Alphabet Algol.
  • Serifa (1967-1968, Bauersche Giesserei). URW++ lists the serif family in its 2008 on-line catalog. Other names include OPTI Silver (Castcraft), Ares Serif 94, and Sierra. Bitstream published the digital typeface Serifa BT. But it is also sold by Adobe, Tilde, Linotype, URW++, Scangraphic, and Elsner & Flake. The slab serif is robust and is based on the letterforms of Univers.
  • OCR-B (1966-1968, European Computer Manufacturers Association).
  • Alphabet EDF-GDF (1959, Électricité de France, Gaz de France).
  • Katalog.
  • Devanagari (1967) and Tamil (1970), both done for Monotype Corporation.
  • Alpha BP (1965, British Petroleum&Co.).
  • Dokumenta (1969, Journal National Zeitung Suisse).
  • Alphabet Facom (1971).
  • Alphabet Roissy (1970, Aéroport de Roissy Charles de Gaulle).
  • Alphabet Brancher (1972, Brancher).
  • Iridium (1972, Stempel). A didone with slight flaring.
  • Alphabet Métro (1973, RATP): for the subway in Paris.
  • Alphabet Centre Georges Pompidou. The CGP typeface (first called Beaubourg) used in the Centre Georges Pompidou from 1976-1994 is by Hans-Jörg Hunziker and Adrian Frutiger, and was developed as part of the visual identity program of Jean Widmer. It is said that André Baldinger digitized it in 1997.
  • Frutiger (1975-1976, Stempel, with Hans-Jörg Hunziker). In 1999, Frutiger Next was published by Linotype. In 2009, that was followed by Neue Frutiger (a cooperation between Frutiger and Linotype's Akira Kobayashi). In fact, Frutiger, the typeface was made for the Charles De Gaulle Airport in 1968 for signage---it was originally called Roissy, and had to be similar to Univers. It was released publically as Frutiger in 1976. The modern Bitstream version is called Humanist 777. Frutiger Next Greek (with Eva Masoura) won an award at TDC 2006. Other digital implementations of Frutiger: M690 (SoftMaker), Quebec Serial (SoftMaker), Frutus (URW), Provencale (Autologic), Frontiere (Compugraphic), Freeborn (Scangraphic), Siegfried (Varityper). Poster by Devin Lindsay.
  • Glypha (1979, Stempel). See Gentleman in the Scangraphic collection).
  • Icône (1980-1982, Stempel, Linotype). Digitized by Linotype in 2003.
  • Breughel (1982, Stempel; 1988, Linotype).
  • Dolmen.
  • Tiemann.
  • Versailles (1983, Stempel).
  • Linotype Centennial (1986).
  • Avenir (1988, Linotype). In 2004, Linotype Avenir Next was published, under the supervision of Akira Kobayashi, and with the help of a few others. Lovely poster by Ines Vital (2011).
  • Westside.
  • Vectora (1991, Linotype).
  • Linotype Didot (1991). See also Linotype Didot eText Pro (2013), which was optimized by Linotype for use on screens and small devices.
  • Herculanum (1989, Linotype): a stone age font.
  • Shiseido (1992).
  • Frutiger Capitalis (2006, Linotype): a further exploration in the style of Herculanum, Pompeijana and Rusticana. Linotype trademarked that name even though at least five fonts by the name Capitalis already exist.
  • Pompeijana (1993, Linotype).
  • Rusticana (1993, Linotype).
  • Frutiger Stones (1998, Linotype) and Frutiger Symbols.
  • Frutiger Neonscript.
  • Courier New, based on Howard Kettler's Courier, was one of Frutiger's projects he was involved in ca. 2000.
  • AstraFrutiger (2002): a new signage typeface for the Swiss roads. Erich Alb comments: With a Frutiger condensed Type and illuminated signs during night it is mutch better readable.
  • Nami (2008) is a chiseled-stone sans family, made with the help of Linotype's Akira Kobayashi.
  • Neue Frutiger (2009, with Akira Kobayashi) has twice as many weights as the original Frutiger family.
Bio by Nicholas Fabian. Erich Alb wrote a book about his work: "Adrian Frutiger Formen und Gegenformen/Forms and counterforms" (Cham, 1998). Winner of the Gutenberg Prize in 1986 and the 006 Typography Award from The Society for Typographic Aficionados (SOTA). Famous quote (from a conversation in 1990 between Frutiger and Maxim Zhukov about Hermann Zapf's URW Grotesk): Hermann ist nicht ein Groteskermann. A quote from his keynote speech at ATypI1990: If you remember the shape of your spoon at lunch, it has to be the wrong shape. The spoon and the letter are tools; one to take food from the bowl, the other to take information off the page... When it is a good design, the reader has to feel comfortable because the letter is both banal and beautiful.

Linotype link. FontShop link. Adrian Frutiger, sa carrière française (2008) is Adèle Houssin's graduation thesis at Estienne.

Klingspor link. Wikipedia link. View Adrian Frutiger's typefaces.

View some digital versions of Avenir. Vimeo movie on Frutiger by Christine Kopp and Christoph Frutiger entitled "Der Mann von Schwarz und weiss: Adrian Frutiger". More Vimeo movies. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Affolter und Gschwind AG
[Werner Affolter]

Werner Affolter ran a phototype and printing company in Basel, Switzerland, called Affolter und Gschwind AG, Fotosatz&Reprotechnik. In 1981, Affolter published an extensive catalog entitled Letterama that showed over one thousand alphabets. Few of those were original, so I suspect he acted as a vendor of sorts, but at least a couple seemed original, or were claimed to be original or exclusive: Guigoz, Moby Dick. Moby Dick was revived in 2014 by Nick Curtis as Call Me Ishmael NF.

Some examples of the types shown, in alphabetical order: Antique Wood MP363 (art nouveau), Antique Wood MP 364 (oriental simulation face) [the Antique Wood series is quite extensive, and is just numbered], B+T Classic (roman), Bernhard Fett, Beton Fine Line (typewriter), Burko (avant garde family), fonts starting with G, Gaston Fett (a squarish gothic typeface also called Gipsy), Gaston Halbfett (also called Grassy), Gemini Computer, Germanic Sans (more avant garde and Lubalin-style glyphs), Hollandse Mediaeval, Hollywood (a 3d decorative family), typefaces starting with K, Lineamarca (slabby), Linear (avant garde, geometric monoline), Melen (experimental, geometric), Meola Bookman swash (decorative), Metro (art nouveau, after the Metroploitaine font), Moraine (squarish), the Old Foundry sub-collection [another mysterious numbered collection; examples include some uncials, and some more art nouveau faces, some Victorian ornamental faces (F260 through F262), more art nouveau (MP418 through MP420) and blackletter faces (MP421)], Pierrot (psychedelic, groovy), Phydian (one of many Western style ornamental faces0, Ronda, Roulette, Roulette Schattiert (=Rajah) (more Western fare), Ruby (shaded caps), Runic Small (condensed), Rustic (wood log look), typefaces starting with S, Spengler Gothik, St. Clair (ornamental), Zither (calligraphic script). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Alain Simon

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Karolys (Roman, Italique). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Albert Boton
[BVS Boton]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Albert Hollenstein
[Studio Hollenstein]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Albert Nolan

Type designer for PhotoLettering Inc in the photo type era. His type designs include Akimbo 2, Akimbo 3, Brush Bold, Brush Animated Condensed, Brush Expanded 7, Brush Upright 9, Brush Upright Condensed 8, Brush Upright X Condensed 8, Brush Upright X Condensed 10, Caslon Schoolbook, Caslon Schoolbook 7, Caslon Schoolbook Italic 4, Cartoon Medium, Classic Script, Flamingo 2, Flamingo 5, Flight, Frolic Bodoni, Frolic Medium, Knockout, Marionette, Nolan Roman, Rodeo, Rodeo Script, Rumba 7. Vagabond Condensed. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Aldo Novarese

Italian designer, 1920-1995, who designed most of his faces at Nebiolo in Turin. Until 1975, he made about 30 families at Nebiolo, and after 1975, he produced about 70 further families of fonts. With weights included, he created about 300 fonts. Biography by Sergio Polano. He was very influential, and wrote two important books, Alfa Beta: Lo Studio e il Disegno del Carattere, a study on font design and history (1964), and Il Segno Alfabetico (1971). Essay by Sergio Polano on Novarese. The list of fonts done at Nebiolo:

  • Landi Linear (1942). This was revived in digital form in 2011 by toto as K22 Landi Linear.
  • Etruria (1940-42)
  • Express (1940-43)
  • Normandia (1946-49, with Butti, and 1952)
  • Athenaeum Initials (with A. Butti, 1945-1947)
  • Fluidum (+Bold) (1951, script). Revived by Ralph Unger as Butti (2011).
  • Fontanesi (1951-54, a rococo font)
  • Microgramma (1952, with A. Butti; available at URW++). This was done as an alternative to Bank Gothic, and is identical to Eurostile Bold Extended.
  • Nova Augustea (1951, ITC Augustea Open)
  • Egizio (1953-57), a slab serif [see E710 Roman on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD, 2002, or Egizio URW (2009, quite complete family with 5 styles) or Egizio EF (2001), or Thierry Gouttenègre's Aldogizio (2013)]. For a specimen, see here.
  • Cigno (1954). This script typeface was revived an extended as P22 Cigno (2008, Colin Kahn, P22).
  • Swan (1954), aka Cigogna (with A. Butti).
  • Juliet (1954-55). For a superb revival and extension of this copperplate script, see Canada Type's Ambassador Script (2007).
  • Ritmo (1955)
  • Rhythm (1955)
  • Garaldus (1956-ff). Digitally revived in 2012 as Garaldus by Flanker.
  • Slogan (1957). Digital revival by Terry Wudenbachs in 2010 called P22 Slogan.
  • Recta (1958-1961). This is a large sans family. Canada Type published an 18-font revival in 2011, also called Recta.
  • Estro (1961)
  • Fancy (1961)
  • Exempla (1961)
  • The Eurostile family (1952: caps, with Alessandro Butti; 1962: lower case). This is carried by many foundries such as Adobe, Linotype, and URW++. Eurostile lookalikes include Aldostile (Autologic), ES (Itek), Eurasia (SoftMaker), Eurogothic, Eurostar (MGI Software), Eurostyle, Eurostile Next (Akira Kobayashi), Gamma, Jura (Daniel Johnson), Microgramma, MicroSquare (SoftMaker), Microstyle (Compugraphic), NuevoSolStile (Cayo Navarro), SD Eurostile Elite (Justin Rotkowitz), Square 721 (Bitstream), Waltham. Noteworthy is Eurostile Round (2014), a rounded version of Eurostile by URW++.
  • Patrizia
  • Magister (1966)
  • Forma (1966). Alessandro Colizzi explains: From 1965, following a marketing-oriented approach focused on the user, the management set a research group of graphic designers to work on a new typeface design. Headed by Novarese, who provided the basic alphabet, the team included Franco Grignani, Giancarlo Iliprandi, Till Neuburg, Ilio Negri, Pino Tovaglia, Luigi Oriani, and Bruno Munari. The collective design process was based on an analysis of contemporary sanserif typefaces and legibility tests, to develop a more mature, humane interpretation of the Swiss sanserif trend. The process was quite laborious with monthly meetings spanning across over two years. In 1968, Forma was eventually released as lead type. As its name implies, Forma aimed at representing the ideal letterform of its time, equally appealing to designers, printers and the general public. The typeface was favourably received by the design community (it won a special mention at Compasso d'oro in 1970), but although initial sales were encouraging, it could not really compete in a market already saturated by Univers, Helvetica and the like. . A grand revival of Forma, described by Indra Kupferschmis, was organized by Roger Black for Hong Kong Tatler (as fashion mag). The revival was executed by Font Bureau's David Jonathan Ross in 2013.
  • Oscar (1966)
  • Lambert (Compacta lookalike)
  • Exempla (VGC, 1966, Third Prize in the 1966 VGC National Type Face Design Competition)
  • Metropol (1967). This gaspipe typeface was digitized by Patrick Griffin at Canada Type in 2007 as Press Gothic. Originally, it was meant as an alternative to Geoffrey Lee's Impact at Stephenson Blake.
  • Elite (1968, a boring linear script, digitized in 2005 by Canada Type as Fontella)
  • Fenice
  • Stop (1971; available at Linotype, URW++, Elsner&Flake)
  • Dattilo (1974, an Egyptian face) (1974): his last creature for Nebiolo, a typewriter type. It was considered as a slab serif companion of Forma.
His post-Nebiolo fonts:
  • Sintex 1 (VGC, 1973). A revival and expansion of this funky nightclub typeface was done in 2008 by Patrick Griffin at Canada Type as Stretto.
  • Bloc (1974, VGC)
  • Mixage (1977 Haas, a lineal font, now ITC Mixage) 1985?
  • Novarese Book (1978, now ITC Novarese Book)
  • Lapidar (1977)
  • Andromeda (1978, VGC)
  • Global (1978, VGC)
  • Fenice (1977-80; now ITC Fenice)
  • Expert (1983)
  • Colossal (1984); see Colossalis at Berthold, a slab serif sports lettering family)
  • Symbol (1982-1984, now ITC Symbol)
  • Arbiter (1989, Berthold)

View Aldo Novarese's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Alex Steinweiss

Born in 1917 in Brooklyn, NY, Steinweiss became famous for his music album covers and the lettering used on them. Designer in 1939 of the curly hand-printed Steinweiss Scrawl, which was purchased by Photolettering Inc in the 1950s. It was revived in 1993 by Christian Schwartz as Hairspray (in Blonde, Redhead and brunette weights). Nick Curtis's 2005 font, Whirled Peas NF, revives Whitestone Crawl by Steinweiss. Michael Doret, with the help of Patrick Griffin, made a 2200-glyph curly script typeface called Steinweiss Script (2010), which captures a lot of the spirit of Steinweiss's album covers.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Alice Savoie
[Alice Savoie, Frenchtype]

[More]  ⦿

Alice Savoie, Frenchtype
[Alice Savoie]

Graduate student (b. 1984) from Estienne in 2006 and the University of Reading in 2007. In 2012, she was a Ph.D. student at the University of Reading. Thesis topic: International cross-currents in typeface design: France, Britain, and the US in the phototypesetting era, 1949-1975.

Pic by Ralph Herrmann. Her typeface Capucine Greek has been awarded as the best text typeface of the Greek alphabet exhibition, taking place during the 3rd international conference on typography and visual communication in Thessaloniki, Greece, 2007. Capucine is a very informal, almost hand-printed family covering both Latin and Greek in many styles. She also made the constructivist typeface Pozor (2005) and the connected handwriting typeface Jeanine, done in 2006 at the École Estienne in Paris, where she studied from 2004 until 2006. She worked for a short time as a graphic designer in London before joining Monotype Imaging in 2008 as a full-time type designer.

In 2009, she codesigned Ysobel (Monotype; winner of an award at TDC2 2010) with type designers Robin Nicholas, head of type design at Monotype, and Delve Withrington. The sales pitch: According to Nicholas, the idea for the Ysobel faces started when he was asked to create a custom, updated version of the classic Century Schoolbook typeface, which was designed to be an extremely readable typeface - one that made its appearance in school textbooks beginning in the early 1900s.

In 2010, finally, she published Capucine at Process Type Foundry (Grand Valley, MN), where she currently is part of Eric Olson's team.

Brill (2012), codesigned with John Hudson for Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands, won an award at TDC 2013.

Typecache link. Klingspor link. At ATypI 2014 in Barcelona she spoke about phototypesetting. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Alphabet Innovations International -- TypeSpectra (Was: MM2000)
[Phil Martin]

Born in Dallas in 1923, and retired in Florida, Phil Martin had an exciting life, which started as a bombardier in WWII, and went on as a piano bar singer, publisher, cartoonist, comedian and typographer. He died in October 2005.

Phil established Alphabet Innovations International in 1969 and TypeSpectra in 1974, and designed most of his 400 faces (read: film fonts for use in the VGC Photo Typositor) there: Agenda (1976), Americana (1972), Arthur (1970, by Roc Mitchell), Aurora Snug (1969), Avalon (1972), Baskerville (1969), Beacon (1987), Bluejack (1974), Borealis (1970, by Roc Mitchell), Britannic (1973), Bulletin (1971), Celebration (1969, by Roc Mitchell), Century S (1975), Cheltenham (1971), Clearface (1973), Cloister (1975), Corporate (1971, by Roc Mitchell), Corporate Image (1971, by Roc Mitchell), Courier B EF (2004, originally done at Scangraphic), Didoni (1969, a knock-off of Pistilli Roman with swashes added), Dimensia and Dimensia Light (1971, by Roc Mitchell), Dominance (1971), Egyptian (1970), Eightball (1971, some report this incorrectly as a VGC face, which has a different typeface also called Eightball: it was digitized by FontBank as Egbert. Alphabet Innovations' Eightball had other versions called Cueball and Highball, and all three were designed by George Thomas who licensed them to AI), Fat Chance (Rolling Stone) (1971), Fotura Biform (1969), Franklin (1981), Garamond (1975), Globe (1975), Goudy (1969), Harem (1969, aka Margit; digitized and revived in 2006 by Patrick Griffin and Rebecca Alaccari as Johnny), Helserif (1976---I thought this was created by Ed Kelton; anyway, this typeface is just Helvetica with slabs), Helvetica (1969), Introspect (1971), Jolly Roger (1970, digitized in 2003 by Steve Jackaman at Red Rooster; Martin says that Jolly Roger and Introspect are his two most original designs), Journal (1987), Kabell (1971), Kabello (1970), King Arthur [+Light, Outline] with Guinevere Alternates (1971, by Roc Mitchell), Legothic (1973), Martinique (1970), Mountie (1970), News (1975), Palateno (1969), Pandora (1969), Pazazzma (1980), Perpetua (1969), Plantin (1973), Polonaise (1977; digital version by Claude Pelletier in 2010, called Chopin Script), Primus Malleable (1972), Quaff (1977), Quixotic (1970), Report (1971), Romana (1972), Scenario (1974), Sledge Hammer (1971), Son of Windsor (1970), Stanza (1971, by Roc Mitchell; this angular typeface was later published by URW), Stark (1970), Supercooper (1970), Swath (1979), Threadgil (1972), Thrust (1971), Timbre (1970), Times (1970), Times Text (1973), Trump (1973), Tuck Roman (1981), Viant (1977), Vixen (1970), Weiss (1973), Wordsworth (1973).

In 1974, he set up TypeSpectra, and created these type families: Adroit (1981), Albert (1974), Analog (1976), Bagatelle (1979), Cartel (1975), Caslon (1979), Criterion (1982), DeVille (1974), Embargo (1975), Heldustry (1978, designed for the video news at the fledgling ABC-Westinghouse 24-hour cable news network in 1978; incorrectly attributed by many to Martin's ex-employee Ed Kelton: download here), Innsbruck (1975), Limelight (1977), Oliver (1981), Opulent [Light and Bold] (1975, by George Brian, an amployee at Alphabet Innovations), Quint (1984), Sequel (1979), Spectral (1974), Welby (1982).

His fonts can be bought at MyFonts.com and at Precisiontype. He warns visitors not to mess with his intellectual property rights, but I wonder how he can have escaped the ire of Linotype by using the name Helvetica. In any case, the fonts were originally made for use on photo display devices and phototypesetters. Some are now available in digital format.

Near the end of his life, Phil's web presence was called MM2000 (dead link).

Check his comments on his own faces. URW sells these faces: URW Adroit, URW Agenda, URW Avernus (after Martin's design from 1972), URW Baskerville AI, URW Beacon, URW Bluejack, URW Cartel, URW Cloister, URW Corporate, URW Criterion, URW Didoni, URW Fat Face, URW Globe, URW Goudy AI, URW Heldustry, URW Helserif, URW Introspect, URW Legothic, URW Martin Gothic, URW Martinique, URW Pandora, URW Polonaise, URW Quint, URW Scenario, URW Souvenir Gothic, Souvenir Gothic Antique (the Souvenit Gothic family was designed by George Brian, an employee of Alphabet Innovations at the time: it was AI's first text family), URW Stanza, URW Stark, URW Timbre, URW Viant, URW Wordsworth.

Interview. Bye Bye Blackbird performed by Phil Martin in Largo, Florida.

The final message on his last web page, posted posthumously read: MARTIN, PHIL, 82, of Largo, died Tuesday (Oct. 4, 2005) at Largo Medical Center. He was born in Dallas and came here after retiring as a writer, singer-songwriter, commercial artist, and comedian. As a high school student, he worked as an assistant artist on the nationally syndicated Ella Cinders, and at 18 wrote and drew Swing Sisson, the Battling Band Leader, for Feature Comics. He was an Army Air Forces veteran of World War II, where he served as a bombardier in Lintz, Austria. On his 28th mission shelling the yards in Lintz, his B-24 was hit and he was listed as missing in action until the war in Europe ended. He was a comedian on The Early Birds Show on WFAA in Dallas. As a commercial artist, he founded two multinational corporations to market typeface designs and is credited for designing 4 percent of all typefaces now used. He also wrote columns and articles for typographic publications. Locally, he sang original lyrics to old pop standards in area piano bars, and in 1999 produced 59 issues of the Web book Millennium Memorandum, changing the title to MM2000 when he issued the first edition of the new Millennium on Jan. 3, 2000. Survivors include his wife, Ann Jones Martin; and a cousin, Lorrie Hankins, Casper, Wyo. National Cremation Society, Largo.

Phil Martin's digital typefaces.

FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Amelia's Adventure

Stanley Davis is the designer of the well-known font Amelia (1964), a winner at an international type competition run by Visual Graphics Corporation (VGC). In this article, we investigate why Stan is mad at Linotype and Bitstream (in his words: [...] Bitstream and Linotype have stolen my Amelia font [...] their renditions of it are pathetic). A comparison is made between these fonts: A770Deco (SoftMaker Software GmbH) [true to the original, a feature of most of the SoftMaker collection], BarbarellaSF (Brendel Informatik&SoftMaker Software GmbH, 1990-1993), PerkleDisplaySSi (Southern Software, Inc, 1992), AmeliaBT-Regular (Bitstream, 1990-1992), LinotypeAmelia (Linotype*Hell AG, 1997), and Amy (Corel, 1991). Stan is in favor of strengthened copyright protection to avoid this sort of thing. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Andrea Cretton

Designer of Adonis (1971) for photocomposition for the Typefoundry Amsterdam. This typeface was acquired by Stephenson Blake and cast in type. [Google] [More]  ⦿

André Chante

French designer of Club (1972), Go (1972) and Or (1970), all at Hollenstein Phototypo. [Google] [More]  ⦿

André Gürtler

Born in 1936 in Basel, Switzerland's André managed the design office at Deberny&Peignot in the late fifties and early sixties. He taught production letter design at the Künstgewerberschule in Basel from 1965 onwards. He started Team 77 with Christian Mengelt and Erich Gschwind in order to make a correct grotesk improving over past grotesks, including Helvetica.

Gürtler's typefaces:

  • Basilia (1978, Haassche Schriftgiesserei). This didone typeface family is available from URW and Linotype who has the date 2004 for its latest digital version.
  • The slab serif Egyptian 505 (1966, VGC). First Prize in the 1966 VGC National Type Face Design Competition, developed in cooperation with his students. This became Egyptian 505 at Bitstream and Linotype.
  • Media (1976, Bobst Graphic, with Chr. Mengelt and Erich Gschwind).
  • Signa (1978, Bobst Graphic).
  • LinoLetter (1978). A slab serif codesigned with Reinhard Haus. The digital version at Linotype is dated 1992. Adobe also sells this typeface.
  • ITC Avant Garde Gothic (1971-1977). With Edward Benguiat, Tom Carnase, Christian Mengelt and Erich Gschwind. ITC Avant Garde Gothic is a font family based on the logo font used in the Avant Garde magazine. Herb Lubalin designed the logo and its companion headline typeface. Lubalin and Tom Carnase, a partner in Lubalin's design firm, worked together to make a full typeface. The condensed fonts were drawn by Ed Benguiat in 1974, and the obliques were designed by André Gürtler, Erich Gschwind and Christian Mengelt in 1977.
  • Alpin Gothic (Compugraphic).
  • Cyrillic Gothic (Compugraphic).
  • Haas Unica (1980, Haas). Hrant Papazian writes: Unica is amazing. The only grot I like - although some people don't think it's a grot - which would explain my attraction! It avoids both the sterility of Univers and the... well, idiocy, of Helvetica. [...] art of it is Gurtler's mystique. Another is the amazing "rationalization" exercise Team 77 carried out in making it (elaborated just as amazingly in a small publication I have a copy of). I guess the main reason I can cling to is that it's not "naive". Most old grots (like Akzidenz) are like backwards villagers to me, and new grots (like FF Bau) are urbanites pretending to be villagers. In comparison, Unica is like an urbanite who has had to move in with his villager in-laws, but has decided to make the best of it. On the other hand, I suspect this is exactly why some people think Unica is not in fact a grot - it's a geo in grot's clothing. Stephen Coles writes: Scangraphics Digital Type Collection (which included Haas Unica) was purchased by Elsner + Flake in 2003, to which they added font-specific Euro and @ symbols in 2004. The revamped typeface was set to be sold by Scangraphic and its distributors, but Linotype is currently preventing the release, citing trademark violations. Although similarities to other typefaces often occur between foundries, it is rare that one finds typefaces that have been shelved indefinitely due to such resemblances. In truth, the real problem lies within a dispute over who owns the name Haas Unica, rather than any resemblance infringment. Haas Unica is commercially unavailable thanks to Linotype and Scangraphic. Linotype especially stands to lose a lot of Helvetica money if it ever appears. Michael Hernan digitized Unica Deux in 2006. PDF of Unica. The Ministry of Type calls it the ultimate archetypal sans serif face.

Linotype link. FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

André-Michel Lubac

French type designer, b. 1955, who drew the calligraphic Le Griffe in 1973 (Letraset).

Fontshop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Andy Song

Creator of the following phototype fonts at Studio Hollenstein: Arc en ciel (multilined), Indigo (ornamental, art deco). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Antonio (Tony) DiSpigna

Italian type designer, b. 1943, Forio d'Ischia, Italy, who emigrated to the USA. His first design job was at Bonder&Carnase. In 1969, he joined Lubalin Smith Carnase Inc. He ran his own studio, Tony DiSpigna Inc. (since 1973). He teaches typography at the Pratt Institute, the School of Visual Arts and the New York Institute of Technology.

Typefaces: ITC Serif Gothic (designed in 1972 by Herb Lubalin and Tony DeSpigna for the International Typeface Corporation, it is a "cold" almost copperplate typeface; poster by Michael Bunnell, 2013), Playgirl, ITC Lubalin Graph (with Herb Lubalin), Fattoni, ITC Korinna (1974, with Ed Benguiat), WNET.

FontShop link. Another MyFonts link. Logo. Klingspor link. Linotype link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Arthur Baker
[Arthur Baker Designs (or: Glyph Systems)]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Arthur Baker Designs (or: Glyph Systems)
[Arthur Baker]

American calligrapher who worked for many foundries, and ran several studios. His fonts have calligraphic influences, of course. MyFonts page. Another MyFonts page. And still another MyFonts page. FontShop link. Some of his work, which is a bit scattered over many foundries:

  • He runs Glyph Systems in Andover, MA, where one can find Calligraphica (1995, like Sassafras), Cold Mountain (1995, grunge), Collier Script (1995, calligraphic), Daybreak (1995, grunge), Duckweed (1995), Duckweed Sans, FishFace (dingbats), Hiroshige Sans (1995), Kigali (1994), Mercator (1995, an old mapmaker type family), Oakgraphic, Swooshes (1994, ornaments), Feathers, Florettes, Flowery, Hands (1995, calligraphic fists), Plumes, Swirls, Arrows (1995), and Sassafras (1995, a decorative engraving family).
  • At one point, he designed a Maverick Designs Collection (1994): New Amigo, New Marigold, New Oxford, New Pelican, New Visigoth.
  • Linotype Amigo.
  • Linotype carries Baker Signet (2001, famous for the word Coke on the Coca Cola bottles) [Bitstream also has a version of this], Visigoth, Oxford, Marigold, Amigo, Sassafras and Kigali.
  • Agfa-Monotype carries Pelican, and so does Adobe.
  • ITC has ITC Tiepolo (1987).
  • He had some fonts published under the label AlphaOmega. These all appeared later with Adobe.
  • At P22: Calligraphica (2001) and the medieval map writing font Mercator (2001). P22 Matador (2007) is a contemporary Roman font based on the manuscript tradition (digitized by Michael Clark).
  • At VGC: Baker Argentina No 1 (1976), Baker Danmark One (1976), Baker Signet (1965). Baker Signet, in its display text weights, was at the basis of Sigvar (Softmaker).

Some explanations by Freddy Nader: The Baker Argentina and Danmark faces were variations on his Signet. Baker originally made Signet for Headliners International in the 1960s, where he worked full time. In 1972 he was approached by VGC and told that they would pay him royalties as well if he made the same typeface for them. Royalties were a relatively new thing back then - Tommy Thompson was the very first person to ever learn royalties in type (in 1944 for his Thompson Quill script for Photo Lettering Inc), and he wasn't a type designer per se, he was a calligrapher. Lured by the idea of royalties coming his way from two different directions for the same face, Baker did a Signet for VGC. When Bob Evans, owner of Headliners, found out, he threatened to sue VGC for trademark infringement (copyright for typefaces was unheard of at the time - every major photo type house had "similar" fonts, and whenever someone got exclusives made by outside designers under a royalty program, it was only a matter of weeks before they were knocked off and changed slightly by other type houses, big and small). So in order to avoid a trademark infringement lawsuit, VGC called their typeface Baker Signet, instead of just Signet, and went further by asking Arthur Baker to make a lighter version and a condensed version. The lighter version was called Baker Argentina, the condensed version was called Baker Danmark. The "Number One" prefix was added to both so that when the inevitable knockoffs happened, type buyers would know which type was made first. About Baker Sans, Freddy writes: The Baker Sans was a knockoff of Helvetica. It was a massive family of a lot of fonts, rendered very ugly by camera stretching and slanting. Eddie Bauer used it as their corporate typeface for a long time in order to avoid the expensive fees of licensing Helvetica. Tim Ryan ended up digitizing it for Arthur Baker in the mid 1990s for a lot of money. That digital version is now being sold by ITF under one of its many companies (either Arthur Baker Design, or Arthur Baker Designs, or maybe Maverick Designs).

MyFonts link">MyFonts link. Klingspor link.

View Arthur Baker's typefaces. MyFonts link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Arthur L. Rawn

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Précis Slim (1972). [Google] [More]  ⦿

A&S Gallatin

A photocomposition font dating from 1976. It was listed in a 1984 phototype catalog. Typedia mentions: A & S Gallatin may have been a proprietary style for a particular department store, in that era, and assembled as a private type style. [Google] [More]  ⦿

B. Th. P. Verkaart

Designer of the phototype headline sans font Annonce fett (+licht) at Berthold (1967) and Lettergieterij Amsterdam. [Google] [More]  ⦿

BA Graphics
[Robert Alonso]

Bob Alonso (b. Bronx, NY, 1946, d.2007), the founder of BA Graphics in 1994, is an American typographer who designed Damage Control (1993, grunge), Mango Gothic (1991), Pimento (1998), Shooby (1992), Pink Mouse (1992, psychedelic), Tequila (1992, a bouncy play on Didot), Alex (1996, child's hand), Chicken Soup (1993), PC Gothic (2005), Rust Bucket (1994), ITC Aftershock (1996), ITC Outback (1997), ITC Serengetti (1996), ITC Ziggy (1997), Gusto Black (2003), Vinchenso (2003), Blog (2007, 1890's style display egyptian), Nine One One BA (2007, grunge). He also designed the clean handwriting typeface Zipty Do, Serendipity (2006), CEO Roman (2007), Paladium Gothic (2007, a sans), Snip Tuck (1994, a headline face), Rancho Grande (1995), Radiance Brush (1997, a casual brush script), and Sahara Bodoni (1996). 33 years of experience at NewYork's Photo Lettering, and specializing to some extentv in calligraphic script faces, but not exclusively so. BA Graphics was located in Chester, NY, and later in Toms River, NJ, and now sells its fonts through MyFonts.

The complete list: ITC Aftershock, Alexandra Script (a formal script), Allure, Alons Antique, Alons Classic, Angular, Animated Gothic, Barnboard, Bedrock, Bodoni Roma (1993), Cabernet Sauvignon (2007, a take on Didot---I can't believe BA Graphics trademarked this name!), Cafe Aroma, California Sans, Calafragalistic (1992), Caslon Manuscript (1992), Champ Ultra (1995, Western billboard font), Chunky Monkey, Cookie Dough, Crackers, Crescent, Down Under, Elegante, Elephant Bells, Ellington Manor, Equate (1993), Extreme (chalk writing, 1996), Felicity Script, Flix, Freaky Friday Extreme, French Vanilla, Galactic, Geo (2000), Granny Smith, Gusto Black, Headline Gothic, High Intensity, Island Sans, Italian Didot, Kresson Black, Linear Gothic, Lorraine Script, Mardi Gras, Mega (1993, a fat mini-spurred didone), Milano, Nightmare, ITC Outback, Pecos, Ravenwood, Red Dawg, Relaxed Fit, Richmond Hill, Road Gothic (1996), Robertson, Senegal, ITC Serengetti, Shazam, Sign Gothic Bold Condensed, Slam Dunk, Sleepy Hollow, Swank Gothic, Title Gothic Light, Torino Modern, Triumph Gothic, Vinchenso Regular, Wackado, Yakety Yak (1994), Zany, ITC Ziggy, Zipty Do, Queen of Hearts (1991, script), Steel Magnolias (1995, blackletter family), Steeplechase (1992, wild West saloon font), Waimea (1992, poster font), Black Rising (2006, a black military style face), Summer Nights (1993, script), Sugar Shack (1995, curly script), Beaches and Cream (1996, a sans turned into a connected script), Jr High (1994, sports lettering).

Alonso Flair with its flared pants (2008) and Squat (2011, a stunted black wood style face) were started by Alonso, but finished after his death by John Bomparte, who wrote this obituary: Throughout his career at the legendary Photo-Lettering, Inc. (one that spanned four decades), Bob created original typefaces and tailored type by modifying, revising and filling out families, fashioning pieces of type for hand-lettered jobs, as well as being involved with the updating of a number of well-known logotypes. Bob was blessed with natural teaching abilities; and those in social and professional circles who had the good fortune to know him considered him not just a type designer but a mentor and a friend. As one such person close to him put it, he was a "graphic technician... back when computers were not even in site for graphic arts, he would take on any intricate&complex graphic project that others would shy away from and come up with a solution that achieved a masterpiece. I'll always remember someone saying 'this can't be done' and Bob saying let me see it and a short time later, there it was --done&perfect. I would like to think that attitude rubbed off on me. Along with this gift for teaching and explaining the complex, Bob exhibited a level of professionalism that was unsurpassed. A number of years ago when the need came to make the transition from the traditional to digital way of creating fonts, he rose to the challenge admirably. Towards the last few years of Photo-Lettering, Bob played a vital role in the conversion to digital, of many of the typefaces within the collection, notably those fonts that carry the prefix PL. More recently, Bob Alonso released several fonts through ITC, Adobe and his independent foundry, BA Graphics. Bob was on the cutting edge of his best work, and in the circumstance of his untimely passing, left a measure of unfinished designs. However, the spirit of his typographic talents and his fine sense of humor lives on through the many much-loved, and popular fonts he has left us: fonts such as Cookie Dough, Equate, Elephant Bells and Pink Mouse, to name a few.

The final font listing at MyFonts: ITC Aftershock, Alex, Alexandra Script, Allure, Alons Antique, Alons Classic, Alonso Flair, Angular, Animated Gothic, Bad Boy, Barnboard, Bedrock, Bodoni Roma, Brawn, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cafe Aroma, Calafragalistic, California Sans, Cedar Key, CEO Roman, Champ Ultra, Chardonnay, Chicken Feet, Chicken Soup, Chunky Monkey, Clearmont, Coffee Black, Cookie Dough, Crescent, Deco Inline, Deep Rising (2006, constructivist), Down Under, Elegante, Elephant Bells, Ellington Manor, Equate, Extreme, Fashion Didot (1994), Felicity Script, Flix, Fraggle, Freaky Friday Extreme, French Vanilla, Galactic, Geo, Grandeur, Granny Smith, Gusto Black, Hatari, Headline Gothic, High Intensity, Island Sans, Italian Didot, Jr High, Ka Boink, Ker Pow, Key West, Klingon, Kresson Black, Linear Gothic, Lorraine Script, Malibu Heights, Manchester, Mardi Gras, Mega, Metro Gothic, Milano (2004, a didone face), Mission Hills, National Gothic, Nightmare, Oh Sweet Pea, ITC Out of the Fridge, ITC Outback, Paladium Gothic, PC Gothic, Pecos, Pink Mouse, Queen Of Hearts, Radiance Brush, Rancho Grande, Range Gothic, Ravenwood, Relaxed Fit, Road Gothic, Robertson, Rust Bucket, S&L Gothic, Sahara Bodoni, Senegal, Serendipity, ITC Serengetti, Shadow Gothic, Shangrala, Shazam, Shore Bodoni, Sign Gothic Bold Condensed, Slam Dunk, Sleepy Hollow, Sleezy, Snaggle, Snip Tuck, South Beach, Spice, Steel Magnolias, Steeplechase, Summer Nights, Swank Gothic, Tequila, Thats Amore, Title Gothic Light, Triple Condensed Gothic, Triumph Gothic, Vinchenso Regular, Wackado, Waimea, Wall Street Gothic, Wonka (1996, named after Willy Wonka), Yakety Yak, Zany, ITC Ziggy, Zipty Do.

FontShop link. Klingspor link.

View Bob Alonso's typefaces. View the BA Graphics typeface collection. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Barclay Open

An open all-caps typeface made by Photo-Lettering Inc. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Barry Deutsch

Born in Brooklyn in 1940, he graduated from New York City Community College. Barry worked for Sandgren & Murtha, New York as agraphic designer.

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Deutsch Black (1966). This unicase piano key typeface was revived in digital format by Nick Curtis as Blackbarry NF (2011). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bernard Allum

Designer in the 1970 of these art deco typeface designs for Panache Photosetting / Face Ronchetti together with Dave Farey: Allumette, Ruthie, Danny Boy, Neon. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bernie Abel

Designer of Abel Cursive (Compugraphic, 1974). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bill Garth
[Compugraphic Corp.]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Bill Garth
[Photon Inc]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Bob Newman

British graphic and type designer, most famous for his Data Seventy (1970, Esselte/Letraset), a display typeface that emulates the shapes of the early computer types [see Data EF at Elsner and Flake, and for a free knock-off, Westminster]. A cyrillization of Data70 was done in 1976 by Victor Kharyk.

Other designs by Newman include Penny Farthing (1974, Letraset), Odin (1972), Frankfurter (1970, Letraset, with Alan Meeks and Nick Belshaw), Linotype Horatio, and Pump (EF and Linotype versions).

Alternate URL. MyFonts link. FontShop link.

Zach Whalen analyzes Data Seventy in his 2008 thesis and states that Data Seventy is the first full alphabet based on the MICR font E-13B, since it includes both upper and lower case letters.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Bobst Graphic

Swiss photo-typesetting company. Among their typefaces, we find the 1977-1978 effort leading to Signa (by André Gürtler, Christian Mengelt, Erich Gschwind), and Trinité (1981, Bram de Does, part Bobst Graphic, part Autologic). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Bomparte's Fonts
[John Bomparte]

Bomparte's Fonts is John Bomparte's (b. Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1959) foundry in Wake Forest, NC. A graphic and type designer, John Bomparte was the assistant to, and a protege of renowned type designer Ed Benguiat, at the legendary Photo-Lettering Inc. It was there that John was surrounded by other great type designers such as Tony Stan, Vic Caruso, Vincent Pacella and Bob Alonso.

John designed the art deco sans typeface Hamptons BF, and another art deco headline face, Take Two BF.

In 2006, he published the 12-style family Blackletter Sans and the exquisite poster semi-Greek simulation art deco typeface Abstrak BF (modeled after a 1934 ATF font by Robert Foster called Abstract).

In 2007, he surprises with the 1920s poster font Michelle BF, the hand-printed Brandy BF, its follow-up Johnny Script BF (2008), the quirky Freaky Frog BF, the dot matrix halftone effect font Subliminal BF, the frizzy Glow Gothic BF (2007), and the gorgeous swashy 3-style blackletter family Black Swan BF (2007).

His 2008 faces: Jacky Sue BF (based on the hand of Jackie Geerlings), SoHo Nights BF, Hamburger Font BF (a rounded fat face), and the art deco sans serif faces Sidewalk Cafe BF (2008) and Hamptons BF (2 weights).

Emerge BF (2009) is a flare serif inspired by Admiral, c.1900, from the Keystone Type Foundry. Freedom Writer BF (2009) is a connected handwriting script face.

Danielle BF (2010) is hand-printed, based on the hand of Danielle Paradis. Factor BF (2010) is an electronic / futuristic / techno face. FingerSpeller BF (1994) is an American sign language typeface. Retroscript BF (2010) and Capistrano BF (2010) are beautiful connected scripts.

In 2011, he added the fat felt tip pen typeface Sherbet BF and the funky rounded display typeface Dragonfly BF. In that same year, he published the stunted black wood type typeface Squat (BA Graphics, based on earlier work of or with Bob Alonso).

Typefaces from 2012: Rockport BF (a gaspipe font inspired by 19th century wood types), Wilmington Script BF (an upright loopy connected script).

In 2014, Seagrass BF, a connected script, and My Write Hand BF were published.

Klingspor link. Catalog of some of his commercial fonts. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Bonder & Carnase, Inc.

A font studio opened by Ronne Bonder and Tom Carnase in the 60s. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Bronislaw Zelek

Polish type designer who lives in Vienna. At Mecanorma in the early 1970s, he made Zelek Black, Zelek Shadline, Zelek Bold, and Zelek Boldline. Zelek Black looks twisted and almost geometrically impossible.

Dan X. Solo in his Dover book "Moderne Alphabets" shows an identical face, renamed Zelda. In 2009, Zelek pops up again in a slightly reworked version by Simon Griffin for Wired UK. Typophile discussion.

Dick Pape made a series of Zelek revivals including Zelel Shadline, Zelek Black, Zelek Bold, Zelek Bold Reflection, and Zelek Bold Line.

The Russians have their own versions, starting with a 1987 semi-clone by G. Klikushin, which in turn inspired the 1993 face---far removed from Zelek's Zelek---, New Zelek about which its publisher Paratype writes: The typeface was developed at TypeMarket in 1993 by Alexey Kustov on the base of artworks of Viktor Kharyk and Lidia Kolesnichenko (1979), that were developed as a Cyrillic adaptation of the typeface of Bronislav Zelek, Mecanorma.

The multicolor layered typeface Bron was published in 2014 by Swiss type designer Jermia Adatte.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

BVS Boton
[Albert Boton]

Albert Boton is a Parisian type designer and teacher, born in 1932 in Paris. In 1957 he started work at Deberny&Peignot under Adrian Frutiger. From 1958 to 1966 he helped create several typefaces for the Hollenstein phototype catalog. In 1968 he became the art director for Robert Delpire publishers, but continued designing faces for the Hollenstein collection and later for Mecanorma and Typogabor. From 1968 to 1997 he was a teacher of type design and calligraphy at the École nationale des arts décoratifs (ENSAD) in Paris. From 1988 to 1998 he taught type design at the Atelier National de Recherche Typographiques. In 1981 he became art director and head of type department at the design agency Carré Noir. Interview in the ENSAD Journal B. His company is called BVS Boton.

He is the designer of Berthold's Boton family (1986), FF Bastille Display package (2002, consists of FF Aircraft, FF Aircraft TF, FF District Bold, FF District Bold TF, FF Studio, FF Studio TF, FF Zan), FF Elegie (2002, art nouveau, a take on Auriol), ITC Elan (1985, lapidary), ITC Eras (1961-1976), Agora (1990, Berthold: a lapidary typeface), Chadking (1958), Roc (1959), Brasilia (1960), Primavera (1963), Rialto (1964), Black Boton (1970), PL Brazilia (PhotoLettering, a sans family), Zan (1970), Pharaon (1971), Pampam (1974), Hillman (1972, an Egyptian family at Mecanorma), Tzigane (1973, a condensed family at Mecanorma), Chinon (1973, Mecanorma), Hudson (1973), Boton and Navy Cut (1986, for Mecanorma), the Scherzo family (at the Agfa Creative Alliance), Carré Noir (1996, also at Agfa), Bellini, Praxitel, FF Tibere. Since 1998, he distributes his own fonts through BVS Albert Boton: Albotoni Book (made in 1974 originally), Kit, Memo, Pompeii (1993), Linex Sweet, FF Page (2003, in PageSans and PageSerif families), FF Cellini (2003, Albert's take on Bodoni), FF Tibere (2003, a classic roman family), FF District (2004, a squarish sans family) and Linex Sans (Agfa, 2003) are some his latest typefaces.

Citroen's logo font at Delpire.

Bio at FontFont. Pictures of an exposition in 2003. Linotype link. FontShop link. MyFonts link.

Aude Degrassat wrote a thesis on Boton in 2008 at Estienne.


View Albert Boton's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Calvin Valensi

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Elekrik (1977). [Google] [More]  ⦿


A URW++ cargo stencil typeface based on a PhotoLettering Inc. Design from the 1960s. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Carl Dair

Renowned Canadian type designer and designer (b. Welland, Ontario, 1912, d. 1968). His typefaces:

  • Raleigh, published by Bitstream (1977), codesigned with Robert Norton, David Anderson, and Adrian Williams.
  • The garalde typeface Cartier (1967, VGC), designed as a gift to Canada on the occasion of its centennial. Cartier was unfinished when he died. Rod McDonald finished it, to become a working typeface family in 2000.

Author of Design with Type (1952, revised and expanded in 1967). John Berry discusses Dair's seven different kinds of contrast, size, weight, form, structure, texture, color and direction.

FontShop link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Carla Ward

Type designer in the 1970s who won a Letraset type competition in 1973 with her wire frame design, Bombere. I am a bit confused because Harold Lohner mentions that her name is Carla Bombere. He revived the font under the name Wireframe (2000). See also here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

C.B. Smith

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Sol (1975, with Marty Goldstein) and the neotech font family Harry (1966-1970, with Marty Goldstein). Harry was revived digitally by Steve Jackaman and Ashley Muir as Harry Pro (2009, Red Rooster). Sol was extended and revived by Patrick Griffin and Kevin Allan King in 2010 at Canada Type as Sol Pro (20 styles). [Google] [More]  ⦿

C.E. Coryn

Type designer of the photo type era who worked for Photolettering Inc. His typefaces there include: Beauchamps Expanded Italic, Belgique Bold, Belgique Bold Italic, Berkshire, Bodoni Bold Italic, Cameroon, Centidot Condensed 2, Centidot Semi Condensed 2, Century Thin, Century, Chateau 2, Classique, Classique Italic, Classique Wide, Continental Condensed, Didot Light, Didot Light Italic, Didot Medium Italic, Didot Bold, Didot Bold ItalicDidot Demi Bold Expanded, Didot Extra Condensed, Distingue Thin, Elite Didot, Elzevir 3, Elzevir 3 Italic, Elzevir 4, Escorial Extra Condensed, Ester, Etroit Didot Condensed 2, Etroit Didot Condensed Obl., Etroit Didot Condensed 3, Expanda, Galaxy Didot, Marquis, Noblesse, Onyx Condensed Italic, Overture Script Light, Palladium, Rheinlander Bodoni Light, Rheinlander Bodoni 4, Soverign 3, Soverign 3 Italic, Venice, Venice Wide. Several of these typefaces were digitized by the reincarnated PhotoLettering by House Industries. The latter include Coryn Galaxy Didot (2013). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Charles Armand Peignot

French typographer, born and died in Paris, 1897-1983. Founder of ATypI, son of Georges Peignot, and lifetime director of Deberny&Peignot. Designer of Peignot (with Adolphe Mouron Cassandre). Founder of ATypI. Starting in the late fifties, the company prepared the fonts for Lumitype, European Photon. In the sixties, Charles Peignot invested heavily in Lumitype, which used up some of the money to buy control of Deberny&Peignot, and let Charles go. Deberny&Peignot closed in 1979, at which time the designs passed to the Haas'sche type foundry in Basel/Münchenstein. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Christian Mengelt

Christian Mengelt (b. 1938, St. Gallen, Switzerland) is a graphic designer, type designer, and teacher. He studied graphic design under Armin Hofmann and Emil Ruder at the School of Design, Basel. In 1964, he set up his own graphic design studio together with different partners, and has cooperated with various design and advertising agencies, such as GGK Basel, Switzerland, and Mendell&Oberer Munich, Germany. With Karl Gerstner and Günter Gerhard Lange, he was briefly involved in the Gerstner program at H. Berthold AG. Early type designs include Univers Compugraphic (1972, Compugraphic) and Cyrillic Gothic (1974, Compugraphic), both realized in cooperation with André Gürtler. From 1972 until 2001, he taught graphic and type design at the Basel School of Design, which he headed from 1986-2001. With André Gürtler and Erich Gschwind, he formed Team 77 in Basel and became deeply involved in most aspects of letterform design and application, which led to these type designs:

  • 1976: Media (Bobst Graphic, Autologic).
  • 1977: Avant Garde Gothic Oblique (ITC).
  • 1978: Signa (Bobst Graphic, Autologic).
  • 1980: Haas Unica (Haas Typefoundry, Linotype, Autologic).
  • After a long hiatus, with the help of the Linotype staff, he created Sinova in 2011, a versatile humanist sans type family in ten styles, which has broad language support.
  • Mengelt Basel Antiqua (2014, Linotype). A relaxing Venetian text typeface family based on the Basel book typefaces from the 16th century. Linotype, its publisher, writes: The first edition of the anatomy atlas De humani corporis fabrica came out nearly 500 hundred years ago. It was published in 1543 in Basel by Andreas Vesalius. The work was published in multiple volumes and is extraordinary not only for its content and design, but also its typography. It excites philologists and typographers to this day. De humani corporis fabrica was printed in the workshop of Johannes Oporinus, who was considered one of the major printers and publishers in Basel in his time. He used one of the Venetian Antiqua-inspired fonts for the typesetting. This is a genre of fonts which was much loved by the Basel printers. The printer Johann Amerbach brought it to Switzerland from Italy a few centuries earlier. [Note: Is this a misprint?] The American philologist Daniel H. Garrison provided the initiative for Mengelt to explore the Basel Antiqua fonts from the 16th century. He is working on a re-edition of the De humani corporis fabrica and is looking for a fitting print font which has historical references, but the technical characteristics of a modern font. Mengelt takes on the challenge and designs his Mengelt Basel Antiqua font on the basis of the original Basel prints.

Typedia link. MyFonts link. Linotype link. Behance link. Interview by Linotype. FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Christopher Mathews

Designer at Linotype of the multiline art deco or marquee typeface Piccadilly (1973). It can also be viewed as a paperclip face. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Churchward Type
[Joseph Churchward]

Joseph Churchward (b. Apia, Samoa, 1933) grew up in Samoa, and moved to New Zealand, where he founded a design studio in Wellington. He lived in Hataitai. He died in 2013 [Obituary by Jack Yan].

His early type designs were released as photolettering through Berthold. In 2000, in partnership with Chank, his fonts are finally being converted to the standard electronic formats. In 1984, he won a Silver Prize at the Morisawa Awards competition. In 2009, he was made a life member of The New Zealand Designers Institute DINZ.

MyFonts writes: Churchward Type started in 1962 as Joseph Churchward's freelance lettering service. Within six months he had generated enough work to move from his job as Senior Artist into setting up Churchward International Typefaces, which became one of the largest typesetting companies in New Zealand. In 1969 Joseph was asked to submit alphabet designs to Berthold Fototypes and saw immediate success. He later went on to sign distribution agreements with D.Stempel AG, Dr Böger Photosatz GmbH/Linotype, Mecanorma-Polyvroom B.V and Zipatone. He self-published a handful of original fonts in 1978 becoming the first and only company in New Zealand to publish original photo-lettering. Churchward International Typefaces was forced to close in June 1988 but Churchward Type lives on with a fresh set of independent releases. David Buck has taken on the role of digitisation. Joseph continues to draw alphabets and now has a stockpile of over 300 unique alphabets to his name.

Catalog of Joseph Churchward's typefaces:

  • Chank sells ChurchwardHeading, ChurchwardSamoa, Churchward Maori, ChurchwardDesign5Line, ChurchwardBrush. See also Churchward Roundsquare (2002), which reminds me of Apostrophe's Toolego.
  • At Berthold, he published Churchward 69 (1969, a fat face), Blackbeauty (1972; this psychedelic type inspired Nick Curtis's 2009 font, Strollin NF), and Churchward 70 (1970, a Bauhaus-style sans family).
  • MyFonts sells Churchward Alien (2012), Churchward Maori (2004, frilly), Churchward Marianna (1969, an obese bubblegum typeface; Nick Curtis's Proud Mary NF (2010) is derived from it), Churchward Ta Tiki (2003), Churchward Asia (2003), Churchward Samoa (2003, 6-weight sans family), Churchward Maricia (a Western-style face), Churchward Brush (2006), Conserif CW (2006, BluHead Studio), Churchward Heading (2007), Churchward Supascript (2007), Design CW (2006, BluHead Studio), Freedom CW (2006, BluHead Studio), Ta Tiki CW (2006, BluHead Studio), Churchward Newstype (2008, 8 styles, BluHead Studio), Churchward Chinatype (2008, 5 styles of oriental simulation glyphs), Churchward Heading (2011), Churchward Brush (2009, BluHead Studio), and Churchward Design Lines (1970, a prismatic multiline face), Churchward Montezuma (2012, an Aztec-inspired design digitized by BluHeadStudio), Churchward Legible.
  • Churchward Tua (2014). A Western typeface published posthumously. Similarly, BluHeade published Churchward's 1996 geometric sans typeface Churchward Lorina in 2014.

Klingspor link.

View Joseph Churchward's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Collis Clements

Designer of the art deco typeface Roco (1974, Letraset). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Compugraphic Corp.

Names of Compugraphic fonts. Ulrich Stiehl's compilation of type equivalences, as taken from Compugraphic's 1988 "The TypeBook". [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Compugraphic Corp.
[Bill Garth]

This company existed as Compugraphic and Agfa Compugraphic from 1960-1995. The timeline:

  • Founded in 1960 in Brookline, MA, by Bill Garth and Ellis Hanson (Chief Engineer of Photon, Inc). The intention was to apply computer technology to typesetting. The company would go on to influence the world of photocomposing with its low cost typesetters.
  • In 1963, the company relocates to Reading, MA, and introduces its Linasec I and II, the first general typesetting computers.
  • In 1967, the company relocates to Wilmingon, MA, forms a Type Group and an engineering department, and releases its first typeface, Bodoni.
  • In 1968, Compugraphic introduces the phototypesetters CG 2961 and CG 4961. In 1969, the 7200 Headliner machine (the first keyboard-operated machine to set headlines and display type) was added, followed, in 1970, by the Area Composition Machine (ACM) 9000, in 1971 by the CompuWriter machines, in 1973 by the VideoSetter I and II, in 1974 by Unified Compuser and ExecuWriter, in 1975 by UniScan and UniSetter, and in 1977 by the EditWriter 7500, the Mini-Disk Terminal, and the Mini-Disk Reader..
  • The first typeface exclusively developed by Compugraphic, is released, Holland Seminar. It was created by Hollis Holland in 1973.
  • 1974: The purchase of T. J. Lyons Press, gives Compugraphic the rights to nearly 2,500 old and antique typefaces.
  • In 1981 Agfa bought 51% of Compugraphic, increased that to 80% in 1983 and finally they merged outright in 1989. The new company name is Agfa Corporation.
  • In the late eighties, they proposed the scalable format FAIS as an alternative for type 1 and truetype. This format did not survive long.
  • In 1992 Miles, Inc (Pittsburgh, PA) bought Agfa/CG. In 1995 Miles changed name to Bayer Corporation. Agfa is the imaging division of this comnpany.
  • Finally, in 1999 Agfa (after acquiring Monotype in '97) became independent of Bayer. They now own the ITC catalog (and, by virtue of that, the former Esselte/Letraset font catalog too) as well as the others they picked up through the years.

MyFonts sells Garth Graphic (Compugraphic, and now Agfa/Monotype, by Constance Blanchard and Renee le Winter, based on earlier sketches of John Matt, 1979) and Phenix American (Agfa-Monotype), and named in honor of Bill Garth. Noteworthy is the 1988 catalog "The TypeBook".

Images of some typefaces: CG Garamond (now Monotype; see also Garamond Antiqua and Garamond Kursiv), CG Times (now Monotype).

Timeline at the Monotype Imaging site.

Compugraphic collection of fonts (with CG in the name). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Con Aslanis

Designer of Yarra (1974, Letraset). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Craig Mierop

Designer in the 1960s of the art deco typeface Ginger Snap (PhotLettering Inc). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Cruz Fonts
[Ray Cruz]

Cruz Fonts was established in Oakland, NJ, in 2004 by Ray Cruz, who has been a designer of custom lettering and custom typefaces to major ad agencies, publishers and corporate clients in the New York City area for almost 30 years. He has created many display faces for Agfa/Monotype, Bitstream, Phil's Fonts and Garage Fonts. Presently Ray Cruz is working as Type Director at Y&R NY, and is an adjunct professor at FIT and Kean University teaching type design. Bio at Garagefonts.

His oeuvre:

Bio at Garagefonts. P22 link. FontShop link. PDF catalog.

View Ray Cruz's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Dan X. Solo

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Dave West

Type designer of the photolettering era (1960s) whose work is slowly but surely being digitally revived by Nick Curtis, and by Photo-Lettering, the House Industries subsidiary that bought the PhotoLettering Inc type collection. FontShop link. His typefaces:

  • The slightly psychedelic typeface West Banjo. Nick Curtis's Fiddle Sticks (2007) is based on this typeface.
  • Elephant Gothic, a fat deco face. Remade by Nick Curtis as Elephunky NF (2011).
  • Nick Curtis believes that Stymie Black Flair may also be due to him, and he based his Tutti Paffuti NF (2007) on the latter face.
  • African Queen was revived by Curtis as Djibouti NF (2007), a minimalist tribal African alphabet.
  • Nickelodeon. Revived by Curtis as Lily Hilo NF (2008).
  • Barnum Block (Western face), done in 1960 at PhotoLettering Inc. This became Cg BarnumBlock at Compugraphics. The Compugraphics collection is now sold by Monotype. See also PL Barnum Block.
  • Behemoth (1960, PhotoLettering): a slab serif. This too became a Compugraphics face, Cg Behemoth Semi Condensed. See also PL Behemoth Semi Condensed.
  • Futura Casual inspired Nick Curtis to draw Occidental Tourist NF (2010).
  • Walnetto Casual (Photolettering) is another psychedelic face. For a digitization, see Nick Curtis's Jackalope NF (2010). West Barnum Ultra, designed by Dave West and digitized by Ben Kiel&Adam Cruz at House Industries in 2011, was film no. 5494 in the original Photo-Lettering archive.
  • West Thud.
  • West Kerpow, a comic book typeface.
  • West Italiano. A didone.
  • West Emperor Script. A connected didone script.
[Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

David Moore

[More]  ⦿

David Nelson

Designer of the cloud emulation typeface family Cumulus (Photolettering). [Google] [More]  ⦿

David Trooper
[DTrooper Foundry]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Daylight Fonts
[Shin Oka]

Japanese foundry with excellent web pages on early 20-th century type design. They created various revival fonts in 2009, all connected in some way to Tom Carnase, including

  • Bentley (201)=0). This is the same as Avant Garde Gothic.
  • Bernhard Neo DF (2010).
  • Caslon223 DF (after ITC/LSC Caslon 223 by Tom Carnase). Other Caslons include Caslon Headlione DF (2010) and Caslon Swash DF (2010).
  • Didot DF (2008).
  • Garamond DF (2010).
  • Grouch DF (after ITC Grouch by Tom Carnase and Ronne Bonder)
  • Lubalin Graph DF (after ITC Luabalin graph by Herb Lubalin, Ed Benguiat, Joe Sundwall, and Tony DiSpigna)
  • Busorama DF (after ITC Busorama by Herb Lubalin and Tom Carnase)
  • L&C Hairline DF (after L&C Hairline by Herb Lubalin and Tom Carnase)
Additionally, they identified the fonts on many covers and albums from the 1960s and 1970s. Further revivals of photolettering era fonts:
  • Baby Teeth (2009): after the art deco typeface of Milton Glaser, 1968, PhotoLettering.
  • CBS Didot (2009): after the original by Freeman Craw, 1970s.
  • Indigo (2009): after a font by Albert Hollenstein, 1970s.
  • Pacella Collegiate (2009): after Vincent Pacella's typeface at PhotoLettering.
  • Penny Bee (2009): a Peignot lookalike.
  • Tiffany Heavy With Swash (2011). A swashy Didot display face. This type was used by Quentin Tarantino's movie Jackie Brown in 1997. Tiffany Heavy (Ed Benguiat, Photolettering) is basically identical to Benguiat Caslon Swash (1960s) and to Foxy Brown (1974). Similar faces include LSC Book with Swash by Herb Lubalin and Tom Carnase (ca. 1970).
  • Wexford (2009): after the typeface of Richard A. Schlatter, VGC, 1972.
They are working on Permanent Massiv (after a 1962 Ludwig&Mayer font by Karlgeorg Hoefer---comparable to Impact or Compacta in its massiveness and masculinity), Michel, Didoni, Tiffany, Ginger Snap, Patriot, Motter Ombra, Pistilli Roman, Benguiat Caslon, and Via Face Don. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Dick Pape
[Dick Pape: Via Face Don]

[More]  ⦿

Dick Pape: Via Face Don
[Dick Pape]

Hans Donner was the designer in the photoloettering era of Via Face Don at Mecanorma. A digital version of this alphading family, also called Via Face Don (2012), is due to Dick Pape and can be downloaded here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Donald Stevens

Designed the calligraphic font Aristocrat (1978, Letraset).

FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Douglas F. Jones

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Skin & Bones (1972, a multiline face). Mark Simonson says that he looks like Sonny Bono. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Doyald Young
[Doyald Young: Logotypes and Letterforms]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Doyald Young: Logotypes and Letterforms
[Doyald Young]

Graphic designer, typographer, type designer, author, teacher and lecturer, born in 1926 in Holliday, TX. He died on February 28, 2011 due to complications following a recent heart operation. He attended Los Angeles City College, Los Angeles Trade Technical Jr. College, and Art Center College of Design where he has taught for 27 years and holds the honorary title Inaugural Master of the School. Doyald drew characters, often of a calligraphic or handlettered nature. He was deeply influenced by his mentor, Hermann Zapf.

Steve Heller writes: When digital programs like Fontographer made it easy for anyone with a computer to create typefaces, many of them purposefully inelegant, he advocated a high level of craftsmanship that he believed had been lost. In so doing, Mr. Young challenged a new generation to reject so-called grunge design in favor of precision. When the American Institute of Graphic Arts awarded Young its 2009 Medal for Lifetime Achievement, Marian Bantjes wrote Taste. Practicality. Formality. Understated prestige. The combination of those qualities forms as perfect a descriptor of Young's work as any you are likely to find, both in the process and the result. Although he is widely known for his elegant curves and scripts, he has never been a showy designer---there is not a trace of ego in his work. The range of letterforms able to flow at any time from his hand is great, and there is no way to particularly define Young's mark unless you have seen the hand-drawn comp. That is where his work is unmistakable: perfect letterforms drawn in pencil at a surprisingly small size without so much as a mark of hesitation or awkwardness. The style varies but the fluidity and perfection do not.

Links and media: Scott Erickson's movie on Doyald Young. FontShop link. Klingspor link. Short obituary and video. Longer video about his life. Steven Heller's obituary in the New York Times. Obituary by Marian Bantjes for AIGA.

He was adored and respected for his craft and gentleness. Portrait. Another portrait (credit: Louise Sandhaus). Author of several influential texts:

His typefaces include the extra bold condensed sports scripts fonts Home Run Sanscript (1999) and Home Run Script (1999, a connected bold retro signage script), Young Gallant (2010, a formal calligraphic script based on the alphabets his teacher, Leach, trained him on), ITC Eclat (1985, 1992, fat script face, which was used for titles by Comedy Central and the Queen Latifah movie Beauty Shop), Young Finesse (2003, an Optima-inspired thin headline typeface used in his book, Fonts&Logos), Young Finesse Italic (2006), Guts (1976, VGC), and Young Baroque (1984, 1992, Letraset; calligraphic Spencerian copperplate script; this is copied by Castcraft as OPTI Yen Script). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Dr. Boger Photosatz G.m.b.H.

Defunct foundry. [Google] [More]  ⦿

DTrooper Foundry
[David Trooper]

Dave Trooper (New Jersey) was associated with the photo type foundry VGC. Almost 40 years later, he set up his own digital typefoundry, DTrooper Foundry, which publishes digital versions of his typefaces. Creator of these typefaces:

  • Trooper Roman (1974, VGC), a didone display face. [Klingspor puts the date at 1976] TypeShop made TS Toledo based on this idea, especially Toledo TS-XBold. Another digital clone is Talon (BuyFonts). Infinitype / Softmaker have a set called Toledo. And Nikita Vsesvetsky extended it cyrillically to Troover (SoftUnion, 1994). Dave's own digital font Trooper Roman Bold Display was finished in 2013. The typeface is characterized by the left-leaning "o".
  • Trooper Grotesque (2010). This too is based on his own VGC font from the 1970s.
  • Trooper Jazzerini (2011). An elegant geometric avant-garde typeface with weights from hairline to bold.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Ed Kelton

Designer of Helserif (1976-1978, Alphabet Innovations). This is Helvetica with square serifs attached onto it. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Edward Rondthaler

New Yorker, b. Bethlehem, PA, 1905. In 1928, Rondthaler and Harold Horman cofounded Photo-Lettering Inc in New York City---it started for real in 1936. An excellent typographer, he cofounded ITC in 1970 with with Herb Lubalin and Aaron Burns.

Editor/author of Life with Letters--As They Turned Photogenic , and Alphabet thesaurus; a treasury of letter designs (1960, Reinhold, NY). Volume 3 was published in 1971.

In 1975 he was awarded the TDC Medal, the award from the Type Directors Club. In 2007, House Industries made this funny clip. Sadly, Ed died in August 2009. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Edward Rondthaler
[Photo-Lettering Inc.]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Edwin Sisty

American designer who created the upright curly semiscript Belcanto (1970s, Photolettering). This typeface was revived in 2007 by Nick Curtis as Glissando NF. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Edwin W. Shaar

American type designer, designer, writer, b. 1906 or 1915. For some time he was assistant art director at Monotype and art director at Intertype. He made several phototype typefaces. His typefaces include:

  • 1939: Czarin (lowercase only by him), done at Baltimore Type.
  • 1939: Flash and Flash Bold (Lanston Monotype), a signage typeface of limited beauty. See also Flash EF. Linotype has a similar fat brush typeface called Okay. I assume it has the same genetic roots. See Falcon by SoftMaker and Flash EF by Elsner and Flake for a digital version of Flash, Brush Hand (by WSI), Brush Hand New (a free font by Keith Bates) and 0670 Script (also by SoftMaker) for a digital version of Flash and/or Okay. Mac McGrew: Flash is an informal brush-drawn script letter, cut by Monotype in 1939. It was the first typeface designed by Edwin W. Shaar, who designed Flash Bold the following year. The lighter weight is somewhat similar to Dom Diagonal, cut later by ATF. Also compare Balloon.
  • 1940: Valiant (Lanston Monotype), a display face. ac McGrew: Valiant is a vigorous thick-and-thin letter with the appearance of having been lettered quickly but well with a broad pen. It was designed by Edwin W. Shaar for Monotype in 1940, and is similar to Lydian Bold Condensed, though a little heavier. It is suggestive of Samson, but condensed.
  • 1952: Futura Extra Bold (Intertype), followed by Futura Extra Bold Italic in 1955 at Intertype as well. For a digital version, see Function Script by SoftMaker.
  • 1952: Nuptial Script (Intertype).
  • 1954: Futura Script (Scangraphic). See Future Script EF by Elsner & Flake.
  • 1954: Imperial (+Bold, +Italic), done at Intertype, and called Gazette by Linotype in 1977. The New York Times uses Imperial for its text since 1967, but it is based on in-house scans of the old metal Imperial (an Intertype design from 1954), not on the digital versions from Intertype or Linotype. The typophiles discuss Imperial: Kent Lew states The New York Times text is Imperial. Has been for at least the last several years. Koppa points out that the NY Times Imperial designed by Intertype looks like an ATF Century Old Style rip-off. [...] I will stick with my opinion that the original, the metal Century Old Style, credited to M Benton, is better than the copy-cat Intertype Imperial and most definitely better than the copy-cat digital Imperial I saw on myfonts.com last night. Bitstream made a digital version of Imperial. Mac McGrew: Imperial was designed by Edwin W. Shaar in 1954 as a newspaper text face. Like most other news faces it has a large x-height with short descenders. but unlike most news faces of the time, it blends certain oldstyle and contemporary characteristics, and is a little narrower and more closely fitted. This gives a feeling of friendliness and warmth, but retains a high degree of legibility.
  • 1960: Royal (+Italic, +Bold): a sans family that is easy to read in small point sizes.
  • 1960: Windsor (+Bold) (Intertype, New York), a newspaper face.
  • Vogue Extra Condensed (Intertype).
  • 1974: Satellite (+Italic, +Bold), done at Intertype. Mac McGrew: Satellite is a newspaper typeface designed by Edwin W. Shaar for Intertype in 1974. With large x-height and sturdy hairlines, especially in the bold version, it is designed for legibility under the rigors of high-speed newspaper production, but without sacrificing a stylish appearance.
  • Shaar Diane, a Photo-Lettering calligraphic face.

Linotype link. FontShop link. Klingspor PDF.

View Edwin Shaar's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Emil J. Klumpp

Lettering artist from New York. ATF sales manager and director of typeface design. He created the often-copied calligraphic Murray Hill (now available as Murray Hill EF) in 1956. Versions of Murray Hill are in different places, including most shareware archives. Commercial versions at ICG and Bitstream, for example. He also made the informal script font Catalina (1955) as well as many photolettering faces. Catalina was digitized as Enamel Brush by Ray Larabie in 2009. His life and work are discussed in the link.

MyFonts link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Ernst Völker

German designer of the titling typeface Vineta (1972 or 1973, VGC), an inline shadowed Clarendon. A digital version of this was made by Bitstream called Vineta BT. Other photo-era faces by Völker: Voel Beat (a 3d-face, Berthold, 1978), Voel Bianca (a psychedelic typeface related to Motter Ombra; Berthold, 1978) and Voel Kars (a multiline electronic circuit board simulation face; Berthold, 1978).

Fontshop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Erwin Poell

Swiss type designer. As Canada Type puts it, Tuba started with a reconceptualization of a somewhat flawed '72 alphabet idea by Swiss graphic designer Erwin Poell. During the back-and-forth of the custom project, other ideas seeped into the design, mostly from other Canada Type fonts, like Fab, Jonah, Jojo and Teaspoon. The end result was what the client called a "sugar circuit trigger alphabet". This now is the retail version of that project. Tuba has art nouveau influences. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Face Photosetting

Photo era foundry set up in the 1960s by John McConnell and Chris Dubber in London. I could only find Pluto Outline, the art nouveau typeface Desdemona (a digital version was created in 1992 by David Berlow at Font Bureau and in 1994 by Richard Beatty; Letraset showed Desdemona in its 1981 and 1986 catalogs; the original is from the late 19th century by Karl Brendler&Soehne, Vienna), Stack, and Oxford (a multiline face) on-line. Steve Jackaman worked in the studio in Newman Street and Hanway Place, and recalled El Paso (a Western/Mexican simulation face) when he created El Paso Pro (2011, Red Rooster).

According to Wes Wilson, Face Photosetting led the way by launching a number of Art Nouveau revivals which were taken from Ludwig Petzendorfer's "A Treasury of Authentic Art Nouveau Alphabets". A selection of these, which included Arnold Böcklin, Edel Gotisch and Eckmann Schrift, were made more widely available when Letraset produced them for their dry transfer product. They published a number of books and catalogs, ca. 1976-1977: Face headline catalogue [1981/82] (1977), Specimens of Delittle's wood type, Face book of faces, Type catalogue (1976). Some of the faces were Cyrillicized, such as Bullion Shadow (1970; Cyrillic version by Victor Kharyk, 1978). Bully Pulpit Plain NF (2014, Nick Curtis) is a revival of Bullion Shadow. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Facsimile Fonts
[Robert Trogman]

Foundry which offers fonts by Robert Trogman, a graphic designer now living in Palm Springs, CA, where he runs Trogman Signs. His fonts include

  • Buxom (3d face). For a digital version, see Buxom SB (Scangraphic).
  • Roberta (1962, FotoStar: an art nouveau face).
  • Yagi Double (the CNN Logo). This was digitized in 2008 as Miyagi (with a few twists) by Thinkdust, and as Yagitype and Axitype by John Wu (Archetype) in 2010.
  • Binner (art deco).
  • Blippo (display)
  • Handel Gothic (sans).
Originally these were fonts made for phototypesetting---Handel Gothic and Blippo, e.g., were available at Fotostar. He says about himself: My career began in 1942 as an apprentice in the composing room. Because of WWII I was able to get several jobs; working at the College Press under the tutiledge of Richard Hoffman and a night job at LA Type casting the first arrival of Times Roman. Because of the pursuit of the alphabet it led to working with some of the best in the business: Saul Bass, Herb Rosenthal and Charles Eames. My commercial career began in the early 1960s with the revival of Jugenstill fonts and becoming an agent for Bertold. I was able to bring on the photolettering market many original designs under the name of Facsimile Fonts and later FotoStar International. In total, he made over five thousand film fonts under the name of Facsimile Fonts and FotoStar International.

He writes for Recognition Review as Dr. Type and gives seminars on typographic design. A type consultant, he was at one point lecturer on typographic layout and design for California State University at Los Angeles. As Trogman explains to Harold Lohner about Roberta: I originally hand cut this font in 1962. It is based on a Belgian restaurant sign. I named it after my daughter Roberta. Many Mexican food companies used this font, but they didn't know it was from Europe. Dan Solo was going to digitize it for me, but he retired from the font business last year. Just give me credit for the design and it is all yours to do what you want. Trogman's picture. Roberta D was remade by Ralph M. Unger in 2003 for URW. Trogman, however, is upset with URW: URW++ has been warned by me to stop selling typefaces I originally licensed to Berthold Fototype, Stempel, Bitstream, Mecanorma and Letraset. They have never responded to my accusation of piracy. He is a graduate from the University of California at Santa Barbara. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Filmotype Sales Company

Filmotype Sales Company was located at 4 West 40th Street in New York City. In 1955, they published a catalog entitled Lettering Styles Display Types, from which some samples are shown in the link. The catalog has no full alphabet specimen and is thus of limited value for type historians and type revival experts. Frank J. Romano writes here: In 1952, Al and Beatrice Friedman [the founders of Filmotype] introduced the Filmotype, a simple manual phototypesetter that was not much bigger than a shoebox and used 2-inch filmstrips with all glyphs in linear order, with marks below them so that the operator could position the letter and expose it to the photo paper. The process was blind in that you could not see the letters as they were exposed. The Friedmans would go on to introduce the Alphatype phototypesetter. The Sybold Report mentions: Filmotype has a 35-year history as a supplier of filmstrip headline setters. Its founders later moved on to start Alphatype Corporation, keeping Filmotype as a subsidiary. In 1987, Harry and Seta Brodjian, who were Alphatype employees, acquired Filmotype with the intention of rejuvenating the company. In 1989, the firm began development of a digital headliner. A year later, it began digitizing its fonts. The company was renamed Filmotype Corporation. The fonts were at one point sold in packages such as a 30 dollar TrueType Font Package of 100 designer typefaces and an EZ Effects Windows program. Typefaces were renamed: Clarendon becomes Clarion, and so forth. At that point, Filmotype had offices in Glenview, IL, and was run by Gary Bunsell. About the renaming practices, the typophiles mention that Filmotype fonts were given letters&numbers by VGC when they pirated a substantial number of them. Their original names were attached by someone going through a dictionary and just picking arbitrary words for Filmotype fonts that were initially just letters and numbers also.

In 2006, the Filmotype collection was bought by Font Diner. In 2007, Font Diner started publishing digitizations of the collection: Glenlake (condensed Bank Gothic, by Mark Simonson), MacBeth (script), Alice (casual script), Zanzibar (calligraphic), La Salle (brush writing originally by Ray Baker in the 1950s, named after Chicago's LaSalle Street), Quiet, Ginger (Mark Simonson; masculine headline typeface genetically linked to Futura), Austin (paintbrush), Brooklyn (hand-printed), Honey (handlettered script), Jessy (handwriting), Modern (i), Vanity.

In 2010, Stuart Sandler published a book entitled Filmotype by the Letter, in which he details the company's history. He also set up Filmotype as a foundry in Eau Claire, WI. Additions to the Filmotype collection in that year include the signage faces Filmotype Kentucky, Filmotype Kingston, Filmotype Harmony and Filmotype Hamlet, and the geometric sans Filmotype Fashion (orig. 1953). The signage faces were originally made by Ray Baker for Filmotype in the 1950s, and were digitized by Patrick Griffin and Rebecca Alaccari.

Activity in 2011. Patrick Griffin and Rebecca Alaccari revived the condensed sans typeface Filmotype Giant (2011) and its italic counterpart, Filmotype Escort (2011), as well as Filmotype Prima (a sho-card face from 1955). Neil Summerour contributed Filmotype Horizon after an oroginal signage typeface from 1954. Mark Simonson created Filmotype Gay, a tall monoline sans originally from 1953. Filmotype Ford (2011) and Filmotype Jamboree (2012, an informal script based on a 1965 original) are due to Stuart Sandler. Filmotype Quartz is an inline face.

Activity in 2012. Alejandro Paul contributed two scripts, Filmotype Yukon (based on Palmer style penmanship) and Filmotype Zephyr (formal italic roman). Later in 2012-2014, the production took off, with many contributions by Patrick Griffin and Charles Gibbons (who created Filmotype Zeal in 2013 for example). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿


Fiorello (Photo-Lettering) is a squarish sans face. Digital revivals include CG Fiorello (Compugraphic), PL Fiorello (Photo-Lettering Inc), and F731 Deco (SoftMaker). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Florian Julino

Creator of Paperclip (Photolettering). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Font Diner (or: Stu's Font Diner)
[Stuart Sandler]

Stuart Sandler (Minneapolis) runs six foundries: Font Diner (est. 1996), Sideshow, Breaking The Norm, the Tart Workshop, Font Bros (est. 2006), and Filmotype (est. 2006). He runs a handful of other companies and web shops as well, including Mister Retro (est. 2004). He is passionate about retro type. DaFont link for their free fonts. Fontspace link. Interview.

Catalog of the best selling Font Diner fonts. Images of Stuart Sandler's best-selling fonts.

Free fonts: Rickles (2007, script), AirConditioner (2002, fifties style upright script), BahamaSlim (2004), BlackNight (2002, blackletter), BlackWidow, BubbleMan, ChannelTuning, Corrupter, CreakyFrank, DecayingKuntry, FeaturedItem, FontOnAGrain, FontOnAStick, Fontdinerdotcom, FontdinerdotcomHuggable, FontdinerdotcomLoungy, FontdinerdotcomSparkly, Fontdinerdotcom Jazz Dark, Fontdinerdotcom Jazz Light, Hothead, KeeponTruckinFW, Leftovers (2002), MaverickBE (stencil face), Musicals, PickAx, Rickles (2009; upright script), RocketScript (2002, retro script), Schnookums, SinsofRhonda, Spacearella (2002), StencilGothicBE, ThatsSuper, Turnpike (2009), Witless, XerkerFW.

Commercial fonts: Continental Railway (1998, retro connected script), Anastasia, Chatty Cocktails (1998, art deco), El Nino, Guest Check, Hamburger Sandwitch (1998), Jumping Bean (1998, comic book style), Lionel Classic (1998, an art deco all caps face), Milwaukee, Motor Oil, and the greatest of them all, Coffee Shop (1998, exaggerated ascenders), a must! Other typefaces: Permanent Waves (1998, + Expanded: retro connected script), Yarn Sale (curlies), Fat Sam (not bad!), Etiquette, Taylors (1998, another great display font; codesigned with Dan Taylor), Kentucky Fried (1998, comic book / signage style), Beer Wip, Seuss, Jack Bisio and FinerDiner, Shivering, Dry Cleaners (2002), Singlesville Script (2002), Dripping Blood, Bowlorama, Action Is, Automatic, Chicken King (2002), CocktailShaker (2002, at Chank), Concurso Italian and Concurso Moderne (2003), DoggieBagScript, Johnny Lunchpail (2000, comic book style), Kitchenette (connected retro script), Lil Tipsy (2003), Milwaukee Neon (1998), Milwaukee Neon Shadow (1998), Motorcar Atlas (2000), Regulator, Stovetop (2002), Swinger (2002), WARNING (2002, rough stencil), BEBlob, BECROSS, DecayingAlternate, Decaying, EvilBrew, TheBlob, Insane Asylum, Creepy Crawly, Crossover, Fire Baaaad!, Rotten Teeth, Candy Good, EvilOfFrankenstein, HMan, HManPt2, PlasmaRain, Chicken Basket (2004), Chowderhead (2004), Cocktail Script (2004, upright), Country Store (2004, Western style), Dairyland (2004), Emblem Chief (2004, fifties diner script), Motel King (2004), Queen Rosie (2004), Sweet Rosie (2004, blackboard bold), Secret Recipe (2004), Square Meal (+Hearty) (2004), Bahama Slim (2004), Space Immortalizer, Matchbook and BE Streetwalker. Many font have a cool retro/fifties look. The InFlight Meal font set (2001) includes Al's Motor Inn, American Highway, Kiddie Cocktails, Lionel Text, Mosquito Fiesta, New York to Las Vegas, Pink Flamingo, Refreshment Stand, Starlight Hotel, Volcano King. The LasVegas font set: El Ranchero (2002), Hamburger Menu, Hamburger Menu Marquee, Holiday Ranch, International Palms, Lamplighter Marquee, Lamplighter Script, Las Vegas to Rome (stone chisel face), Leisure Script, Leisure Script Marquee, Mirage Bazaar (2002), Mirage Zanzibar (Arabic theme face), Mister Television, StarburstLanes, Starburst Lanes Twinkle, Vegas Caravan. At ITC, he published ITC Kiddie Cocktail (2003), ITC Mosquito Fiesta (2003), ITC Volcano King (2003).

In 2006, Font Diner acquired the Filmotype collection and its trademark, Filmotype. Sandler writes: Filmotype initially manufactured a simple manual phototype machine utilizing display typeface designs on 2-inch filmstrips. Additional films were sold to start-up typesetting companies in order to increase their product selection. Font Diner will create new digital versions of the Filmotype collection, recreating it to meet todays graphic design standards. [...] We intend to release the Filmotype library in OpenType format so the original designs can be fully realized with a dynamic feature set including alternate glyph forms and automatic substitutive ligatures.

In 2007, Font Diner started publishing digitizations of the collection: Glenlake (condensed Bank Gothic, by Mark Simonson), MacBeth (script), Alice (casual script), Zanzibar (calligraphic), La Salle (brush writing originally by Ray Baker in the 1950s, named after Chicago's LaSalle Street), Ginger (Mark Simonson; masculine headline typeface genetically linked to Futura), Austin (paintbrush), Brooklyn (hand-printed), Honey (handlettered script), Jessy (handwriting), Modern, Vanity, Filmotype Ford.

In 2010, Stuart Sandler published a book entitled Filmotype by the Letter, in which he details the company's history.

Free fonts on the Google Directory, dated 2010: Fontdiner, Swanky, Cherry Cream Soda, Permanent Marker, Homemade Apple, Schoolbell.

In 2012, David Cohen and Stuart Sandler published these faces at Neapolitan: Irish Grover Pro (2010, a bouncy face), Satisfy Pro (2011, a connected retro script face), and Slackey Pro (2010, a paper cut out style face). At the same place, he also published Crafty Girls Pro (2010, codesigned with Crystal Kluge). With Crystal Kluge, he also codesigned the flowing connected script typeface Aya Script (2012).

At Sideshow, he published the pen-drawn connected script Mister Brown (2013) and the retro signage script typeface Cocktail Sauce (2014).

View Stuart Sandler's typefaces.

Jolly Lodger (2012, Google Web Fonts) is an informal retro script.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿


Jan Jessen's German language pages on the history of type, from its start in 1440, via Linotype (1886), Photocomposition (1949), bitmaps (1965) to vector formats (1975). [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Jerry Saperstein]

FontBank was Jerry Saperstein's outfit from Evanston, IL. A sub-project was called Alphabets&Images Inc. At first sight, this outfit seems to have created a collection by extrapolation and adjustment around 1992-1994. The collection was posted on abf in January 2001, and used to be be downloadable from the Font Bank Lounge. It seems to have survived as part of Xara. Ironically, when you buy these fonts, the license agreement reads "You agree not to modify, adapt, translate, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble or create derivative works based on the Software." But this is precisely how FontBank seems to have created its own collection (I say "seems", so read on). List of FontBank fonts. Jerry Saperstein's reply to my original description: Your conclusion with regard to the original 325 fonts published by FontBank is incorrect. The fonts were not "created a collection by extrapolation and adjustment." For better or worse, all those fonts were hand-rendered in a totally legal manner from photographic enlargements of analog type specimens. In fact, after the Adobe ruling, FontBank received settlements from other "publishers" who had appropriated our code. (Confidentiality agreements prohibit me from naming those parties.) Obviously, if FontBank were unable to establish the original nature of its code, no one would have settled infringement claims with us. (...) The genesis of Alphabets&Images, Inc. also bears some explanation. It was not an "alias" for FontBank, Inc. Rather, it was the name of a joint venture between FontBank, Inc. and Photo-Lettering, Inc. Photo-Lettering, as may you may know, was the king of display film fonts, hosting such luminaries as Ed Benguiat. FontBank was their chosen vendor for digitizing their film fonts. The venture failed when Photo-Lettering went bankrupt. I believe UTC licensed the Photo-Lettering, Inc. collection thereafter. You would, in fact, be quite surprised to learn who FontBank did rendering for, but alas, confidentiality agreements prevent me from disclosing that information as well. Big, big companies seem to insist on clauses like that. Voilà.

Homework for my readers: can you recognize Bastion, Borealis, Brandish, Colbert, Coolsville, and Dayton? [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Robert Trogman]

Los Angeles-based company that distributed a 5000+ library of two-inch film fonts for display faces, some of which were original, such as Yagi Double (the CNN logo font) and Yagi Link Double. It ceased operations in 1985. Trogman maintains a design studio in Palm Springs, California.

The FotoStar collection includes Blippo (1970), Handel Gothic (by Robert Trogman), Buxom (a beveled 3-d athletic lettering typeface sold, e.g., by Elsner&Flake as Buxom SB, Scangraphic) and Embrionic (an ink-trapped typeface family revived by Claude Pelletier).

Yagi Link Double was revived by Alex Haigh as Miyagi (2008, Thinkdust). Yagi Bold and Yagi Double were revived in 2010 by Gus Thessalos as Retro Mono Wide and Retro Stereo Wide, respectively. Gus Thessalos revived Yagi Link Double as Retro Stereo Thin.

Nick Curtis revived Horse Tank as Feedbag NF (2015), Welling Black as Well Said Black NF (2014) and Angelica as Vauxhall NF (2014).

In 2015, Harold Lohner revived , which Trogman cut based on an art nouveau sign in a Belgian restaurant in 1962.

FontShop link.

FotoStar is a small web page made by yours truly that showcases some typefaces in the FotoStar collection taken from their catalog, Film Font Digest FotoStar Graphic Supply.

Images of some of his fonts. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Fotostar International

Defunct foundry. [Google] [More]  ⦿

François Boltana

French type designer based in Toulouse, born in 1950, died in 1999. He is an early graduate of Scriptorium de Toulouse (1972). In his lifetime, he achieved a great deal of success, including the Morisawa Prize in 1990. From 1975 until 1997 he was also a freelance graphic designer. Brief CV. Read his article in Cahiers GUTenberg, Ligatures&calligraphie assistée par ordinateur (1995). Fontshop link. Frank Adebiaye wrote François Boltana et la naissance de la typographie numérique together with Suzanne Cardinal in 2012.

His fonts:

  • Aurore (1993): a script face.
  • The typewriter font Capitole (1974).
  • Champion (1989): a wonderful calligraphic font.
  • Frédéric.
  • Geneviève (1969, Hollenstein Phototypo).
  • Girus.
  • Lineameca (1970, Hollenstein Phototypo).
  • Messager (1991); in two styles, Romain and Tradition.
  • Oscar.
  • Prosper.
  • Rabelais (1997): for this effort, he obtained the Meilleur Ouvrier de France en 1997 award.
  • Toscan.
  • Toulouse.
  • Stilla (1973): a modern psychedelic high-contrast ornamental didone display typeface with many ball terminals. In 1990, Elsner&Flake published Stilla EF. It is also in the Scangraphic collection as Stilla SH. Linotype too has a version of Stilla. Stilla is often incorrectly credited to Middleton.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

François Robert

Swiss type designer (b. 1948, La Chaux de Fonds) who graduated in 1968 from the Kunstschule in Lausanne. He created the dot matrix/marquee typeface Mecanorma Chicago (1969, Huerlimann Medien AG), which was published as Chicago MN by Mecanorma and can be bought from URW.

He won a Letraset type competition in 1973 for the starred dot matrix/marquee typeface Astra in 1969, codesigned with Natacha Falda. Some have his name as François Robert Falda [I think he was married to Natacha Falda]. He also designed the bold headline sans typeface Trebor (1970).

Swiss type design link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Francisco Gonzalez

Designer at Photo Lettering Inc, whose creation Gonzales Jeanette (ca. 1971) was later digitized and extended to Cyrillic by Elvira Slysh at Paratype, as Astron (1991). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Frank Bartuska

Lettering artist. Designer (d. 1975) of Trophy Oblique (Agfa, 1950), Caslon No. 641, News Gothic Condensed Bold and other News Gothic weights (1958-1966) and many other photolettering faces. For a digital revival, see PL Trophy Oblique.

Klingspor link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Frank J. Romano

Author of Typencyclopedia: A User’s Guide to Better Typography . A type guru, he is Professor emeritus of Rochester Institute of Technology and founder of Electronic Publishing Magazine in 1976. He occasionally writes on early printing technology, such as here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Frank Monaco

Creator of the textured typeface Modernique at Photolettering. Not to be confused with Dan Solo's art deco typeface Modernique. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Franklin Photolettering

Photolettering foundry in the 1970s, located at 211 43rd Street, New York City 10017. One of my correspondents explains: Franklin Photolettering was the smaller film type joints catering to the major publishing and advertising industries in New York City in the 60s and 70s. They started out with a few originals to get into the game, but within a year or so they started putting out copies or slight modifications of existing stuff from Photolettering and VGC (you can see how that happens---someone comes in for some ad copy in Barker Flare, for example, and he asks if they have something like Eightball, so they say "sure, we can do that"). Even though they did have a bit of original stuff, they didn't have not enough to stand out like PL, Mecanorma, VGC or Letraset---also the sheer number of film fonts available on the market by the mid-70s meant that unless you dumped a lot of money on marketing, big-time design would ignore you----so not much room was left for smaller film type houses.

Their catalog is published in binder form in Film Alphabet Compendium Franklin Photolettering. In 1974, Paul E. Kennedy published Modern Display Alphabets: 100 Complete Fonts Selected and Arranged from the Franklin Photolettering Catalogue (Dover).

Typefaces by them included

  • Barker Flare, one of their early 1970s retro faces. Digitally revived as Plywood (2007, Patrick Griffin, Canada Type).
  • Pinto Flare. Digitized as Jazz Gothic (2005) by Patrick Griffin at Canada Type.
  • Urban. Rebecca Alaccari (Canada Type) designed Jonah (2005), a hippie typeface based on Urban.
  • Viola Flare. Digitized as Omaha Bazoo NF in 2007 by Nick Curtis and in 2005 by Canada Type as Tomato.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Franz Heigemeir

Painter, sculptor and type designer, b. ca. 1930. Graduate of the Kunstschule Augsburg, Germany. Since 1976, he is an active member of the Woodstock Artists Association and Museum. Based in Rifton, NY, his paintings can be seen in many places, such as Fine Art in Ulster County, New York.

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Heigemeir Bold and Bold Open, Modula (1972) and Organda (1972). Organda became a Mecanorma face.

Klingspor link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Friedrich Peter

Designer, visual artist and calligrapher (b. 1933, Dresden, Germany) who moved to West Berlin in 1950, where he studied lettering design, painting, graphics, typography and calligraphy at the Academy of Visual Arts. He emigrated to Canada in 1957 with his wife, and started teaching in 1958 at the Vancouver School of Art, which later became the Emily Carr Institute of Art and Design, and this until 1998. He has many designs for postage stamps, coins and medals in Canada between 1980 and 1998. He is an all-round artist who is also famous for his contributions to calligraphy. His typefaces:

  • The formal script typeface Vivaldi (1966, VGC). This was later published by Letraset (1970). Other digital versions exist as well, including ones at ITC, Linotype, Elsner&Flake, Mecanorma, Agfa Monotype and URW. Vivaldi's designer is often incorrectly stated as Fritz Peters (such as by Phil's Fonts, Bowfin, Fontshop Austria, URW or Paratype). Cyrillic versions of Vivaldi exist. A free Cyrillic version is VivaldiD CL, by a certain "Paul".
  • The ornamental Magnificat typeface (which was partially cut by Philip Kelly). Magnificat was digitized by Flanker (2011) and Studio Di Lena.

FontShop link. Klingspor link. Linotype link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

G. Diamond

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Ivy League (1975, +Open), an athletic lettering typeface. [Google] [More]  ⦿

G. Homann

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Burmese Black (1973). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Gene Eidy

Photo era type designer in Colorado who created the oriental simulation typeface Sukiyaki in 1968, while he was a graduate student at Cal State Long Beach. Sukiyaki was published by Lettergraphics International. Gene was a professor at Metropolitan State College (now University) in Denver, Colorado, where he taught advertising design and illustration, including lettering.

There is a plethora of digital copies and revivals of Sukiyaki---sadly, none of these give proper credit. Examples include the ubiquitous free font Hirosh (by Aarrgghh, or Jonathan Smith, who does not mention Sukiyaki, even though the glyphs are identical) and Itto (by Chris MacGregor). The images below show Gene's original artwork (courtesy of Sara Tack) and, for comparison, Jonathan Smith's Hirosh. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Gene Gable
[That 70's Type]

[More]  ⦿

Georg Salden
[TypeManufactur (was: GST Georg Salden Typedesign)]

[More]  ⦿

George Abbate

Type designer who published these fonts at Photo Lettering: Aqua Bold (signage font), Black Gothic Condensed, Gothic Bold, Nixon (a soft poster face), Stencil Condensed. [Google] [More]  ⦿

George Brian

American designer who made type for a while for Phil Martin at Alphabet Innovations/TypeSpectra. His creations there include the Souvenir Gothic family (1977), and possibly Opulent Light and Opulent Bold. George Thomas, another ex-AI employee, wrote this about him: George Brian did the art on many of the later works and probably had an influence on many of Phil's ideas. See also here.

Digital revivals of Souvenir Gothic include URW Souvenir Gothic and Softmaker's Sunset Gothic. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

George Leavitt

Creator of Hubcap A through D at Phoolettering. [Google] [More]  ⦿

George Ostrochulski

Letter designer at Mergenthaler from the mid-1930s and head of the letter design department from the mid-1950s until his death in 1971. He worked on and produced Caslon Old Face in the 1950s, a faithful revival of William Caslon I's classic face. The lowercase is Moxon's 1669 Great Canon. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

George Piscitelle

Type designer at Photo-Lettering in the 1960s. He made the hypocritical typeface Thomac. This was revived in 2010 by Nick Curtis as Kallilu NF. [Google] [More]  ⦿

George Thomas
[Majus Corporation]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Gerard Huerta
[Gerard Huerta Design]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Gerard Huerta Design
[Gerard Huerta]

Lettering artist, b. 1952, head of Gerard Huerta Design in Southport, CT. Lettering and logos of Huerta were used by Swiss Army Brands, MSG Network, CBS Records Masterworks, Waldenbooks, Spelling Entertainment, Nabisco, Calvin Klein's Eternity, Type Directors Club, the mastheads of Time, Money, People, The Atlantic Monthly, PC Magazine, Adweek, Us, Condé Nast's Traveler, Working Mother, WordPerfect, Scientific American Explorations and Architectural Digest, as well as corporate alphabets for Waldenbooks, Time-Life and Conde Nast. Designer and vice-president of New York's Type Directors Club. Based in Southport, CT.

He made many famous logos and created several logo-fonts. Huerta worked for some time at CBS Records. His type designs include a custom Franklin Gothic in the late 1970s as part of Walter Bernard's redesign of Time Magazine. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Gilbert Powderly Farrar

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Giorgio Giaiotto

Born in 1938 in Udine, Italy, Giorgio Giaiotto studied architectural design with Carlo Magnani, and then worked in newspaper typography and finally moved to cartoon design. Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Giorgio (1966, wood type style). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Guido Rosa

Born in 1890, lettering artist Guido Rosa and his brother Lawrence (1894-1929) codesigned an antiqua typeface with a Kursiv for ATF. It was never published. He also created Modern Outline Roman Capitals.

At Photolettering, we find several phototypes that refer to Rosa, such as Rosa Calligraphic, Rosa Italic, and Rosa Roman. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Gustav Jaeger

Designer (b. 1925) of these fonts, all done at Berthold with the exceptions explicitly mentioned:

  • Aja (1981): a calligraphic font
  • Becket LL (1980, Linotype).
  • Bellevue (1986): a ball terminal script
  • Catull (1982, Berthold): a modern typeface. Google logo was made by Ruth Kedar based on a slight modification of Catull. LI> Chasseur (1988).
  • Cornet (1989).
  • Cosmos (1982).
  • Daily News (1976). Some sources mention the date 1982. The font was published by Berthold in 1985, and has been used in Italy Daily, a supplement of the International Herald Tribune. See D650 Roman on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD, 2002).
  • Delta (1983).
  • Donatus (1986).
  • Epikur (1986).
  • Jaeger-Antiqua (1984).
  • Jersey (1985).
  • Jumbo. Not a Berthold font, I think.
  • Mark Twain (1973): an art nouveau /. psychedelic typeface created in reaction to VGC Eightball, and digitized in 2006 as Huckleberry by Canada Type. Not a Berthold font.
  • Osiris (1984: see O830 Roman on Softmaker's XXL CD (2002).
  • Prado (1990) and Prado swash (1990).
  • Seneca (1977). See S691 Roman on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD, 2002.
Apparently, the former (now bankrupt) Berthold bankruptcy lawcourt administrator transferred in 1993 all Jaeger design rights from Berthold back to Gustav Jaeger. Thus, the "new" Berthold versions, sold by Linotype since 2008, are all rip-offs sold without Jaeger's consent. FontShop link. Klingspor PDF file. Linotype link. Pic. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Günter Jäntsch

Designer of the clownesque semi-psychedelic font Pierrot (1973). It was published in digital form by Linotype. [Google] [More]  ⦿

H. Sackman

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Frozen Alaska (1977). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Hal Fiedler

Designer of PL Fiedler Gothic (a squared sans), published by Photolettering. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Hans Donner

Designer in the photoloettering era of Via Face Don at Mecanorma. A digital version of this alphading family, also called Via Face Don (2012), is due to Dick Pape and can be downloaded here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Hans Schneider

Creator of the phototype didone typeface Ronco at Photolettering. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Hans-Jörg Hunziker

Type designer (b. 1938, Switzerland, based in Paris) who studied typesetting in Zürich from 1954-1958. Later he studied with Emil Ruder and Armin Hofmann in Basel (1965-1967). From 1967 until 1971, he was a type designer with Mergenthaler Linotype in Brooklyn, NY, where he worked with Matthew Carter. From 1971 until 1975, he worked with Frutiger in Paris, and became a freelance designer in 1976. From 1990 until 2006, he led some labs at the Atelier de Recherche Typographique, NRT, in Nancy. From 1998 until 2002, he had his own design bureau together with Ursula Held: Atelier H. He has also taught at the Hochschule für Gestaltung und Kunst in Zürich.

He codesigned CGP (used in Centre Georges Pompidou; 1974-94, with Jean Widmer, and Adrian Frutiger), Centre Pompidou Pictograms (1974, for the same project in Paris), Cyrillic (in 1970 with Adrian Frutiger for IBM Composer), Frutiger (in 1976 with Adrian Frutiger at Stempel), Gando Ronde (a formal script, with Matthew Carter in 1970; Linotype; called French 111 at Bitstream), Helvetica (with Matthew Carter in 1970; Linotype), Helvertica Compressed (with Matthew Carter, ca. 1974?), Iera Arabic and Iera Roqa Arabic (1983, Institut d'étude et de recherches pour l'arabisation; Honeywell Bull), Metro (in 1970 with Adrian Frutiger; used in the RATP), Univers and Univers Cyrillic (in 1970 with Adrian Frutiger; Linotype), and the Siemens custom type family (in 2001, a cooperation with URW).

Siemens (2001-2007, URW++), the project he is best known for, won an award at the TDC2 Type Directors Club's Type Design Competition 2002. Siemens Sans, Siemens Slab and Siemens Serif are here. Siemens Sans Global (4000 Euros) covers Turkish, Baltic, Romanian, Cyrillic, Greek, Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Vietnamese, Arabic, and Hebrew.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Hans-Jürgen Wolf

Born in Berlin in 1938, Hans-Jürgen Wolf studied graphic arts and painting with Richard Blank at the Design Institute of Berlin. As a graphic artist, he joined the studio of Schering AG in Berlin. Author of Geschichte der Typographie (Historia, 1999) and Geschichte der graphischen Verfahren (Historia, 1990), a detailed work on the history of typesetting and printing machine companies.

Designer of Wolf Antiqua (1966, VGC). This typeface is available as Justine (NovelFonts) and OPTI Julie (Castcraft). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Hans-Rudolf Lutz

Swiss typographer (b. Zürich, 1939, d. 1998). He had his own studio, Lutz Verlag, in Zürich. He published books such as "Typoundso" and "Ausbildung in typografischer Gestaltung". He taught at the schools of design in Zürich and Luzern for over thirty years, and founded the typography department in Luzern in 1968. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Harold Horman

Co-founder with Edward Rondthaler of Photo-Lettering Inc in 1936 in New York City. He designed the firm's initial collection of typefaces by photographing existing metal designs. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Harry Araten

Designer (1936-2001) who studied at the School of Visual arts in New York. At Photolettering Inc, he made the phototype font Alef-Bet (Hebrew). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Harry Brodjian

Harry and Seta Brodjian acquired Filmotype in 1987 and ran the company for a while. Earlier, in 1970, Harry had designed the calligraphic initials typeface VGC Constanze, which was digitized and revived in 2007 by Canada Type as VIP (Rebecca Alaccari). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Harry C. Pears
[Typeface Research Pty Ltd]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Harry L. Villhardt

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Venture (1972). This font was digitally revived in 2007 by rebecca Alaccari at Canada Type as Chopper. Canada Type writes: In 1972, VGC released two typefaces by designer friends Dick Jensen and Harry Villhardt. Jensens was called Serpentine, and Villhardts was called Venture. Even though both faces had the same elements and a somewhat similar construct, one of them became very popular and chased the other away from the spotlight. Serpentine went on to become the James Bond font, the Pepsi and every other soda pop font, the everything font, all the way through the glories of digital lala-land where it was hacked, imitated and overused by hundreds of designers. But the only advantage it really had over Venture was being a 4-style family, including the bold italic that made it all the rage, as opposed to Ventures lone upright style. One must wonder how differently things would have played if a Venture Italic was around back then. Chopper is Canada Types revival of Venture, that underdog of 1972. This time around it comes with a roman and an italic to make it a much more attractive and refreshing alternative to Serpentine. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Harry Winters

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Roslyn Gothic (1972). The latter typeface was revived in 2010 by Steve Jackaman and Ashley Muir at Red Rooster as Ryder Gothic Pro. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Headliners Inc.

Defunct film type era foundry started in 1954 in New York City. Its 1959 catalog has 458 typefaces, and its 1984 catalog had blossomed to 1319 photo types. George Abrams started out at Headliners. Headliners is also famous for its release of The Morgan Press collection of wood faces. Headliners moved to the suburbs of New York City and set the trend for some years with its Neo series in 1979. ITC and Headliners were then known for their typefaces with large x-height. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Henk Gianotten

Dutch type connoisseur after whom Antonio Pace's Linotype Gianotten (1990) is named. He worked for 40 years in the production and distribution of graphic arts equipment and fonts, at companies such as Tetterode, BT and Buhrmann. As a student of Willem Ovink, he got very interested in legibility of typefaces. On his own contributions to typography, he writes: Since 1964 I was involved on the production of our faces for Morisawa. Later on we produced faces for photocomposition for Bobst (Autologic), Berthold, Compugraphic, A.M., Harris Composition, Itek, Scangraphic and others. Tetterode owned the rights for faces like Nobel, Lasso, Polka, Orator, Promotor, Lectura and Hollandsche Mediaeval. LinotypeLibrary owns the licenses for these fonts since October 1 2000. News about LinotypeGianotten. Linotype's press release. PDF samples of LinotypeGianotten. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Henry Warwick

New Jersey native who lives in San Francisco. He states: "Over the years I've had the good fortune to be very involved with photolettering and type design. In the 1980's I set headlines, letter by letter by letter, on a VGC Typositor at Phil's Photolettering in Washington DC. The desktop computer quickly destroyed that entire industry, and that is how I became involved with computer graphics. In the early 1990s, I designed type for FontBank, and consulted for several other type companies, including Microsoft and Galoob Toys. It's nearly impossible to make a living in type design these days, as the industry was basically done in by a combination of legal precedents and rampant piracy. Having worked on "conventional" / Wester / Roman fonts for so long, I've acquired a preference for unusual or obscure fonts or alphabets. I am always available for type design work or consulting." His designs (not downloadable) include Coptic Chelt, Fruthrak Sans, Ojibway Futurae, Cyrillic-Helv-Flash-8pt, KTR-katakana10, Celestia, Daggers, Enochian Times and Nugsoth. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Herb Lubalin

Born in New York in 1918, Herbert Frederick Lubalin died there in 1981. Founding editor and art director of U&lc from 1973-1981. Co-founder of ITC in 1970. Professor at the Cooper Union in New York from 1976-1981.

His fonts: Pistilli Roman (VGC, see here), L&C Hairline (ca. 1966, VGC, with Tom Carnase), ITC Avant Garde Gothic (with Tom Carnase, Gschwind, Gürtler and Mengelt, 1970-77; see Avignon on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD, 2002), ITC Busorama (1970), Ronda (1970), ITC Lubalin Graph (1974; see Square Serif on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD, 2002; poster by Pablo Monachese), ITC Serif Gothic (with Tony DiSpigna, 1974; see Serenade Two on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD, 2002). His companies: Herb Lubalin Inc (1964-1969), Lubalin, Smith&Carnase Inc (from 1975 onwards).

In 1985, Gertrude Snyder and Alan Peckolick published Herb Lubalin. Art Director, Graphic Designer and Typographer (New York). Retrospective at ITC.

Revivals: Receding Hairline NF (2014, Nick Curtis) revives L&C Hairline. Pudgy Puss (2007, Nick Curtis) is an ultra-fat modern digital display type based on Fat Face (Herb Lubalin, Tom Carnase).

Linotype link. Klingspor link. FontShop link.

View Herb Lubalin's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Herbert Post

German type designer, printer, type teacher and type designer (b. Mannheim, 1903, d. Bayersoien, 1978). Ex-student of Rudolf Koch. He taught at the Werkstätten der Stadt Halle and at the Werkkunstschule Offenbach. From 1956 on, he was Director at the Academy for graphic design in Munich. Designer of Post Mediaeval (1944, Berthold, 1951), Altschrift, Post Fraktur (1933-1937, Berthold; + Halbfett, + Post Fraktur Zierversalien, 1933-1937; for a digital version, see DS Post Fraktur by Delbanco, Post Fraktur by Gerhard Helzel, or Post Fraktur and Postillon by Ralph M. Unger (2014)), Post Antiqua (1932-1940, Berthold), Post-Kursiv (1943, Berthold), Post-Schmuck (1949, Berthold), Dynamik (1952), eight fonts for Photo Lettering in 1954 (among which Frei bewegte Antiqua, Schmalfette Grotesk, Feder-Kursiv, Eckige Kursiv and die Schwung-Kursiv), and Post Marcato (1961-1962, an art deco bold sans, Berthold). Scans of a logo/poster for the Deutsche Bundespost, a poster for the Deutsche Bundesbahn (1952) and a poster for a theater performance in Halle in 1932. In 1999, Harald Süß wrote a brief biography. Picture, dated 1940.

Klingspor link.

View Herbert Post's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Hollis Holland

Type designer at Photolettering in the 1970s. Her film typefaces include Holland Antiqua, Holland Seminar (a typeface family), Holland Title, Beleza (a script) and Squire. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Holly Goldsmith
[Small Cap Graphics]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

[Gilbert Powderly Farrar]

Defunct foundry. One of its typographic directors was Gilbert Powderly Farrar (1886-1957), who designed Bert Black. Intertype's typefaces include Monterey (1958, Rand Holub, its "version" of Murray Hill; available from Bitstream now), Imperial (designed by Ed Schaar; now a Bitstream font), Intertype Vogue (ca. 1930, see Am Sans by Volker Busse for a free digital version), Stuyvesant (1940, now available from Bitstreeam), and Nuptial Script (now an Adobe font).

MyFonts writes: Harris inherited the Harris-Intertype library, made up of the faces cut by Intertype to compete with Mergenthaler from the First World War. A small group of original typefaces centers on newspaper faces and scripts. In the thirties C.H. Griffith at Mergenthaler believed the linecaster to be unsuitable for the development of scripts, which led Ed Schaar at Intertype to claim this market as their own. Intertype became Harris-Intertype ca. 1960, and Harris ca. 1975.

Cyrillic faces in their library, ca. 1930. The firm still exists as Harris Corporations in Melbourne, FL, but is no longer producing fonts.

Leonard Spencer, in his article Linotype / Intertype Linecasting Machines How They Differ writes: Intertype started as International Typesetting Machine Company in 1911. Many of first machines were rebuilt Linotype bases with improvements patented by the new company. When World War I broke out, International Typesetting Machine Company was reorganized as the Intertype Corporation, and by 1917 had three machines for sale: Model A one magazine, Model B two magazine, Model C three magazine. Intertype was first in cold type with its Fotosetter in 1950. This machine continued the circulating matrix principle but had film image instead of the punched character. Stuart Sandler adds this piece of information: The Harris-Intertype Fotosetter was the first photo typesetting machine invented. It marks the beginning of the Cold Type era and is the machine responsible for it . . . Incidentally this is the machine that inspired the creation of the Filmotype by its inventor Allan Friedman when he saw it unveiled to US audiences in 1948. Instead of lead slugs, the Intertype which was a Linotype machine had replaced them with small film negatives and proceeded to set type as you would imagine the bastardization of a lead type and photo type machine only could. There are many reasons Cold Type caught on and it became the standard some time after that period till digital typesetting machines like the Alphatype came into their own. It wasn't until the release of the first MacIntosh in 1984 when Cold Type was eclipsed by desktop publishing.

Mac McGrew: Ideal (originally called Ideal News) was designed by Herman R. Freund for Intertype in 1926, for the New York Times. It has much the appearance of Century Schoolbook, but with shorter ascenders and squattier capitals. The italic is a little closer to Century Expanded Italic, providing more contrast with the roman. Sturdy serifs, substantial hairlines, and open loops make it a practical typeface for the demanding production requirements of high-speed newspaper use. Ideal Bold is heavier than the Century bold faces.

View a few digital typefaces with roots in the Intertype collection.

Another famous type is Cairo. Mac McGrew: Cairo is Intertype's adaptation of Memphis, originally designed by Rudolf Weiss for Stempel in Germany about 1929, and first imported into the United States as Girder. Except for Litho Antique, this was the first of the modern square-serif faces, which are revivals of older faces known as Egyptians. The Intertype faces appeared in 1933 to 1940. Lining Cairo features several sizes of caps on 6- and 12-point bodies in the manner of Copperplate Gothic. Compare Memphis, Stymie, Karnak.

Farrar is also the author of The Typography of Advertisements That Pay (1917, D. Appleton and Co., New York). Local download. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

J. Looney

American lettering designer. Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as the art deco typeface Shotgun (1972). Bitstream has the digital versions Shotgun and Shotgun Blanks. The Cyrillic version of Shotgun was done in 1997 by Diai JS in Petroslavsk, called Target. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

J. Stone

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Threshold (1976), Hairpin (1975, a paperclip face), and Hairpin Hairline (1975, outlined version).

A low quality free version of hairpin is here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Jackson Burke

San Francisco, 1908-1975. He studied at the University of California in Berkeley. From 1949 until 1963, he was type director for Mergenthaler-Linotype. FontShop link. He created Trade Gothic (1948-1960), Majestic (1953-1956), Aurora (1960, a newspaper type; the Bitstream digital clone is News 706). In 2008-2009, Akira Kobayashi unified and extended Trade Gothic to Trade Gothic Next (17 styles).

Mac McGrew writes: Trade Gothic is a Linotype family of gothics designed by Jackson Burke, and is basically very nearly the same as News Gothic. An early typeface on that machine was Gothic No. 18, which in small sizes was like a nineteenth- century face, but in large sizes was essentially the same as News Gothic Condensed. In 1948, with the return to popularity of American gothics after European sans serifs had replaced them for a while, the small sizes were recut, to match the larger ones, and all were paired with Gothic No. 20, an adaptation of Alternate Gothic No.2. The following year more condensed versions of both weights were offered as Gothic No. 17 and 19. The bolder weight was very similar to Alternate Gothic No.1, but the lighter weight retained its round-sided design, unlike News Gothic Extra Condensed. As the popularity of these faces continued to grow, Linotype changed the name to Trade Gothic Condensed and Extra Condensed, with their bold faces, and in 1955 added Trade Gothic and Trade Gothic Bold in normal widths. The light or regular weight is virtually the same as News Gothic, but the bold weight has flat sides on its round letters, making it a wider version of Alternate Gothic, unlike the News Gothic Bold developed about the same time by Intertype and a little later by other sources. (In a 1977 Linotype specimen book, the names reverted to Gothic Nos. 17 to 20.) Trade Gothic Extended and Bold Extended were announced early in 1959; for this bold weight the flat sides finally gave way to round sides, more like the News Gothics from other sources. Compare Monotone Gothic, which is essentially a wide version of News Gothic. In 1962 the last of this family appeared as Trade Gothic Light and Italic, the upright typeface being similar to Lightline Gothic. Unfortunately, Trade Gothic regular had been called Light (in distinction from its bold mate) in some Linotype literature, leading to some confusion when the actually lighter version appeared later. Altogether it has been a very popular and widely used series. Compare News Gothic, Alternate Gothic, Monotone Gothic, Lightline Gothic, also Record Gothic.

Digital versions of Trade Gothic appeared at Adobe and Linotype. In 2008-2009, Akira Kobayashi unified and extended Trade Gothic to Trade Gothic Next (17 styles). SoftMaker has Transfer Gothic and URW offered Tradus.

Fontshop link. Klingspor link.

View various versions of Jackson Burke's Trade Gothic. View digital versions of Trade Gothic. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

James Lambert

Type designer. In 1953, he made a bouncy display typeface that was digitally revived by Stuart Sandler in 2007 as Filmotype MacBeth, and by Mario Arturo as Brook Flair (2012). Also in 1953, he drew a brush typeface for Filmotype. Sandler digitized and expanded it in 2007 as Filmotype Austin. Filmotype Reef (1953) is a fat poster typeface revived by Sandler in 2011.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Jay H. Schechter

Jay Schechter (b. 1941, New York) studied art, design, and lettering at Hunter College. He managed photographic reproduction at TypoGraphic Communications in New York.

Creator of phototype typefaces at VGC, such as Jay Gothic and Jay Gothic Bold (1965) [these typefaces are available as OPTI Jaffa from Castcraft]. He worked for TGC (TypoGraphics Communications), which was a successor to Rapid Typographers, from 1966 to the close (1984). After TGC, he worked for Characters (which also bought up the fonts from Techni Plus) until that closed (approx. 1992). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Jay Rutherford
[Typoart GmbH (or: VEB Typoart)]

[More]  ⦿

J.B. Jones

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Barry (1975). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Jean Larcher

French type designer and calligrapher (b. 1947, Rennes) in Cergy-Pontoise whose fonts include Abécédaire à Renayures (1991, for Collector magazine), Beauté (1966, for Magazine Votre Beauté), Castillejo-Bauhaus (1980, Rapitype Madrid), Catich (1998), Digitale (1974, Hollenstein Phototypo), Gautier (1992, Agence J.-P. Gautier&Associés), Guapo (1973-75, Hollenstein Phototypo), Hollywood Script (1989), Honolulu (1974, Hollenstein Phototypo), Incise Volume (1981, for Cergy Magazine), Jamaica Experience (1978, for Rock Hebdo Magazine), Lancöme (1981, Rapitype, for Lancöme), Larcher (1974, Hollenstein Phototypo), Latina (1987, Mécanorma), Liberté Égalité Fraternité (1985, for the Ministère de l'Éducation Nationale), Logement (1980, Rapitype, for Cergy Magazine), Menhir (1973-75, Hollenstein Phototypo), New Crayon (1980, Rapitype, for Cergy Magazine), Optical (1974, Hollenstein Phototypo), Plouf (1970-74, Hollenstein Phototypo), Rasgueo (1979, for U&lc Magazine), Revival (1979, for 20 ans Magazine), Soleil (1973-75, Hollenstein Phototypo), Super Crayon (1976, Titrage CCT), Tornade (1974, Hollenstein Phototypo), Veloz (1987, Mécanorma), Vibrator (1976, Titrage CCT).

3D Alphabet (by Character) is inspired by an alphabet coloring book designed by Jean Larcher, 1978. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Jean Lochu

French designer (b. 1939), calligrapher by training, who lives in Villeneuve-Saint-Georges. He is the designer of Sélune (1998, Creative Alliance, with influences of Grandjean and Didot), Garonne (1972, Hollenstein Phototypo), Loire (1991-1997, Creative Alliance), and Rhône (1987, Mecanorma).

Bio at Agfa/Monotype. FontShop link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Jean-Antoine Alessandrini

Type designer, graphic designer and illustrator, born in Marseille in 1942. Allessandrini (sometimes spelled Alessandrini in various publications) used to work at Paris Match, Lui and Elle. His typefaces: Akénaton 1969 (Hollenstein Phototypo) (1975, VGC??), Alias 1977 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Allessandrini 7 1972 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Anarchiste (Mécanorma), Andronique 1984 (Mécanorma), Astronef 1976 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Circus World, (Mécanorma), Cléopatre 1984 (Mécanorma), Combinat 1976 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Éclipso 1982 (Mécanorma), Electric-Type 1977 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Futuriste 1977 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Germain 1969 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Grand Dadais 1977 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Grand Large 1977 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Graphic Man 1973 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Grossium 1977 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Gyptis 1977 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Hypnos 1969 (Hollenstein Phototypo: a psychedlic face), Legitur, Mikado 1977 (Mécanorma: oriental simulation), Mirago 1970 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Priam 1976 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Showbiz 1969 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Sigle (Mécanorma), Technos 1984 (Mécanorma), Trombinoscope 1964, Vampire 1969 (Hollenstein Phototypo), Wotan, (Mécanorma).

Inventor of the classification system Codex 1980 that provoked heated responses from luminaries such as Vox, baudin, Blanchard and Mendoza.

Author of Typomanie / Jean Alessandrini; préface de Massin (Paris: La Noria, DL, 1977).

In 2013, David Rault wrote the monograph Jean Alessandrini Le poète de la lettre.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Jerry Matejka

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Soul (Light, Medium, Bold, Open) (1972). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Jerry Mullen

Jerry Mullen's connected Repro Script from 1953-1954 (ATF)---in my view, a mediocre representative of the fifties scripts---was revived/interpreted by:

Mac McGrew writes: Repro Script was designed for ATF in 1953 by Jerry Mullen. It is a continuous script except for a few letter combinations, nearly monotone in weight, and narrow. It is informal, but not as much so as Brody, which is another of the foundry's attempts to replace its delicate old traditional scripts with contemporary faces. Steve Watts says it was designed to work with News Gothic Condensed and other plain sans serifs, but the connection is not apparent. Compare Brody, Brush, Kaufmann Script..

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Jerry Saperstein

[More]  ⦿

Joe Sundwall

New York-based advertising designer. Codesigner with Herb Lubalin and Antonio DiSpigna of the rigid slab serif typeface ITC Lubalin Graph (1974). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Joe Taylor

According to Identifont, Joe Taylor designed Blippo Black in 1969 at FotoStar. Currently he is the curator of the Mt. Blanco Fossil Museum in Crosbyton, TX. It was inspired by Herbert Bayer's 1925 experimental "universal typeface". Blippo versions: Scangraphic, URW. [Google] [More]  ⦿

John Bomparte
[Bomparte's Fonts]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

John Everett Benson

Lettering artist, stonecutter, calligrapher and sculptor, b. 1939, Newport, RI. Son of John Howard Benson (1902-1956), stonecutter and calligrapher, who was also born in Newport. He has created inscriptions for monuments including the John F. Kennedy memorial at Arlington National Cemetery, the National Gallery of Art, and the Vietnam Memorial in Washington, DC. Trained in sculpture at the Rhode Island School of Design, John was owner and operator of the historic John Stevens stonecarving shop for more than thirty years. He trained his son Nicholas, who now runs the John Stevens Shop (since 1993), and has lately returned to the full-time practice of making sculptures at his studio in Newport.

His typefaces include the understated calligraphic scripts Alexa (1995-2002, Adobe), Balzano (1994, Adobe) and Caliban (1995, Adobe), the titling typeface Aardvark for Font Bureau (1991, with Jill Pichotta), and several phototypefaces for architectural applications.

Sample of his work from 1973 now at the MoMA in New York.

Wikipedia link. Font Bureau link. . Fontshop link. Linotype link.

View the typefaces that were made by Benson. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

John Goodger

John Goodger was involved in a firm called Goodger Valleau and Associates at 2050 Mansfield Street [now Hotel Saint Germain] in Montreal. At a certain point Goodger Valleau and Associates began using the names Artisart for the art studio, Artistat for the stat house, and Art Etc., for design projects.

John designed the Visual Graphics Corporation font Goodger Pointy (a phototype) in the early 1970s. Some peop;le on the Typedia blog say that Goodger Pointy appears to be similar to the Mergenthaler Linotype style Metro, designed by W. A. Dwiggins.

Acknowledgment: Thanks go to Montreal-based graphic designer Gerry L'Orange who used to work under Goodger. [Google] [More]  ⦿

John Pistilli

Born in 1925, died in 2003. He worked for the advertising agency Sudler & Hennessey. Frances Elfenbein met him first in 1957 at Sudler&Hennessy. She writes: John was the most skilled and creative letterer I had the privilege of knowing. He did the finished lettering for most of the designs Herb Lubalin created [at S&H], always adding refinements to the very rough sketches he received from Herb. In addition he created his own very beautiful roman serif typeface. He was "the Man" for lettering, and each and every art director in the agency sought to have him work on their project...of course Herb came first. When I broke my ankle skiing in 1963, John lettered the word "Love" in script on my cast...he was a sweet guy, and professionally very modest in spite of his formidable talent. Herb started his own design firm in 1964. John did not go with him, preferring to remain at S&H until his retirement. Tony Carnese who had been trained by John inherited his mantle and worked in the same greystone as Herb Lubalin Inc. I worked in the office alongside John in the mid '80's at S&H. He frequently sang as he lettered, always a surprise to people who realized that he stuttered when he spoke. [...] He had an enormous amount of patience. In the late 1950's we still had to use metal (monotype) for large point sizes. Herb hated the letterspacing and line spacing that resulted from the shoulders and leading on individual characters. He achieved the results he wanted (very tightly kerned letters and tightly leaded lines) by having John cut apart each individual letter from clay-coated proofs only to reassemble the letters and lines. This was a monstrous task when the type was 24pt Century Expanded. John did it and never complained, and to tell the truth he agreed that the text did look much better. Thank you Frances for sending me this touching description.

Herb Lubalin made a typeface with him called Pistilli Roman (photocomposition format only, VGC). There are also Bold and Black weights. It is one of the most gorgeous extreme-contrast didone headline faces ever made. A picture of the VGC typeface competition poster.

  • In 1969, Phil Martin made a swashy film font version of Pistilli, called Didoni, which had many new characters.
  • Didoni, without the swashes, was digitized in the 1990s by the infamous Font Company (which closed shop in 2001 to go into the porn business).
  • Font Company had done that digitization through URW, and so, URW started selling URW Didoni.
  • OptiPirogi is similar to Pistilli Roman.
  • Eloquent (Jason Walcott, Jukebox) was made in 2010.
  • In 2011, at the height of the fat didone craze, Claude Pelletier made a free revival, also called Pistilli Roman.
  • There is also Pistiline (2011) by Ink Type Foundry.
  • In 2012, Nick Curtis created Spiffily NF, also in the same style.

Klingspor link. Poster by Michaela Kriener. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

John R. Scotford

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Scotford Uncial (1965). [Google] [More]  ⦿

John Russell

American John Russell designed Russell Square (1973, VGC), which was named after a London neighborhood. It is a monoweight straight-line octagonal sans with angled stroke endings. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

John Schaedler

Studio in New York. In the 1970s, it produced Swinger, a film type by Ray Cruz. Around the same time, the psychedelic typeface Loose New Roman was designed. In 2010, Nick Curtis revived the latter typeface as Loo Snoo Roman NF. Tabasco and Paprika, geometric oddities with Paprika being the bilined variant, were revived in 2010 by SoftMaker as Tabasco and Tabasco Twin, respectively. Download Tabasco Twin here. [Google] [More]  ⦿

John Schappler

A graduate from the University of Iowa (1959), he worked from 1959-1965 at IBM on type design for typewriters. From 1967 until 1971 he was director of type design at Ludlow Typograph Co. He was manager of typeface design at the Chicago office of Compugraphic (1971-1973) and director of typography at Sun Chemical (1973-1976) and type and art director at Itek Composition Systems (1979-1984).

He designed these typefaces at Itek: Paul Mark (1977), Rita Script (1978). [Google] [More]  ⦿

John Walter Denzler

Creator (b. 1941) of typefaces at VGC, such as Solitaire (1965). [Google] [More]  ⦿

José de Mendoza y Almeida

Influential French type designer, born in Sèvres in 1926. He worked with Maximilien Vox in the early 1950s. From 1954 to 1959 he was the assistant of Roger Excoffon at the Fonderie Olive, Marseille. From 1985 until 1990, he was a professor at the Imprimerie Nationale, Paris, where his students included Thierry Puyfoulhoux, Frank Jalleau, and Poul Søgren. Neufville republished many of his fonts. Thesis on Mendoza by Lucie Jullian for her graduation from Estienne in 2008. In 2010, Martin Majoor and Sébastien Morlighem published José de Mendoza y Almeida (Bibliothèque Typographique). List of his fonts:

FontShop link. Linotype link. FontShop link. Wikipedia link. Showcase of Mendoza's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Joseph Churchward
[Churchward Type]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Jürgen Riebling

Designer and lettering artist in the 1970s. Nick Curtis's Hoodoo U NF (2011) is based on Riebling's Mr. Big. That same typeface was also revived by Softmaker as M730 Deco. His Media Serif was published by Elsner and Flake---this is one of the typographic horrors of Western society, with clumsy serifs pointing the wrong way. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Karl Pausch

German type designer, d. 1984. He created Kap Antiqua (1970s, VGC). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Karl-Heinz Domning

Creator (b. 1938, Lasdehnen, Germany) of typefaces at VGC, such as Domning Antiqua (1966). In the Berthold Types Collection, he has Quadra 57 BQ (1974, a great slab serif), Viola (1973, didone) and Simone BQ (1974, didone).

Klingspor link.

View Karl-Heinz Domning's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Karl-Heinz Lange

Designer (b. 1929, Riesenkirch, d. 2010) at Typoart of these faces:

  • Publika: a sans typeface developed between 1981 and 1983---this must have been one of the last big East German faces.... It obtained a silver medal at the Bienale of Graphic Design Brno 1984.
  • Primus (a 1962 workhorse family for the magazines in the DDR), Magna (a DDR magazine text typeface from 1968) and Typoart Super Grotesk. These metal faces were adapted for Phototype by Lange.
  • Minima (1984): a narrow sans designed for the DDR's telephone directory.
From 2006 until 2009, Veronika Elsner and Günther Flake helped Lange with his new script typeface Viabella. Earlier, Elsner and Flake published Lange's Rotola (1985/2007). At the end of his life, Lange had a fruitful cooperation with Primetype. His old faces were revived in 2009 with the help of Ole Schäfer as Publicala [PTL Publicala has 60 faces], Minimala [PTL Minimala is a family of 96 fonts from Primetype, designed by Karl-Heinz Lange and Ole Schäfer] and Superla [PTL Superla has 64 styles in the geometric/Futura genre]. Obituary (in German) by Ivo Grabowitsch. Pictures: at the piano, frontal, at the computer. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Karlo Wagner

Phototype designer. He created the psychedelic / art nouveau phototype typeface Fortunata (1971, Berthold). That typeface was revived by Kevin Allan King and Patrick Griffin as Spadina (2010, Canada Type). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Kathy McCord

Creator of Genny (1970), an avant-garde typeface from the photo type era. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Kimberly Winder

Creator of a revival of the paper-fold stencil typeface Norton Tape (2012) at Photo-Lettering. This typeface was originally designed by S.E. Norton for Photo-Lettering. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Krzysztof Kochnowicz

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Ladislas Mandel

Born in 1921 in Transylvania, he trained at the Fine Arts Academy of Budapest (Hungary) and then at the Beaux-Arts in Rouen (Normandy, France). Ladislas Mandel was a stonecutter, painter and sculptor. However, he spent his life in France, mostly as a type designer at Deberny&Peignot, where he worked since 1954. In 1955, he headed the type atelier. He was taught by and cooperated with Adrian Frutiger during nine years at Deberny, finally succeeding Frutiger in 1963 as type director. In 1955, he was in charge of the transformation of the Deberny type repertoire from lead to phototype. He created original designs under the label International Photon Corporation, and turned independent designer in 1977. After that, he specialized in typefaces for telephone directories, and made, e.g., Colorado in 1998 with Richard Southall for US West. He cofounded the ANCT in Paris in 1985 and taught there and at Paris VIII. In 1998, he published the book Ecritures, miroir des hommes et des sociétés (éditions Perrousseaux), which was followed in 2004 by Du pouvoir de l'écriture at the same publisher. He died on October 20, 2006. Olivier Nineuil's description of his achievements.

  • His faces for the Lumitype-IPC (International Photon Corporation) catalogue include originals as well as many interpretations of famous typefaces: Arabica Arabic (1975), Aster (1960-1970), Aurélia (1967), Baskerville (1960-1970), Bodoni (1960-1970), Bodoni Cyrillic (1960-1970), Cadmos Greek (1974), Cancellaresca, (1965) Candida (1960-1970), Caslon (1960-1970), Century (1960-1970), Clarendon (1960-1970), Edgware (1974), Formal Gothic (1960-1970), Frank Ruehl Hebreu (1960-1970: this became one of the most popular Hebrew faces ever), Gill Sans (1960-1970), Gras Vibert (1960-1970), Hadassah (1960-1970), Haverhill (1960-1970), Imprint (1960-1970), Janson (1960-1970), Mir Cyrillic (1968), Modern (1960-1970), Nasra Arabic (1972), Néo Vibert (1960-1970), Néo-Peignot (1960-1970), Newton (1960-1970), Olympic (1960-1970), Plantin (1960-1970), Rashi Hebreu, Sofia (1967), Sophia Cyrillic (1969), Sphinx (1960-1970), Textype (1960-1970), Thai (1960-1970), Thomson (1960-1970), Times Cyrillic (1960-1970), Univad (1974), Weiss (1960-1970).
  • Types done or revived at Deberny&Peignot: Antique Presse (1964, Deberny&Peignot), Times (1964).
  • Types for phone directories: Clottes (1986, Sneat - France Telecom), Colorado (1998, U.S. West, created with the help of Richard Southall), Galfra (1975, Seat, Promodia, Us Seat, English Seat: there are versions called Galfra Italia (1975-1981), Galfra Belgium (1981), Galfra UK (1990), and Galfra US (1979-1990)), Lettar (1975, CCETT- Rennes), Letar Minitel (1982-1983), Linéale (1987, ITT-World Directories), Lusitania (1987, ITT-World Directories), Nordica 1985 (ITT-World Directories: Nineuil says that this is done in 1987-1988), Seatypo Italie (1980).
  • Other typefaces: Portugal, Messidor (1983-1985, old style numerals font for the Imprimerie Nationale), Solinus (great!!, 1999), Laura (1999).
Ladislas Mandel, l'homme derrière la lettre is Raphael de Courville's thesis in 2008 at Estienne. In 1999, Olivier Nineuil wrote Ladislas Mandel: Explorateur de la typo français (Etapes graphiques, vol. 10, pp. 44-64). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Layton Filmset

London-based film type company. They sold and/or used the main typefaces at the time. I do not believe that they ever made original type. Just for history's sake, a few shots from their catalog: Andrich Minerva, Arnholm Medium Sans, Bodoni, Craw Clarendon Condensed, display faces (list), Ehrhardt, Jana, Jana, lightline Gothic, Modern No. 20, Pistilli Roman, text faces (list). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Leo Maggs

Designer of Westminster (1973, Berthold), related to VGC's Amelia (1967). Klingspor's site says that he is German, but that is probably wrong. In an interview, he says: There is one space age one called One Up, a ghastly 60s thing, and the guy who designed that, Leo Maggs, talks about how he wished he hadn't designed it. "Way back in the swinging 60s," he says, "when my youthful soul was consumed with enthusiasm, if not naked ambition, I was surprised and delighted to have my first typeface, Westminster, accepted by Robert Norton. I produced several further designs, most of which were properly strangled at birth. One Up unfortunately survived... Looking at it now I feel much as I imagine a mature film star must feel when, 30 years after the event, she comes across photographs of herself as a struggling starlet revealing all for the readers of popular girly magazines, and I wish I hadn't done it." [Google] [More]  ⦿

Leo Weisz

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Lee (1974). Lee Bold is the typeface used in Charlie's Angels (the credits for both the TV show and the movie, as well as in the VHS logo) and in the film "Whose life is it anyway?". There are other weights such as Lee Regular and Lee Italic. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Les Besnardtypo
[Michel Besnard]

The French type designers Michel (b. 1942) and Rosalyne Besnard (b. 1946) live in Rouen. Under the brand Les Besnardtypo, they jointly designed Micmac (Agfa Creative Alliance, 1997), ITC Odyssee (1996), ITC Typados (1997), Rom (Creative Alliance, 1998), Bouchon (Letraset, 2000), Huit (Visual Graphics Corporation, 1972), Sargon (Visual Graphics Corporation, 1974: bilined and futuristic), Migraph (Agfa Monotype, 1999), PistolShot LT Std Normal and Light (Linotype, 2003), Nazca (Monotype Imaging, 2005), Sargon (Monotype Imaging, 2006), First One (Monotype Imaging, 2006: a family for teaching the alphabet to children), Mickros (Monotype Imaging, 2007), Pantin (Monotype Imaging, 2007), De Gama (Monotype Imaging, 2008), Pasta (Monotype Imaging, 2008).

As of 2015, Monotype sells De Gama, Filao, First One, Gamira, Huit, Makina, Mickros, Modern B42, Nazca, Pantin, Pasta, Robotool, Sargon, Season.

Linotype page. FontShop link. Another FontShop link.

View Michel Besnard's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Leslie Usherwood

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Leslie Usherwood

The most famous Canadian type designer (1932-1983). Usherwood studied at the Beckenham School of Art, and practiced as a lettering artist in the commercial art field for 15 years. Typesettra was created in 1968, and had more than four type designers in the early eighties. In 1977, Typsettra began designing original typefaces for Berthold, Letraset and ITC. Usherwood's typefaces:

  • Melure (first typeface, designed in 1965 for Headliners International, New York).
  • Caslon Graphique (at Scangraphic), Caslon EF (Elsner&Flake).
  • Caxton Light Italic (Letraset, 1981), Caxton Roman Bold (Letraset, 1981), Caxton Roman Book (Letraset, 1981), and Caxton Roman Light (Letraset, 1981).
  • Flange, a family created for a government program in 1972; a Typesettra font since 1980; a Berthold font since 1981; see Fleming on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD, 2002; it is also in the Scangraphic collection as Flower. Aka Frascati.
  • ITC Leawood (1982).
  • Lynton (1980-1981, Berthold).
  • Marbrook (1983, Berthold).
  • ITC Usherwood (1983).
  • Several headline typefaces were conceived by Leslie Usherwood for Berthold in the early 1970s, such as Graphis Extra Fett (1971, a very bold headline face), Statesman (1973, a high contrast large x-height serif face) and Oktavia (1973, a large x-height face). They are also Typesettra faces.
  • Several of his faces were published/revived by Red Rooster Typefoundry, such as TCAdminister (by Steve Jackaman), Argus (by Paul Hickson), Beckenham (by Paul Hickson, named after the Beckenham School of Art where Usherwood studied), TCCentury (1996, by Steve Jackaman), Chelsea (1993, by Steve Jackaman).
  • At Red Rooster: Alexon (1993: the digital version was done by Steve Jackaman in 1999. This typeface is a relative of the flared-extremity typeface Friz Quadrata), Elston, TCKingsley (digital version by Jackaman, 1999: based on Goudy's Kennerley Old Style, 1911-1924), Lesmore (digital version by Paul Hickson), Claremont (digital version by Paul Hickson), TC Administer (digital version by Jackaman), Sycamore (digital version by Jackaman), Maximo (digital version by Jackaman), Kingsrow (digital version by Jackaman), Goudy 38 (digital version by Jackaman), Extension RR (digital version by Jackaman), Chelsea (digital version by Jackaman), Argus (digital version by Paul Hickson), Beckenham (digital version by Jackaman), Equestrienne (digital version by Paul Hickson), Stanhope (digital version by Paul Hickson; Usherwood's based the design on a turn-of-the-century typeface of the same name from the Soldans&Payvers foundry, circa 1904), Century New Style (digital version by Jackaman), Waverly (digital version by Jackaman).

Linotype link. FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

[Marc Jones Barry Kimbrough]

Photolettering foundry run by Marc Jones Barry Kimbrough in Culver City, CA. Russell Bean worked for the Los Angeles studio of Lettergraphics International in charge of lettering, logo design and converting type designs to film fonts. It was at this time (1973) that the Washington family (digital version at Type Associates, Russell Bean's present company) was completed. Digital revivals:

  • The psychedelic (art nouveau inspired) typeface called Cantini (1972) was digitally revived and expanded by Patrick Griffin as Salome (2007, Canada Type).
  • Intrigue is a Lettergraphics film typeface that was digitized, revived and expanded to a large octagonal / mechanical typeface family, Contraption, by Phil Bracco (Pink Broccoli).
  • Scrwby (2013, Phil Bracco) is a revival of Surf.
  • Virginia (2008, Russell Bean) is a digitization of an old typeface by Bean himself from ca. 1970 that won a Lettergraphics typeface competition.
  • Rebecca Alaccari (Canada Type) designed Goudy Two Shoes in 2006, an expansion of the film typeface Goudy Fancy by Lettergraphics.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Lettering Inc.

Chicago-based company founded in 1939 by Edwin W. Krauter, which created lettertypes from the 1930s until the 1970s. In 2010, Stuart Sandler (Font Diner) announced that it intends to digitally revive the collection. He writes:

Founded in 1939 by Edwin W. Krauter of Chicago, Lettering, Inc. produced its own patented Photo-Ray process of lettering (US Pat 2165861) in which transparent letters made from original alphabets were assembled by hand and then placed in a line (angled or curved if so desired) and then photographed. This "glass setting" process created flawlessly set headlines and, with multiple character forms to choose from, the headline looked authentically lettered.

An early competitor of Photo Lettering, Inc, they employed such notable lettering artists of the time as Oscar Ogg, Ray DaBoll and Ray Baker, among others. At its height in the late 1960s, Lettering, Inc. had as many as 14 franchises operating in the US and Canada and was continually producing new alphabet designs. As the market changed and computer technology evolved, Lettering, Inc. became less of a supplier of type to the ad agencies and became more involved as a supplier of high-end graphics and type to the big Detroit auto makers. Today, from its Southfield, Michigan office, Lettering, Inc. continues to provide various graphics services to a diverse group of customers.

Each Lettering, Inc. alphabet was originally designed with nearly 3-4 alternate glyph forms for every character and ligature pair, many with well over 300 Latin characters alone. Stuart Sandler, President of Font Diner, Inc. intends to release the Lettering, Inc. library in OpenType format so the original designs can be fully realized with a dynamic feature set including every alternate glyph forms and automatic substitutive ligature as it was designed by the original artists. "We're also thrilled to be working from the original ink drawings on board by the original Lettering, Inc. artists that have been in the Lettering, Inc. archives since the 1930s." says Sandler.

"We are very happy to work with Font Diner to once again make these beautiful and unique typefaces available to the public." says Karin Krauter of Lettering, Inc. "So much of this wonderful collection has never been seen before and we're pleased to honor and revive the work of these highly-skilled and talented lettering artists from the heyday of lettering to be appreciated and enjoyed by modern designers again", explains Sandler.

An illustrated history of Lettering, Inc. is currently being researched and written by Sandler with the assistance of many current and former Lettering, Inc. employees. His work will accurately re-tell the evolution of Lettering, Inc., its founder Ed Krauter and the significant contributions of Lettering, Inc. to the typographic industry. A re-release of the original Lettering, Inc. catalogs is also planned.

Sample. Another sample. And another one.

In 2012, production started with Feather Script (Patrick Griffin).

In 2013, the large advertising headline sans family Directors Gothic (Neil Summerour) followed. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

L.H. Copeland

Phototype era American type designer. Jeremy Mickel created a digital version his (prismatic, beveled, roman caps) Trillium typeface in 2011 at the new digital PhotoLettering / House Industries. He also designed Copeland Milo (a connected script) at PhotoLettering Inc.

John Moore says that Copeland's style inspired him when he made Scripta Pro in 2014. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Linda Hoffmann

Designer of the Cloe font (Varityper, 1979). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Lou Scolnik

American type designer who was associated with the photocomposition company Visual Graphics Corporation. He created the horizontally striped caps typeface Maximus (1973, VGC; a digital version exists at Bitstream). Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Louis Minott

American designer (1912-2003) associated with Visual Graphics Corporation. Creator of the Victorian typeface Davida (1965, VGC). Digital versions of Davida include Davida EF by Elsner&Flake, a Bitstream version, Delaware (Softmaker) and Ruminata (at Photo Lettering).

Bio at Linotype. FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Lubalin, Smith, Carnase

Foundry prominent in the photolettering period featuring fonts by Herb Lubalin and Tom Carnase. The typefaces have the acronym LSC in their names, such as LSC Book. The company evolved into Lubalin, Burns and Co, which in turn evolved into ITC, which was set up in 1970 by Herb Lubalin, Aaron Burns and Edward Rondthaler. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Robert Hunter Middleton]

Foundry in Chicago run by Robert Hunter Middleton. Myfonts.com states The type library was largely derivative, with some original scripts. After Middleton's death, and Ludlow's demise, most of the typefaces from the Ludlow library were licensed exclusively to International TypeFounders, Inc., (ITF) and are part of the Red Rooster collection. Fonts by Middleton at Ludlow include Bodoni Campanile, Bodoni (see Bodoni D Black by URW), Coronet, Mandate, Lafayette (now sold by Font Bureau), Tempo (see Tempo by Monotype), and Umbra (now sold by Bitstream and Monotype).

Ludlow house faces revived by Steve Jackaman include Caslon RR Extra Condensed, Chamfer Gothic (the original being from ca. 1898), and Gothic Medium Condensed.

A renewed Ludlow was established in 2001 and is run from the UK. Current (2002) catalog: Admiral Script (Robert H. Middleton's formal script, 1953: see the digital revival by Ralph Unger in 2005), Adrian VGC (2003), Annonce Grotesque (Wagner&Schmidt, 1914), Delphian Open Title (Robert H. Middleton), Flair (connected writing, 40-50s style), Franklin Gothic ExCnd Title, Founders Garamond (based on the Berner type specimen of 1592), Lotther Text (blackletter based on an alphabet of Melchior Lotther, 1535), Ludlow Ornaments (2001), Ludlow Stygian (art deco, which inspired Nick Curtis' 2009 font Kharon Ultra NF), Maxim (Peter Schneidler, hand-printed font from 1955), Orplid (Hans Bohn), Samson (Robert H. Middleton), Speedball Roman, Ludlow Stencil (Robert H. Middleton), Tempo MedCond (Robert H. Middleton), Theda Bara (great titling type), Vulcan Shaded (based on the design of the Richard Gans Foundry in Madrid), Karnak Black (Egyptian slab serif originally designed by Robert Hunter Middleton in 1930), Oriana (blackletter font based on a design of the Imprimerie Nationale, Paris), Ludlow Square Gothic (revival/modernization of a 1920s font by Robert Wiebking for Ludlow), The Hardy Arcade (like Umbra), Ogre, Vulcan Bold (a display font inspired by a 1925 design of the Richard Gans Foundry, Madrid), Walbaum. Crestwood (2006, Ascender) is an updated version of an elegant semi-formal script typeface originally released by the Ludlow Type Foundry in 1937.

View a list of digital typefaces derived from the metal faces at Ludlow.

Ludlow Foundry: List of some digital fonts. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

M. M. (Dave) Davison

American letter designer in the phototype era. He contributed to the Photo-Lettering library with many Spencerian designs. His typefaces include

  • Western typefaces: DavisonBaroque (this Western / Tuscan typeface was revived by House Industries in 2012), Davison Variety A through J (pre 1954), Davison Carousel A though H (pre 1954).
  • The spurred Egyptian wood type simulation font ATDavison Americana (1965, Monotype). The digital Photolettering revived it as PL Davison Americana.
  • The fat brush typeface Davison Zip (1965) or Davison Swash Zip, which was digitally revived as PL Davison Zip.
  • Dimensional, a 3d beveled typeface done in the 1970s. We had to wait until 2010 for a proper digital version, when Nick Curtis published Double D NF in Fill and Outline versions. Caps only.
  • Spencerian scripts done in or before 1954: Davison Condensed Spencerian, No. 1 Davison Spencerian, No. 2 Davison Spencerian No. 3 Davison Spencerian.
  • Other formal scripts done in or before 1954: Davison Victorian Script, Davison Victorian Backhand, Davison Vanity, Davison Vanity Fair.

    Other Photo-Lettering typefaces, all done before 1954: Savison Airfield Medium, Davison Ebony, Davison Steno Antique, Davison Antique Gothic, Davison Harlequin (+Black), Davison Julien Condensed.

Author of the article Notes on Designing for Photo-Lettering (Print Magazine, Volume IX, Number 1, June-July 1954).

A second MyFonts link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

M. Mitchell

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as China (1975). That typeface was digitized and extended twice by Mark Simonson, first as Changeling (2003) and then as Changeling Neo (2009). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Mac Baumwell

He once said Each letter should have a flirtation with the one next to it. The story told by his son Clyde (Chromatype, Charlotte, NC) in 2010: It was a quote developed during the time of using the typositor for phototypesetting headlines. Herb Lubalin, Aaron Burns and ITC were clients of ours who often required the careful and considered placement of one letter next to the other. We had to take into account the positive and negative space between letters. This was being done in a red light safe darkroom, exposing each letter one at a time and watching it develop under a "glass" which held liquid photo developer. Being a flirtatious man, my father came up with that quote during that period which was around 1985-1986. A couple of years later he became a consultant for a few companies including Adobe in their earliest years. That quote can be found in one of Adobe's first specimen books "Adobe Type Guide, Volume 1". [Google] [More]  ⦿

Majus Corporation
[George Thomas]

George Thomas is a font expert who owns Majus Corp in Dallas, a company he founded after having contributed to many of the major font foundries. Creative Alliance designer: The first font to be released from Majus Corp., and licensed exclusively to the Creative Alliance, is Civilite MJ. The typeface was originally cut by Robert Granjon in 1557. This Civilité dates from 1994 and is based on a model by Louis Ferrand (1922). He also created the film fonts Eightball, Highball, and Cueball, which were licensed to Alphabet Innovations (Phil Martin's company).

MyFonts page. Phil Martin said about him: George Thomas came to work for me. A technical genius in my view. He made my studio the branch office of Merganthaler. When type director Mike Parker quit Merg to found Bitstream and hire away all Merg's type-knowledgable people, Steve Byers had no way to keep Merg in production except for what George and I did for him. His fonts have the MJ suffix. FontShop link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Marc Jones Barry Kimbrough

[More]  ⦿

Margaret Yakovenko

Designer of the funky Photo-Lettering Inc font Picnic. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Marian Jones

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Thor (1973). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Markus J. Low

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Markus Roman and Basilea (1965), which won the 1965 VGC National Type Face Design Competition. Patrick Griffin writes about Messenger (2010, Canada Type): Messenger is a redux of two mid-1970s Markus Low designs: Markus Roman, an upright calligraphic face, and Ingrid, a popular typositor-era script. Through the original film faces were a couple of years apart and carried different names, they essentially had the same kind of Roman/Italic relationship two members of the same typeface family would have. The forms of both faces were reworked and updated to fit in the Ingrid mold, which is the truer-to-calligraphy one. Almost simultaneously, Jonathan Hill did another revival / extension of Basilea, called MarkusLow (2010). Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Martin Solomon

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Eastern Souvenir (1969, 3 weights). Eastern Souvenir was created for the identity of Eastern Airlines. It is based on the 1967 Photo-Lettering typeface Souvenir by Ed Benguiat. Benguiat's Souvenir in turn was a revival and extension of a metal typeface designed in 1914 by Morris Fuller Benton called Souvenir that appears in the 1923 ATF specimen book. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Martin Wilke

German type designer, b. Berlin, 1903, d. Berlin, 1993. His typefaces include Diskus mager (1938, D. Stempel; see Disciple on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD, 2002; incredibly, Hutchings mentions as date 1955), Diskus halbfett (1940, Stempel), New Berolina (1965, Monotype), the text typeface Wilke (1988), Wilke-Kursiv (1932, now known as Ambassador from Photo Lettering Inc; see also the superb digital extension by Jans van Maanen at Canada Type in 2013 called Wilke Kursiv), Ariston (1933-1934, Berthold, originally designed for Germany's top cigarette in 1932; Light appeared in 1933, Bold in 1934 and Medium in 1936, all at Berthold; copycats of Ariston include Agnes (2002, SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD), Artistic (2010, SoftMaker), Arioso, Aristocrat (WSI), Aristus (URW), Canon, Alison (EFF), Jaclyn (SvG), Arian (Primafont), Fumarea (Greenstreet); see also here), Burgund (Schriftguss; a slightly inclined formal script), Caprice (1938-1939, Berthold; a formal script font), Gladiola (1936, D. Stempel, an upright rather monotonous script), Konzept (1968, D. Stempel: a felt-tipped pen; digital versions include Cougar (2006) by Canada Type and FontForum URW Konzept Pro (2005) by Ralph Unger at URW), Palette (1950, brush, Berthold; this was ripped off by Bitstream as Brush 445 BT), Piccadilly (1968, script, Berthold), Berolina (broad-tipped pen), Essentia (sans serif), Moira (decorative), Halftone (decorative).

Klingspor file. FontShop link. Linotype link. Catalog of some of his digital faces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Marty Goldstein

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Sol (1973 or 1975, with C.B. Smith) and the neotech font family Harry (1966, with C. B. Smith). Goldstein was born in Chicago in 1939, and co-founded the groundbreaking Creative Black Book. He graduated from the Pratt Institute in 1960. His father was called Harry, hence the name of the font. Harry was revived digitally by Steve Jackaman and Ashley Muir as Harry Pro (2009, Red Rooster). Sol was extended and revived by Patrick Griffin and Kevin Allan King in 2010 at Canada Type as Sol Pro (20 styles). The Quick Brown Fox GmbH copied the original Sol, and that version ended up as Digital Sans in the Elsner & Flake collection. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Max Dingksbuhms

Iowan designer who created the phototype fonts Jamon Book and Old Hamcherry (1966). FontsInUse link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Maximilian Kerr

Type designer in the photo type era, who worked for Photo Lettering Inc and was based in New York. His typefaces include Bigtown Bold, Casual, Christmas (blackletter), Crayon Casual, Kerr Lightline, Madison Avenue, Kerr Stencil (+Bold) and Ultra Slim Light. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Tim McGuinness runs McGuinnessDesigns.com. He published several cheap font CDs such as Expresiv Art Fonts (1995), Expresiv Brush Script Fonts (1995), Expresiv Classic Fonts (1994), Expresiv Ornamental Fonts (1994), and Expresiv PhotoLettering Fonts (1994). Typophile has a discussion in which these collections are called cheap knock-offs. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Menlor D and Menlor Casual D are phototype fonts in the style of Old Hamcherry (1966, Max Dingksbuhms). [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Ottmar Mergenthaler]

The Mergenthaler company was formed in 1886 to develop and market Ottmar Mergenthaler's (1854-1899) invention of the linecaster. Under Chauncey Griffith's typographic direction from 1915 to 1949 the company assumed the leading position in the Americas in both book and newspaper production, originating a large and varied library. Under the direction of Allied Corporation, the company lost control of the overseas companies and became the American marketing arm of Allied Linotype, which was based in Frankfurt. Some types, both metal and photo, were developed at the company by William Addison Dwiggins, Chauncey Griffith, Jackson Burke and others. Also called Mergenthaler Linotype. German postage stamp showing Ottmar Mergenthaler in 1954, designed by Hermann Zapf. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Michael Daines

Designer at Letraset of University Roman, 1972-1983 [it was produced by Phillip Kelly in the Letraset Type Studio, based on his and Mike Daines' original design]. His Hawthorn (1968) is a slightly serifed black typeface of elegant proportions. The lower case a is too far below the baseline though. He also made the Monotype Small Office/Home Office package: Diversities (dingbats), Gravura (calligraphy), Humana Medium, Humana Sans Medium, Orbon Bold, Pink (distressed), Stylus (architectural lettering) and University Roman. I am not sure if this is the same Michael Daines, but a certain Michael Daines made the iFontMaker font Monzter (2010, hand-printed).

Linotype link. FontShop link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Michel Besnard
[Les Besnardtypo]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Michel Waxman

Creator of the multiline faces Oxford (1970s), Optex (1970, Letraset) and Michel (1970s, A. Hollenstein). At Mecanorma, he created Bronx (Shaded, Dropshadow) and Surprise. Optex was digitized and extended in 2010 by Jonathan Hill as Olympik. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Milton Glaser

Born in New York in 1929, Milton Glaser is an important American graphic designer who founded Push Pin Studios in New York where he worked with Seymour Chwast. He left in 1970 and founded Milton Glaser Inc in New York in 1974. He taught classes at SVA, where according to Michael Samuel he said to his students: There are three responses to a piece of design - yes, no, and WOW! Wow is the one to aim for. His typefaces:

Musings about life (dead link). Linotype link. FontShop link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Monika Hartmann

French type designer who designed Aïda, Monika and Silvia, all in 1972 at Hollenstein Phototypo. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Monsen Typographers Inc

Japanese publishers in 1980 of a photootype book called Display faces. Scans by Maniackers. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Murray Fuchs

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Accant (1978) and Erwin (a comic book style face). Erwin was digitized by Nick Curtis and extended to Nerwyn NF (2010). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Name equivalences

A list of phototype equivalences for fonts from these foundries: Alphatype, Apple, AM, ATF, Autologic, Baltimore, Bauer, Berthold, Bitstream, CompuGraphic, Deberny+Peignot, Harris, IBM, Ill, Intertype, Itek, Lanston Monotype, Letraset, Linotype, Ludlow, Monotype, Neufville, Photon, QMS, ScanGraphic, Simoncini, Stephenson Blake, Tegra, Typoart, Weber, Xerox. These were scanned from a book, but I forgot which one. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Natacha Falda

Photographer. Type designer in the 1970s who won a Letraset type competition in 1973 with her design, Astra, codesigned with François Robert. Her name is sometimes Natasha Falda-Robert, as she seemed to have married François Robert. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ned Bunnel

Designer in 1983 of ITC AvantGarde Mono and ITC Souvenir Mono. Note: The geometric sans family ITC Avant Garde Gothic was designed by Herb Lubalin and Tom Carnase and based on Lubalin's logo for Avant Garde Magazine. Ed Benguiat designed the condensed fonts for ITC. Souvenir was originally drawn by Morris Fuller Benton in 1914 as a single weight for the American Type Founders company. It was revived in 1967 by Photo-Lettering and optimized for phototypesetting equipment. ITC was formed in 1971 and, with the help of Photo-Lettering, introduced ITC Souvenir as one of its first typeface families. ITC Souvenir was designed by Ed Benguiat and comes in four weights, each with a matching italic. Linotype link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Norman Green

Creator at PhotoLettering Inc of the decorative caps family Buzzard. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Norton Photosetting Ltd
[Robert Norton]

Oxford, UK-foundry of Robert Norton (1929-2001). It produced Else NPL (1982). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Othmar Motter

Austrian graphic designer (b. 1927, Austria, d. 2010, Hard, near Bregenz) who set up Vorarlberger Graphik Studio in 1951 in the town of Hard am Bodensee (Lake Constance) after graduating in 1950 from a graphic arts academy in Vienna. He specialized in poster design, and in the late 1960s, early 1970s, he turned to logo and type design. Picture. His typefaces:

Linotype link. FontShop link.

The web site Motter Fonts is managed by Othmar's grandchildren, Peter and Siegmund. An excerpt from his obituary at FontShop: Motter was the first Austrian designer who managed to establish his type designs on the international scene. In the early 70s four of his headline faces were produced by Berthold and Letraset: the striking ornate display sans Motter Ombra; the aforementioned Motter Tektura, a constructed sans; the striking geometric all lowercase typeface Motter Alustyle; and the curvaceous bold display script Motter Femina. In the following years the all-round graphic designer interrupted his type design activities, profiling himself through international assignments as a logo designer, winning several competitions.

View Othmar Motter's typefaces. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Ottmar Mergenthaler

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Pat Collins

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Collins Bicentennial Open (1975). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Patrick Griffin

Type designer at Canada Type. Wikipedia tells us that Patrick Griffin had been locked away in a mental institution by Carter and Barbara, after he walked in on his mother performing oral sex on Jackie Gleason. He had a nervous breakdown and was sent to a mental hospital, where he came to the conclusion that Gleason was evil because he was fat, leading him to hate fat people. However, that is a different Patrick Griffin. The real Patrick Griffin, a graduate of York University, lives and works in Toronto, where he founded Canada Type and made it the most successful Canadian typefoundry. His work is summarized in this 2009 interview by MyFonts. It includes lots of custom work for banks, TV stations, and companies/groups like New York Times, Pixar, Jacquin's, University of Toronto, and the Montreal Airport. His retail fonts include the following.

  • Ambassador Script (2007): a digital version of Juliet, Aldo Novarese's 1955 almost upright calligraphic (copperplate style) connected script, with hundreds of alternates, swashes, ends, and so forth. Done with Rebecca Alaccari.
  • Autobats (2005). <
  • Ballantines Twelve (2014). A custom typeface for Allied Domecq Spirits & Wine Limited, the brand owner of Ballantine's Scotch Whisky. LI>Bigfoot (2008), the fattest font ever made (sic).
  • Blackhaus (2005), an extension of Kursachsen Auszeichnung, a blackletter typeface designed in 1937 by Peterpaul Weiß for the Schriftguss foundry in Dresden.
  • Blanchard (2009): a revival and elaborate extension of Muriel, a 1950 metal script typeface made by Joan Trochut-Blanchard for the Fonderie Typographique Française, that was published simultaneously by the Spanish Gans foundry under the name Juventud.
  • Bluebeard (2004), a blackletter face.
  • Book Jacket (2010): this is a digital extension of the film type font Book Jacket by Ursula Suess, published in 1972.
  • Boondock (2005): a revival of Imre Reiner's brush script typeface Bazaar from 1956.
  • Broken (2006): grunge.
  • Chalice (2006). Religious and Cyrillic influences.
  • Chapter 11 (2009): an old typewriter face.
  • Chikita (2008): an upright ronde script done with Rebecca Alaccari, and rooted in the work of 1930s Dutch lettering artist Martin Meijer.
  • Clarendon Text (2007). A 20-style slab serif that uses inspiration from 1953 faces by Hoffmann and Eidenbenz and the 1995 font Egizio by Novarese.
  • Classic Comic (2010).
  • Coconut and Coconut Shadow (2006). Great techno pop faces.
  • Coffee Script (2004): the digital version of R. Middleton's Wave design for the Ludlow foundry, circa 1962. Designed with Phil Rutter.
  • Comic book typefaces: Caper or Caper Comic (2008), Captain Comic (2007), Classic Comic (2010), Collector Comic (2006, a comic balloon lettering family), Common Comic (2013).
  • Counter (2008): A futuristic beauty with a double-lined cursive thrown in. Available exclusively from P22. This typeface was based on the idea for an uncredited film typeface called Whitley, published by a little known English typesetting house in the early 1970s.
  • Cryptozoo (2009): Late director of design for VANOC, the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Committee, Leo Ostbaum, commissioned Canada Type to make a typeface for the Vancouver Winter Olympics. Patrick Griffin came up with a rounded signage font called Cryptozoo, whose Notice reads Concept and design by Leo Obstbaum, VANOC Brand & Creative Services. Additional character data and technical production by Canada Type. Copyright 2007 VANOC Brand&Creative Services.
  • Dads Handwriting (2014, custom typeface).
  • Dancebats (2004).
  • Dokument Pro (2014). This is a reworking of a typeface made in 2005 by the late Jim Rimmer: Jim Rimmer aptly described his Dokument family as a sans serif in the vein of New Gothic that takes nothing from News Gothic. Dokument Pro is thoroughly reworked and expanded, with different widths still in the pipeline.
  • Dominion (2006). Based on an early 1970s film type called Lampoon. Dominions severely geometric shapes are a strange cross between early Bauhaus minimalism and later sharp square faces used for instance in Soviet propaganda posters.
  • Doobie (2006). 60s psychedelic style.
  • Driver Gothic (2008): based on the typeface used for Ontario license plates. Although unique among Canadian provincial license plates, this typeface is very similar to, if not outright identical with, the typeface used on car plates in 22 American states: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Vermont, Washington, and West Virginia. Ideal for license plate forgers.
  • Expo (2004): an octagonal family.
  • Fab (2007). A tube-design family reminiscent of the 1980s. Ricardo Cordoba writes: Fab reminds me of leafing through my first Letraset catalog in the mid-1980s all those decorative typefaces with rounded ends and tubular shapes, trying to imitate the look of neon signage. But Fab, with its contemporary twist on that aesthetic, and its unicase characters, manages to look like a cross between Cholla Bold and Frankfurter Highlight. Its handtooled, narrow shapes are perfectly suited to pop subject matter and bright colors. Fab Trio can be used to create layered chromatic effects, but its components can stand alone, too. The Seventies sure aint drab in Patrick Griffin's hands.
  • Fantini (2006). An update of the curly art nouveau typeface Fantan, a film type from 1970 by Custom Headings International.
  • Feather Script (2012). A revival of an old Lettering Inc font from the 1940s, known then as Flamenco.
  • Fido (2009) is the official font of dog owners everywhere. Has Saul Bass influences.
  • Filmotype fonts: Alice (2008, a casual hand-printed design based on a 1958 alphabet by Filmotype), Athens (2014), Filmotype Brooklyn (2009, a casual script based on a 1958 Filmotype font), Filmotype Candy (2012), Filmotype Carmen (2012), Filmotype Hemlock (2013, a retro signage script), Hickory (2014), Filmotype Homer (2014, a brush signage script), Filmotype Hudson (1955, based on a 1955 original), Filmotype Jessy (2009, a flowing upright connected script based on a 1958 design by Filmotype), Filmotype Lakeside (2013, a retro signage typeface), Filmotype Kellog (2013), Filmotype Leader (2013), Filmotype Giant (2011, a condensed sans done with Rebecca Alaccari) and its italic counterpart, Filmotype Escort (2011, done with Rebecca Alaccari), Filmotype Keynote (2013, a connected bold advertising script), Filmotype Lacrosse (2013, a retro script from the 1950s sometimes used in department store catalogs of that era), Filmotype LaSalle (2008, based on a 1952 retro script by Ray Baker for Filmotype), Filmotype Harmony (2011, original from 1950 by Ray Baker), Filmotype Kentucky (a 1955 original by Ray Baker), Filmotype Kingston (a 1953 original by Ray Baker), Filmotype Lucky (2012, based on a font by Ray Baker), Filmotype Hamlet (a 1955 original by Ray Baker), Filmotype Panama (2012, a flared casual serif typeface based on a 1958 original), Filmotype Prima (2011, with Rebecca Alaccari), Filmotype Quiet (2010, based on a 1954 military stencil typeface by Filmotype), Filmotype Yale (2012, a wedding invitation script based on a 1964 original by Filmotype), Filmotype York (2014).
  • Flirt (2005). Based on an art deco typeface found in a Dover specimen book.
  • Fuckbats (2007).
  • Fury (2008): an angry techno family.
  • Gala (2005). By Griffin and Alaccari. Gala is the digitization of the one of the most important Italian typefaces of the twentieth century: G. da Milanos 1935 Neon design for the Nebiolo foundry. This designs importance is in being the predecessor - and perhaps direct ancestor - of Aldo Novareses Microgramma (and later Eurostile), which paved the worlds way to the gentle transitional, futuristic look we now know and see everywhere. It is also one of the very first designs made under the direction of Alessandro Butti, a very important figure in Italian design.
  • Gallery (2004): art deco.
  • Gamer (2--4-2006), by Griffin and Alaccari: modeled after a few 1972 magazine advertisement letters, the origin of which was later identified as a common film type called Checkmate.
  • Gaslon (2005): a modification of A. Bihari's Corvina Black from 1973.
  • Gator (2007). A digital version of Friedrich Poppl's Poppl Heavy (1972), which in turn was one of the many responses by type designers to Cooper Black.
  • Genie (2006): a psychedelic typeface based on a 1970s film type called Jefferson Aeroplane.
  • Gibson (2011, with Kevin King and Rod McDonald). This 8-style humanist sans family is a revival of McDonald's own Monotype face, Slate. It was named to honour John Gibson FGDC (1928-2011), Rod's long-time friend and one of the original founders of the Society of Graphic Designers of Canada. All the revenues from its sale will be donated by Canada Type to the GDC, where they will be allocated to a variety of programs aiming to improve the creative arts and elevate design education in Canada.
  • Go (2005): a techno face.
  • Goudy Two Shoes (2006): a digitization and expansion of a 1970s type called Goudy Fancy, which originated with Lettergraphics as a film type.
  • Gumball (2005).
  • Hamlet (2006): medieval. Based on an old type called Kitterland.
  • Happy (2005). Happy is the digital version of one the most whimsical takes on typewriters ever made, an early 1970s Tony Stan film type called Ap-Ap. Some of the original characters were replaced with more fitting ones, but the original ones are still accessible as alternates within the font. We also made italics and bolds to make you Happy-er.
  • Heathen (2005). A grunge calligraphic script: The original Heathen was made by redrawing Phil Martin's Polonaise majuscules and superposing them over the majuscules of Scroll, another Canada Type font. The lowercase is a superposition of Scrolls lowercase atop a pre-release version of Sterling Script, yet another Canada Type font.
  • Hortensia (2009): a semi-script Victorian typeface modeled after Emil Gursch's Hortensia (1900). Codesigned with Rebecca Alaccari.
  • Hunter (2005). A revival of a brush script by Imre Reiner called Mustang (1956).
  • Hydrogen (2007, a rounded geometric unicase family.
  • Informa (2009): a comprehensive 36-style sans serif text family based on traditional lettering. He says: While some faces classified as such exhibit too much calligraphy (like Gill Sans, Syntax and Optima), and others tend to favor geometric principles in rhythm and proportion (like Agenda, Frutiger and Myriad), Informa stays true to the humanist ideology by maintaining the proper equilibrium between the two influences that drive the genre, and keeping the humanistic traits where they make better visual sense.
  • Jackpot (2005): The idea for Jackpot came from a photo type called Cooper Playbill, which as the name implies was simply a westernized version of Cooper Black. The recipe was simple: Follow Mr. Coopers big fat hippy idea, cowboy it with heavy slabs, give it true italics, then swash away at both for beautiful mixture. And there you have the bridge between groovy and all-American. There you have the country lover shaking hands with the rock and roll enthusiast. There you have your perfect substitute for the very overused Cooper Black.
  • Jazz Gothic (2005): an expansion of an early 1970s film type from Franklin Photolettering called Pinto Flare. Image.
  • Jezebel (2007).
  • The psychedelic typeface Jingo (2014, with Kevin Allan King): This is the digital makeover and major expansion of a one-of-a-kind melting pot experiment done by VGC and released under the name Mardi Gras in the early 1960s. It is an unexpected jambalaya of Art Nouveau, Tuscan, wedge serifs, curlycues, ball endings, wood type spurs and swashes, geometry and ornamental elements that on the surface seem to be completely unrelated.
  • Johnny (2006): with Rebecca Alaccari; based on Phil Martin's Harem or Margit fonts from 1969.
  • Jupiter (2007): based on Roman lettering.
  • Latex (2015). A layered all caps decal typeface.
  • Leather (2005): an expansion of Imre Reiner's blackletter typeface Gotika (1933).
  • Libertine (2011). Libertine (done with Kevin Allan King) is an angular calligraphic script inspired by the work of Dutchman Martin Meijer (1930s): This is the rebel yell, the adrenaline of scripts.
  • Lionheart (2006). A digitization and extension of Friedrich Poppl's neo-gothic typeface Saladin.
  • Lipstick (2006): handwriting. Plus Lipstick Extras.
  • Louis (2012). A faithful digital rendition and expansion of a design called Fanfare, originally drawn by Louis Oppenheim in 1927, and redrawn in 1993 by Rod McDonald as Stylu.
  • Maestro (2009) is a 40 style chancery family, in 2 weights each, with 3350 characters per font, codesigned with calligrapher Philip Bouwsma. This has to be the largest chancery/calligraphy family on earth.
  • Magellan (2014). A custom stencil typeface.
  • Martie (2006). Done with Rebecca Alaccari. Based on the handwriting of Martie S. Byrd.
  • Marvin (2010): a fat comic book face.
  • In 2013, Kevin Allan King and Patrick Griffin revived Georg Trump's transitional typeface Mauritius (1967, Weber).
  • Memoriam (2009): An extreme-contrast vogue display script which was commissioned by art director Nancy Harris for the cover of the 2008 commemorative issue of the New York Times magazine. He also did the typography and fonts for the 2010 issue. This became an unbelievably successful family, and was extended in 2011 with headline, Outline and Iline variants.
  • Merc (2007). Based on an all-cap rough-brush metal typeface called Agitator, designed by Wolfgang Eickhoff and published by Typoart in 1960.
  • Messenger (2010), a calligraphic script. Patrick Griffin writes about Messenger (2010, Canada Type): Messenger is a redux of two mid-1970s Markus Low designs: Markus Roman, an upright calligraphic face, and Ingrid, a popular typositor-era script. Through the original film faces were a couple of years apart and carried different names, they essentially had the same kind of Roman/Italic relationship two members of the same typeface family would have. The forms of both faces were reworked and updated to fit in the Ingrid mold, which is the truer-to-calligraphy one.
  • Middleton Brush (2010): a redigitization of R.H. Middleton's connected brush typeface Wave, ca. 1962; see also an early Canada Type face, Coffee Script.
  • Miedinger (2007). Created after Max Miedinger's 1964 face, Horizontal. Canada Type writes: The original film typeface was a simple set of bold, panoramically wide caps and figures that give off a first impression of being an ultra wide Gothic incarnation of Microgramma. Upon a second look, they are clearly more than that. This typeface is a quirky, very non-Akzidental take on the vernacular, mostly an exercise in geometric modularity, but also includes some unconventional solutions to typical problems (like thinning the midline strokes across the board to minimize clogging in three-storey forms). This digital version introduces a new lighter weight alongside the bold original..
  • Militia (2007). An octagonal and threatening stencil.
  • Militia Sans (2007).
  • Monte Cristo (2012, with Kevin Allan King) is a grand type family with five styles and 1630 characters with many swashes and ways of connecting the calligraphic glyphs---it is the ultimate wedding font.
  • Neil Bold (2010): an extension of the fat typeface Neil Bold (1966, Wayne J. Stettler).
  • Nightlife (2005): inspired by a pre-desktop publishing grid design by L. Meuffels.
  • Nuke (2005): a fat stencil grunge weith pizzazz.
  • In 2011, he and Kevin Allan King published the refined Orpheus Pro family, which was based on the elegant Orpheus by Walter Tiemann (1926-1928, Klingspor), and its Italic which was called Euphorion (Walter Tiemann, 1936). Their enthusiastic description: The Orpheus Pro fonts started out as a straightforward revival of Tiemann's Orpheus and Euphorion. It was as simple as a work brief can be. But did we ever get carried away, and what should have been finished in a few weeks ended up consuming the best part of a year, countless jugs of coffee, and the merciless scrutiny of too many pairs of eyeballs. The great roman caps just screamed for plenty of extensions, alternates, swashes, ligatures, fusions from different times, and of course small caps. The roman lowercase wanted additional alternates and even a few ligatures. The italic needed to get the same treatment for its lowercase that Tiemann envisioned for the uppercase. So the lowercase went overboard plenty alternates and swashes and ligatures. Even the italic uppercase was augmented by maybe too many extra letters. Orpheus Pro has been a real ride. Images of Orpheus: i, ii, iii, iv, v.
  • Outcast (2010): a grunge family.
  • Oxygen (2006): a great grid-based design.
  • Paganini (with Kevin Allan King) is another jewel in Canada Type's drawers: Designed in 1928 by Alessandro Butti under the direction of Raffaello Bertieri for the Nebiolo foundry, Paganini defies standard categorization. While it definitely is a classic foundry text typeface with obvious roots in the oldstyle of the Italian renaissance, its contrast reveals a clear underlying modern influence. i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, vii.
  • The last joint project of King and Griffin in 2012 was Pipa, a pseudo-psychedelic groovy bellydancing font: Originally made for a health food store chain we cannot name, Pipa is the embodiment of organic display typography.
  • Player (2007). An 11-style athletic lettering family.
  • Plywood (2007): a retro typeface based on Franklin Typefounders's Barker Flare from the early 1970s.
  • Press Gothic (2007). A revival of Aldo Novarese's Metropol typeface, released by Nebiolo in 1967 as a competitor to Stephenson Blakes Impact.
  • Quanta (2005, stencil). Two weights, East and West.
  • In 2011, Kevin Allan King and Patrick Griffin completed work on an exceptionally beautiful revival, Ratio Modern (the original by F.W. Kleukens is from 1923). This is a didone family with a refined humanistic trait. Images of Ratio Modern: i, ii, ii, iv, v, vi, vii.
  • Rawhide (2006): a bouncy Western saloon font based on cover page lettering of the Belgian comic book series Lucky Luke.
  • Recta (2011, with Kevin King). This is eighteen-stye sans family that extends Novarese's Recta.
  • Rhino (2005): a revival of the informal typeface Mobil (1960, Helmu Matheis, Ludwig&Mayer).
  • Noteworthy (2009). A font commissioned for the Apple iPad. It is based on Griffin's earlier revival typeface Filmotype Brooklyn.
  • Ronaldson Regular (2008, with Rebecca Alaccari), a 17-style oldstyle family based on the 1884 classic by Alexander Kay, Ronaldson Old style (MacKellar, Smith&Jordan). Griffin reconstructed this family from the metal typeface and from many scans from rare documents provided by Stephen O. Saxe, Philippe Chaurize and Rebecca Davis.
  • Roos (2009): A 10-style revival of Sjoerd Hendrik de Roos's De Roos Romein (1948), created in cooperation with Hans van Maanen.
  • Robur (2010): Done with Kevin King, this set of two fonts revives George Auriol's Robur Noir from 1909.
  • Runway (2004): racetrack lettering.
  • Rush (2005): futuristic.
  • Sailor (2005): digital rendition of West Futura Casual (late 1970s film type).
  • Salome (2008). Done with Rebecca Alaccari, this is a revival and expansion of a photolettering era typeface called Cantini (1972, Letter Graphics).
  • Santini (2004): Bauhaus-inspired architectural lettering.
  • Screener (2006): an extensive octagonal family, including Screener Symbols.
  • Sears Social (2014). A custom typeface family that includes Sears Social Monocase.
  • Secret Scrypt (2004): four shaky script styles done for a New York restaurant. With Alaccari.
  • Semplicita Pro (2011). A grand revival of Alessandro Butti's Futura-like Semplicità, executed between 2009 and 2011 by Patrick Griffin and Bill Troop. Image of the Medium weight.
  • Shred (2010): an octagonal heavy metal face.
  • Siren Script (2009-2010): Done with Rebecca Alaccari, this six-style script family is based on the metal typeface Stationers Semiscript (BBS, 1899).
  • Skullbats (2005).
  • Serial Killer (2005): bloody.
  • Slang (2004): a blood scratch face.
  • Slinger (2010): a flared art nouveau face.
  • Social Gothic (2007). After Tom Hollingsworth's Informal Gothic, a squarish unicase grotesk done in 1965. Followed by Social Stencil (2011-2012) and Social Gothic 2 (2014).
  • Soft Press (2012). A rounded version of Canada Type's Press Gothic.
  • Sol Pro (2010): a 20-style revival and extension of the monoline sans typeface Sol by Marty Goldstein and C.B. Smith (1973, VGC), done with Kevin Allan King. Griffin writes: This is not your grandfather's Eurostile. This is your offspring's global hope, optimism, and total awareness.
  • Spade (2012). A super-heavy slab face, done with Kevin King.
  • Spadina (2010): a psychedelic / art nouveau revival with Kevin Allan King of Karlo Wagner's Fortunata (1971, Berthold).
  • Sterling Script (2005): done with Rebecca Alaccari. Sterling Script was initially meant to a be digitization/reinterpretation of a copperplate script widely used during what effectively became the last decade of metal type: Stephenson Blake's Youthline, from 1952. Many alternates were added, so this is a virtually new type family.
  • Sultan: a Celtic-Arabic simulation typeface after "Mosaik" (1954) by Martin Kausche.
  • Stretto (2008) is a revival and expansion of Sintex 1 (Aldo Novarese, Nebiolo, 1973), a funky nightclub face. It was used as the basis of Cowboy Hippie (2010, CheapProFonts).
  • Swan Song (2006): a calligraphic typeface based on the hand of Alexander Nesbitt. [A later document states that it is based on work by British artist Rachel Yallop.]
  • Symposium Pro (2011). This Carolingian family was drawn by Philip Bouwsma. Patrick helped with the production.
  • Tabarnak (2012) and its shadowed version, Tabarnouche (2012). Lovingly named to attract business from Quebec, this is a packaging or signage pair of fonts.
  • Taboo (2009) is a geometric display typeface that was inspired by lettering by Armenian artist Fred Africkian in 1984.
  • Testament (2010): a calligraphic uncial family done with Philip Bouwsma.
  • Tomato (2005): done with Rebecca Alaccari, this is the digitization and quite elaborate expansion of an early 1970s Franklin Photolettering film type called Viola Flare.
  • Treasury (2006): a huge type family based on a calligraphic script by Hermann Ihlenburg from the late 19th century. Canada Type writes: The Treasury script waited over 130 years to be digitized, and the Canada Type crew is very proud to have done the honors. And then some. After seven months of meticulous work on some of the most fascinating letter forms ever made, we can easily say that Treasury is the most ambitious, educational and enjoyable type journey we've embarked upon, and we're certain you will be quite happy with the results. Treasury goes beyond being a mere revival of a typeface. Though the original Treasury script is quite breathtaking in its own right, we decided to bring it into the computer age with much more style and functionality than just another lost script becoming digital. The Treasury System is an intuitive set of fonts that takes advantage of the most commonly used feature of todays design software: Layering.
  • Trump Gothic (2005): a revival and expansion of two different takes on Signum (1955, Weber), Georg Trumps popular mid-twentieth-century condensed gothic: Less than one year after Signum, the Czech foundry Grafotechna released Stanislav Marso's Kamene, a reinterpretation of Signum. The differences between the two were quite subtle in most forms, but functionally proved to offer different levels of visual flexibility. Marso changed a few letters, most notably the wonderful a and g he added, and also made a bold weight. Trump Gothic West is a revival of Trump's original Signum, but in three weights and italics for each. Trump Gothic East is a revival of Marso's Kamene, but also in three weights and corresponding italics.. In 2013, Patrick Griffin redrew and optimized these condensed and ultra-economical typefaces in his Trump Gothic Pro and the rounded version, Trump Soft Pro.
  • Trump Script (2010) revives the African look script by Georg Trump called Jaguar (1962). An improvement on an earlier Canada type family called Tiger Script.
  • Tuba (2010).
  • Valet (2006): inspired by an uncredited early 1970s all-cap film type called Expression.
  • Veronica Polly (2005).
  • Vox (2007): a 24-style monoline sans family done with Rebecca Alaccari. This was followed in 2013 by a softer version, Vox Round.
  • Wagner Grotesk (2010): a sturdy grotesk, after a typeface from the Johannes Wagner foundry. Kevin King is also credited.
  • Wagner Script Pro (2011). Done together with Kevin King, this is a revival of Troubadour (1926, Wagner&Schmidt).
  • King and Patrick Griffin published Wonder Brush in 2012. This is partly based on a signage brush script called Poppl Stretto (1969) by Friedrich Poppl.
  • Opentype programming help for several fonts by Michael Doret, such as Deliscript (2009), Dynascript (2011) and Steinweiss Script (2010). Deliscript (a winner at TDC2 2010) is an upright connected script with accompanying slanted version. Steinweiss Script is a 2200-glyph curly script typeface called Steinweiss Script (2010), which captures a lot of the spirit of Steinweiss's album covers from the late 1930s and 1940s.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Paul E. Kennedy

Author of Modern Display Alphabets: 100 Complete Fonts Selected and Arranged from the Franklin Photolettering Catalogue (1974, Dover). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Paul Gábor

Hungarian type designer (d. 1992) who made Totfalusi Antikva (Fonderie de l'État Hongrois, 1955). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Paul Jaccottet

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Cactus Bold (1973). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Peter Bain
[Peter Bain Design (was: Incipit)]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Peter Bain Design (was: Incipit)
[Peter Bain]

Incipit, or Peter Bain Design, was Peter Bain's type and graphic design studio in Brooklyn, New York. It closed down gradually between 2007 and 2010.

Peter Bain received his M.F.A. in Design: Visual Communications from Virginia Commonwealth University. He was type director at Saatchi&Saatchi Advertising in New York, and taught at Parsons/The New School for Design and Pratt Institute in New York. After Saatchi, and before Incipit, he was freelancing. After Incipit, he relacted briefly to Virginia to attend VCU and then went on to Mississippi, where he is Assistant Professor of Art, Graphic Design at Mississippi State University. He lives in nearby Starkville, MS.

He is best known for his wonderful book Blackletter: Type and National Identity (1998, with Paul Shaw).

His photocomposition display faces were reedited and available in reproduction proofs (for a short time). The photocomposition display faces are in two-inch film format, as formerly used on machines such as the Typositor and Filmotype. They are being held in storage, and are no longer listed for that reason. PDF format list. Text format of Bain's file. Bain says he built this from the Typositor type libraries formerly offered by Techni-Process Lettering and Pastore DePamphilis Rampone, which he bought at an auction. Report on his talk in London on blackletter type (2003). MyFonts sells the 4-weight Josef Albers-inspired stencil family Gridiot (2003-2011). His thoughts about the art of Albers: Remember, any idiot can design a typeface on a grid: Gridiot.

Speaker at ATypI 2006 in Lisbon. Speaker at ATypI 2013 in Amsterdam. MyFonts link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Peter Bain: Film Type

Peter Bain surveys the era of photo-typography. His introduction: In the 20th century photo-typography fully displaced a 500-year-old tradition of metal type, only to be superseded itself shortly thereafter. Yet most appraisals of type technology and histories of proprietary typefounding still favor type for text instead of eye-catching display. One characteristic feature of 20th century typography was the great effort devoted to ephemera and advertising. This survey is a local view of a half-century, concentrating on display type in New York City. Since New Yorkers have been said to believe they are at the center of the planet, it is fascinating to find a time when it could appear nearly so, typographically. He goes on to explain why and how New york became the typographic center of the globe: The city in the first half of the 20th century was an established communications center for a burgeoning national market. There is ample evidence of local interest in unique letterforms. Sometime Queens-borough resident and typeface designer Frederic Goudy received a commission from retailer Saks Fifth Avenue. The successful New York illustrator and letterer Fred G. Cooper had his distinctive forms included in the same publications that featured an unrelated Windy City designer, Oswald Cooper. Architect H. Van Buren Magonigle and industrial designer Walter Dorwin Teague had both skillfully rendered capitals for print, while their Manhattan offices pursued projects in three dimensions. One of the more curious examples of this fluency in letterforms was a 1943 booklet issued by the Brooklyn-based Higgins Ink Co. The largest portion was a portfolio of thirty-two script alphabets and fictitious signatures by Charles Bluemlein, each accompanied by a handwriting experts interpretation of the admittedly invented specimens. The requirements of publicity and publishing helped drive the demand for handlettering. By 1955, one knowledgeable estimate placed over 300 professional lettering artists working in New York at both comprehensive (layout) and finished levels. It was in a landscape of album covers and bookjackets, magazine and newspaper advertising, trademarks and slogans, store signatures and letterheads, billboards and signs (created by sign artists, not usually graphic designers) that display phototype was emerging in sharp focus. This may have been the peak of market demand for lettering. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Peter Max

Phototype era type designer. In the early 1970s, he created some typefaces for PhotoLettering Inc, such as Riverside Drive (art deco). Riverside Drive was revived digitally by Nick Curtis in 2014 as Maxed Out NF.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Phil Martin
[Alphabet Innovations International -- TypeSpectra (Was: MM2000)]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Philip Kelly

Type designer who runs Philip Kelly Digital Design in the UK. He worked for Letraset from 1959-1994 as a type designer. His type design work there included Arabic and Hebrew letterforms. From 1994 until 1997, he designed typefaces at Signus, and became an independent designer in 1997. His typefaces:

  • Codesigner with Mike Daines of the well-known University Roman (1972, Letraset), which is now offered in a myriad of digital libraries, such as Scangraphic, where it is called University SH.
  • Gillies Gothic Extra Bold Shaded (1982).
  • Cortez (1977). An exaggerated flashy copperplate.
  • Pump EF (1980). This family has rounded simple letterforms including a triline style.
  • Croissant (1978, ITC or Elsner+Flake). Rounded and almost an oriental simulation face. See Croissant SH at Scangraphic).
  • The often copied Algerian (1988). See, e.g., Algerian SB.
  • Emporium (Letraset). A circus font.
  • Spritzer (1987, Letraset). A shadowed face.
  • Impress (1983, Letraset).
  • Sendai (2010). A gracious copperplate-influenced 6-weight sans family.
  • Fantail (2012). An arts and crafts style all caps typeface inspired by an RO monogram used during a Roy Orbison concert at the now defunct Cocoanut Grove nightclub in Los Angeles.
  • Elan Greek and Elan Cyrillic to match ITC Elan (1985, Albert Boton).
  • Elegant hand-drawn numeral typefaces based on calligraphic samples by illustrator Sarah Jane Coleman (2009).
  • The italics for IR Modena (IR stands for Inland Revenue).
  • Calligraphic typefaces done for Mandalay in 2009.
  • Sendai (2001-2010).

Linotype link. FontShop link. Klingspor link. Portfolio. Testiminial of Kelly's days at Letraset. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Photo-Lettering Inc.
[Edward Rondthaler]

New York based photocomposition, lettering and digital type business active from 1936-1997, cofounded by Harold Horman and Edward Rondthaler in 1936. Its designers included Bob Alonso, Vincent Pacella, Vic Caruso, Herbert Post, Holly Goldsmith, and Ed Benguiat. It sold type drawn by the likes of Herb Lubalin, Milton Glaser, Seymour Chwast and many others. It was one of the earliest and most successful type houses to utilize photo technology in the production of commercial typography and lettering. Ed Benguiat: The alphabet styles in this collection, many of which took over 200 hours to complete, were drawn with pen and ink to exacting standards by veteran lettering artists. I know....during my 35 years employed by Photo-Lettering I produced over 500 complete fonts. In all, 6500 fonts were produced. A partial time line was offered by Peter Bain (italics are quotes from Bain):

  • World War II: Photo-Lettering was a combination of aesthetic, technical and marketing efforts. Horman was a competent letter designer, Rondthaler an experienced typographer; both they and the other staff shared a keen interest in mechanical devices. Photo-Letterings initial client, advertising agency J. Walter Thompson, was brought in by their corporate parent. It was the Rutherfords always freshly exposed characters, precision variability, and consistency that kept the agency as a client. The firms initial stock of typefaces was built both by Horman and by photographing existing metal designs. During World War II the firm supplied headlines for wartime posters. The full capabilities of the process became steadily realized. The ability to italicize, reproportion, outline, and add weight to type increased the attractiveness of Photo-Letterings service.
  • 1944: In 1944 Tommy Thompson, perhaps the pre-eminent New York lettering designer of the day, approached Photo-Lettering. He had been asked by The Saturday Evening Post, a national weekly, to furnish hand-drawn lettering in a consistent, distinctive style for their headlines and bylines. The volume made a compelling case, and a royalty agreement, the first with an outside artist, was made. From this beginning, the type library at Photo-Lettering tapped into a pool of lettering artists who ordinarily would not have had their work become type.
  • 1946: Publication of a catalog with 979 alphabets called Photo-Lettering's Basc 979 Alphabets. Most of the original designs were by Harold Horman, including the ten-weight Photo-Futura Condensed (bassed on a Bauer typeface). Other early designers included J. Albert Cavanagh and M. M. (Dave) Davison (who made Spencerian types).
  • 1950: The 1950 catalog features the Pete Dom series in three weights, Twixt, Husky and Darky. Bain comments: Peter Dombrezians highly skilled, informal brush-written type was furnished with numerous alternates. There were at least three versions of each capital and lowercase letter, and two sets of figures for the Twixt weight alone. The restricted number of alternates offered by metal typefounders, combined with the handmade competition, may well have encouraged early display phototype families to be as expansive as possible. In the case of ATFs Dom Casual, completed in 1952, the more reserved letters from the Twixt were chosen for metal type. Other designers mentioned in the catalog include Alfred Bosco, Hollis Holland, Oscar Ogg and Tony Stan. The catalog lists 1631 faces.
  • 1960: Publication of Alphabet Thesaurus Nine Thousand. This catalog has over 700 pages.
  • 1965: A 970-page catalog with 5474 typefaces is published. Of these, 146 appear to be exclusive.
  • 1970: Ed Rondthaler cofounds ITC with Herb Lubalin and Aaron Burns. Bain: Ed Benguiat, a longtime letterer and type designer at Photo-Lettering, became known for his renovation of The New York Times masthead, and for his typefaces released by ITC. The growing success of computerized composition offered stylistic and financial incentives for new typefaces that could be used for display as well as text. ITC was well positioned to exploit that opportunity worldwide. This connection with ITC leads to many ITC typefaces with roots in Photo-Lettering.

In 2003, the entire collection was bought by House Industries. Its fonts included ITC Flatiron (a very wide caps typeface published by ITC in 1997), BenguaitCharisma (1993), FourthOfJuly (1992), Swinger (1992), Parchment (1993), ITC Musica (1996, which was Bel-Canto at Photo Lettering in 1968), and ITC Static (1996; called Bounce at Photo Lettering).

Photo-Lettering Collection Revival link at MyFonts.

View their typeface library. More images of digital typefaces based on the Photo-Lettering collection. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Photo-Lettering Inc

A subsidiary/part of House Industries in Yorklyn, DE. I quote: Photo-Lettering was a mainstay of the advertising and design industry in New York City from 1936 to 1997. PLINC, as it was affectionately known to art directors, was one of the earliest and most successful type houses to utilize photo technology in the production of commercial typography and lettering. It employed such design luminaries as Ed Benguiat and sold type drawn by the likes of Herb Lubalin, Milton Glaser and Seymour Chwast as well as countless other unsung lettering greats. The company is best known by most of today's graphic designers for its ubiquitous type catalogs. Physically, the collection takes up about 1500 cubic ft (42 cubic meters) of space and consists of film negatives and positives of most of the 6500 fonts produced in the company's 55 years. There are also countless patterns, cartouches, borders and dingbats, all of which have been preserved in film negative form. Each negative is approximately 28 in (71 cm) by 5 in (13 cm) high. House Industries, a Yorklyn, Delaware-based independent type foundry, purchased the entire physical assets of Photo-Lettering in April of 2003. Through a partnership with Ken Barber, Christian Schwartz and Erik van Blokland, House Industries is carefully digitizing select alphabets from the collection and plans to offer them through a modern web-based interface. The Photo-Lettering interface has allowed us to reach beyond the rigid confines of typography to offer extended features such as layering, color control and multiple master interpolation over six axes. With some of the most talented minds in display typography behind this new display lettering system, users of the system will enjoy the same refined typography as the original Photo-Lettering customers.

A snapshot of their production, as of mid 2012, in alphabetical order:

  • Atrax. A Mexican simulation typeface.
  • Aztec. A videogame typeface.
  • Banjo Playbill. A tear drop typeface.
  • PL Barclay Outline.
  • BenguiatBuffalo. By Ed Benguiat.
  • BenguiatCaslon, BenguiatCaslonOutline, BenguiatCaslonPlain. By Ed Benguiat.
  • BillSeeWhimsy.
  • PL Brazilia (sans).
  • Brickhouse.
  • PL Britannia.
  • Brixen.
  • BrodovitchAlbro.
  • Bubblegum, Bubblegum Drop.
  • Carlyle Eventide. A 3d titling face.
  • CarusoRoxy.
  • Chicamakomiko.
  • CopelandMilo. A connected script by L.H. Copeland.
  • CopelandTrilliumFills, CopelandTrilliumOutline. A beveled prismatic typeface by L.H. Copeland.
  • DARegatta. A flared didone.
  • DAmicoGothic. A casual flared typeface.
  • DavisonBaroque. A Western / Tuscan typeface.
  • ExotiqueJSplit.
  • FederalReserve.
  • FederalTwelveDiagonal, FederalTwelveHorizontal. These are engraved copperplate typefaces.
  • PL Fiorello (squarish sans).
  • Galaxy Didot (based on a didone typeface by C.E. Coryn).
  • Goliath. A fat Egyptian typeface with a wood style flavor.
  • HanoverBold. A nice Fraktur typeface.
  • HaslerCircus. A Tuscan circus font.
  • HenrionBA. A beveled typeface with several layers.
  • HouseGothicWide. A shadowed unicase typeface.
  • Housebroken. A two-layer stencil caps face.
  • PL Latin.
  • Mierop Inline. A bilined art deco typeface.
  • Millstein Flourish. A beautiful tall-descender typeface.
  • PL Modern Heavy Condensed.
  • Neutra Inline, Neutra Thin. Neutra Thin is a phenomenal geometric hairline sans.
  • Norton Slapstick. A wood simulation typeface by S.E. Norton.
  • Norton Tape. A stencil paper-fold typeface by S.E. Norton.
  • Quaint. After an ornamental typeface from 1938 by Paul Carlyle and Gus Oring.
  • Quicksilver.
  • Quintet. A calligraphic connected script
  • Raymund Circus (+Inline, +Outlined).
  • Smidgen. A signage face.
  • Sodachrome.
  • StanSlope.
  • SuperstarScript. A bubblegum typeface.
  • SwissInterlock.
  • SwissTwoTone. A display sans with two layers.
  • Tiki Palms.
  • TimesSquare. A dot matrix typeface.
  • Tuggle. An oil slick typeface.
  • Voodoo House.
  • PL Westerveldt.
  • WestBarnumUltra, WestBarnumUltraDrop. A fat Egyptian typeface by Dave West.
  • WestBehemoth, WestBehemothItalic. Egyptian typefaces by Dave West.
  • WestEmperorScript. A fat didone by Dave West.
  • WestThud. A fat signage typeface by Dave West.
  • West Elephant. By Dave West.
  • West Italiano. A didone by Dave West.
  • West Kerpow. A comic book typeface by Dave West.
  • Worthe Numerals.
[Google] [More]  ⦿

Photon Inc
[Bill Garth]

Company in Wilmington, MA, founded by William Garth. MyFonts writes: In the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, Photon, under Billy Garth, built a large and rambling library of low quality typefaces, original in nothing but scripts. A group of higher quality material created at Deberny&Peignot for Lumitype - Photon's European arm - under Higgonet and Moyroud was added when the younger Higgonet closed Deberny&Peignot. After Photon went out of business, the library was passed through Dymo (1975) to Itek (1979), and then to Unitex (1983), itself later acquired by Chorus Data Systems of New Hampshirer. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Photoscript Ltd.

Photo-era foundry located in London. Their house fonts include Blackfriars, Chin Century 2000 (computer simulation family in Nr 1, 2 and 3 versions), De Vinne Ornamented, Granby Elephant, Mexico Olympic (multilined op-art font) and Nova. Fonts are shown in Berthold Headlines E3 (1982). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Pierre Doyonnax

French designer of Golf (Hollenstein Phototypo, 1970). [Google] [More]  ⦿

R. Asselineau

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as the bilined typeface Burgondy Right (1974). [Google] [More]  ⦿

R. Schneider

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Bisque (1975).

Bisque is B733 Deco for Softmaker and Brisk for Corel. [Google] [More]  ⦿

R. Vero

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Led16 (1975). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ralph C. Coxhead
[Varityper: 1946 Catalog]

[More]  ⦿

Raphael Boguslav

Great handletterer (b. 1929 in Far Rockaway, Long Island of Russian parents) who grew up in New York City. He studied lettering with Paul Standard, Georg Salter and Leo Manso at The Cooper Union and graduated from The Cooper Union in 1951. He worked at the same studio as Milton Glaser for the next three years. Rahael become a designer and worked for some time for Lippincott and Margulies in New York. Raphael lived in Colorado for a long time, but is now based in Bellingham, WA.

In 1969 he patented a squarish typeface for Tyco Laboratories in Waltham, MA. In 1972, he moved to Newport, RI and resumed his career in lettering, calligraphy and graphic design.

His typeface Avia (VGC) was an expansion of a logofont he did for Abex Corporation, almost like a stencil. It is now at Font Bureau, where Jill Pichotta has added the Light and Bold in 2000. His typeface Visa (1966, VGC) won the Second Prize in the 1966 VGC National Type Face Design Competition. Others (thanks, Alexander Tochilovsky) confirm what I thought---that Visa and Avia are the same thing. Finally, Sloop Script One (1994, Richard Lipton, Font Bureau) is based on Boguslav's designs.

FontShop link. MyFonts link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Ray Baker

Designer who worked for VGC in the phototypesetting era. He created ITC Quorum in 1977, a font halfway between serif and sans, and the wide copperplate sansserif font ITC Newtext in 1974. Digital versions of the latter exist at Elsner&Flake and Softmaker [Q853 Flare and Quagga on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD, 2002].

At Filmotype, he made the brush script typeface LaSalle (1950s), which was digitized in 2008 by Stuart Sandler at Font Bros in 2008 as Filmotype LaSalle. In 2010, MyFonts credits Patrick Griffin and Rebecca Alaccari with the digitization though. Other Filmotype faces digitized in 2011 include Filmotype Harmony (original from 1950), Filmotype Kentucky (a 1955 original), Filmotype Kingston (a 1953 original), Filmotype Hamlet (a 1955 original), all in the connected signage type category, and all done by Patrick Griffin and Rebecca Alaccari. The latter two also digitized Filmotype Lucky (2012), a signage typeface from 1953.

Bio at Linotype. FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Ray Cruz
[Cruz Fonts]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Raymond Wyborn

Designer of the psychedelic Photo-Lettering Inc font Teknic. [Google] [More]  ⦿

René Ponot

French type designer (b. La Houssaye, 1917, d. 2003) whose typefaces include Blason (1978), Continent (1959, Optype - Letterphot), Mopon (1965, Moreau - Lettrage Relief), Nil (1978), Psitt (1954, Fonderie Typographique Française), Castellane&Valensole (Fonderie typographique Française), Roncevalles (1955, Fundicíon Tipográfica Nacional), Solide (1958, Optype - Letterphot), Suresnes, Ulysse (1958, Optype - Letterphot), Uncialis (1950, Optype - Letterphot).

A quote from him: La typographie est un art précieux parce qu'elle forme le dernier revêtement de la pensée. Author of Louis Perrin et l'Énigme des Augustaux (Editions des Cendres, Paris, 1998). This book has a history of Perrin as a printer and typographer, with special attention to Perrin's Augustaux type. It contains two fold-out Augustaux type specimens and several examples of Perrin's printing in black-and-white, has a preface by Fernand Baudin, and is printed in Perrin type redesigned by L'Atelier National de Création Typographique in 1986. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Renée LeWinter

American designer (with Constance Blanchard and John Matt) of Garth Graphic, a text typeface with eight weights. FontShop link. She worked at Compurgraphic in the 1970s. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Richard A. Schlatter

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as the Glyphic Series (1972, in piano key style) and Wexford (1972).

Wexley (2009, Harold Lohner) is a digital revival of Wexford. Wexford (2009, Daylight) is another digital revival. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Richard D. Juenger

American designer, b. 1928, whio graduated from Washington University Art School, St. Louis. Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Jana (1965), which won Third Prize in the 1965 VGC National Type Face Design Competition. For a digital version / extension of Jana, see Rocklidge Pro (2011, Steve Jackaman and Ashley Muir). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Richard Dick Jensen

American designer (b. 1926 in St. Paul, MN, d. 2000 in Edina, MN). Designer at the Visual Graphics Corporation of Serpentine (1972, ICG: see Senator at Softmaker), Dingaling (1977) and Woodstock (1978). Bio at Linotype. Mark Simonson says that he looked like Drew Carey. FontShop link.

In 2007, Canada Type revived Harry Villhardt's VGC font Venture as Chopper.

They write: In 1972, VGC released two typefaces by designer friends Dick Jensen and Harry Villhardt. Jensens was called Serpentine, and Villhardts was called Venture. Even though both faces had the same elements and a somewhat similar construct, one of them became very popular and chased the other away from the spotlight. Serpentine went on to become the James Bond font, the Pepsi and every other soda pop font, the everything font, all the way through the glories of digital lala-land where it was hacked, imitated and overused by hundreds of designers. But the only advantage it really had over Venture was being a 4-style family, including the bold italic that made it all the rage, as opposed to Ventures lone upright style. One must wonder how differently things would have played if a Venture Italic was around back then. Chopper is Canada Type's revival of Venture, that underdog of 1972. This time around it comes with a roman and an italic to make it a much more attractive and refreshing alternative to Serpentine.

His niece, Janis Smith, writes: Dick Jensen, my uncle was not only the original designer of the Serpentine lettering (which he designed for the Visual Graphics Corporation, and is today a trademark of VGC), but he was also an accomplished commercial artist, wood carver and painter. Over the years Dick worked as a commercial artist at Artist Inc., K&K Freelancer, Studio One, and for Tanaka Advertising before retiring in 1998. He won an art award during his career. Unfortunately, my uncle Dick Jensen just passed away this last June 29, 2000 peacefully at home from colon cancer in Edina, Minnesota. My mother, my brother and myself took care of him to the end. He was 73 years old at the time of his death. He was born July 31, 1926, in St. Paul, Minnesota. He left my family and me many beautiful paintings, woodcarvings and memories! Dick Jensen was the son of Anthony and Florence (Dahlquist) Jensen and the grandson of Swedish and Danish emigrants. His father Anthony Jensen was also a sign painter and artist. Dick attended the U of M, Grand Marais Art Colony and was a graduate of the Minneapolis Art Institute in Minnesota. Dick Jensen served in the U.S. Army from 1944-1946 during WWII in Germany, France&Belgium with the 10th Infantry-2nd Armory. He married Jane Manley, Oct. 1, 1954 at St. James on the Parkway church, Mpls., MN. His wife Jane, suddenly died when she was only 39 years old on New Year's Day, January 1, 1972 from acute pancreatitis. Dick and Jane were like a golden couple, they traveled to Europe, had parties and enjoyed life to the fullest. Jane's death broke his heart. Dick's spirit lives on in the hearts of all of those who knew him.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Richard Isbell

Detroit-based designer, illustrator and letterer active in the automobile industry, who has worked with both ATF and ITC. Creator of Americana (1967), who did a lot of work for the auto industry. Americana, a display typeface with huge x-height and short serifs, was the last type cut in metal by the ATF in 1967. Digital versions of Americana include Freedom (Autologic), Flareserif 721 (Bitstream), American Classic (Compugraphic), AM (Itek), Colonial (Varityper), Almeria (Softmaker) and Amherst (Corel). He also made ITC Isbell (1981, now available at Bitstream [as Revival 821] and Elsner&Flake; see Iceberg on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD, 2002, and Isabell at FontSite). Linotype link. FontShop link. . [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Richard Nebiolo

American type designer at Photolettering in the 1970s. His typeface Aphrodite served as a model for Nick Curtis's Mighty Ditey (2007), which mixed art deco with Peignot. Other typefaces: the Aimee family (Fineline, Medium, Open, Outline C, Outline D, Outline E), Laura, Lady Carole, Moon Walk, Moon Walk Open B, Newborn.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Richard Southall

British font software specialist and type designer. A graduate in natural sciences from Cambridge (1960), he joined Crosfield Electronics Ltd in London, where he was responsible for producing photomatrices for the Photon-Lumitype direct- photography photocomposing machines sold by Crosfields in Europe. From 1974 to 1983 he was a lecturer in the Department of Typography and Graphic Communication at the University of Reading. Between then and the end of the decade he worked in California and France, at Stanford University, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center and the Université Louis-Pasteur in Strasbourg. Since then he has been a consultant type designer with the American Mathematical Society, BT, the Civil Aviation Authority, National Air Traffic Services and US West Dex (now Qwest Dex). Author of Printer's Type in the Twentieth Century Manufacturing and Design Methods (British Library Publishing, 2005). Sumner Stone reviews this book. He also wrote Designing a new typeface with METAFONT (Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 236, pp. 161-179, 1986). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Richard Weltz

From the TDC web site: After several years as an advertising agency copywriter and account executive, Dick joined his family's advertising typography firm, and has been involved in typeshop management ever since - working his way over some four decades through all the technology changes from hot metal to today's Postscript. He served as President of Typographers International Association, is the author of dozens of published articles on the typographic business, and has presented seminars to typographic groups in many cities around the country and abroad. Over time, Dick narrowed his efforts to the field of foreign language typography and translation and now heads up the New York City firm, Spectrum Multilanguage Communications. While not laying claim to being a typeface designer by vocation, several Arabic fonts Dick designed were licensed and produced by Berthold; and a number of others were marketed by VGC as fonts for the PhotoTypositor. Dick holds a degree in Public and International Affairs from the Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Robert Alonso
[BA Graphics]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Robert Hunter Middleton

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Robert Montgomery

Type designer at Photo-Lettering Inc. Creator of the multiple shadow art deco typeface family Pousse Cafe (A, B and C). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Robert Norton
[Norton Photosetting Ltd]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Robert Norton

Type designer who joined Microsoft's truetype department (b. London, 1929, d. West Huntspill. Somerset, 2001). Death announcement. Obituary by Nicolas Barker. His fonts include:

  • Else NPL (1982, Norton Photosetting Ltd). Sold by Adobe, it is a feisty Century-style family.
  • Horley Old Style MT.
  • Raleigh (Ingrama, 1977). Co-designed with Carl Dair, David Anderson and Adrian Williams, it is sold by Bitstream and URW++. This typeface is characterized by a bloated belly N. Raleigh was produced in 1977 by Robert Norton, and was based on Carl Dair's Cartier typeface, which was designed for the Canadian Centennial and the 1967 Montreal World's Fair. It was renamed Raleigh after Dair's death. Adrian Williams added three weights for a display series, and Robert Norton designed the text version.

Linotype link. FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Robert S. Maile Jr.

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Emphasis (1965). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Robert Sadler

Creator of the photo era typefaces Fat Cat and Skinny Cat (Photolettering). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Robert Stark

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Stark Debonair (1975). At Photolettering, he created Stark Classic 1, 2 and 3, and Bel Aire. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Robert Trogman

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Robert Trogman
[Facsimile Fonts]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Roc Mitchell

Dallas-based foundry with commercial font families by Roc Mitchell such as Avian, Boreas, Caribbee, Dimeter, LogoText, Poetry, Psalmist, Svenska and Revelry. From 1970 until 1974, Roc Mitchell designed typefaces for Phil Martin's Alphabet Innovations. These include Arthur, Borealis, Celebration, Corporate, Corporate Image, Dimensia Light, Dimensia, King Arthur Light w/Guinevere Alternates, King Arthur w/Guinevere Alternates, King Arthur Outline w/Guinevere Alternates, and Stanza. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Roger Morin

French type designer who designed Pietra Romana in 1970 at Hollenstein Phototypo. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ronald Arnholm

Professor of Art Graphic Design at Lamar Dodd School of Art, part of the University of Georgia, Athens. Born in 1939 in Barre, VT, Arnholm designed the ITC Legacy Sans family (1992, a 51-font remake of the 1960s Arnholm Sans), and the ITC Legacy Serif family (1992, Venetian). In 2009, ITC Legacy Square Serif and ITC Legacy Serif Condensed were added. ITC Legacy Square Serif won an award at TDC2 2010.

His early fonts were released at VGC, the Visual Graphics Corporation: VGC Aquarius (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, Outline) (1967) (this was digitized in 2007 by Steve Jackaman as Aquarius), VGCArnholm Sans Bold (1965), VGC Fovea (1977).

Arnholm also designed WTC Veritas for the World Typeface Center, New York, 1981-85.

He created these headline typefaces for the Los Angeles Times, 1980: L.A. Times Regular, L.A. Times regular italic, L.A. Times Bold and L.A. Times Bold Italic.

MyFonts page. Linotype bio. FontShop link. Klingspor link.

View Ronald Arnholm's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Ronald Trogram

Some (like Linotype and FontShop) say that Ronald Trogram is the designer of Handel Gothic (1980), now sold by URW, Linotype and Elsner&Flake. Kathleen Tinkel clarifies: Handel Gothic came from FotoStar, a 2-inch filmstrip company from L.A. The designer was Ronald Trogram (not Robert Trogman, who was a graphic designer in the 1970s). Well, I will be damned, because Robert Trogman ran FotoStar, and Handel Gothic was a FotoStar font. Identifont goes as far as to say that Handel Gothic was a 1964 font by Don Handel. My question is---did Ronald Trogram design *any* font in his life? [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ronne Bonder

American designer in New York associated with ITC. Creator of these typefaces:

  • ITC Bolt (1970, with Tom Carnase). Squarish and modular. Copied by Bitstream as Square 821.
  • ITC Machine (1970, octagonal font). ITC Machine equivalences: Machine, Motor (Corel-branded version of Bitstream's Machine), Automaton Caps (SSK), Mechanic (Softmaker), M651 Deco (SoftMaker), Pittsburgh (SWFTE), Metal Encasement (SWFTE), Monotone (WSI/IMSI).
  • ITC Grizzly (1970, with Tom Carnase). Borrows elements of Kabel.
  • ITC Ronda (1970).
  • ITC Gorilla (1970, with Tom Carnase). This rough-edged typeface is based on Post Oldstyle.
  • ITC Grouch (1970, with Tom Carnase). A heavy didone face.
  • ITC Pioneer (1970, with Tom Carnase).
  • ITC Honda.
  • ITC Tom's Roman (1970, with Tom Carnase).

His fonts are available from ITC, Bitstream and Elsner&Flake (such as Pioneer No2 EF).

Linotype link. FontShop link. Klingspor link

View Ronne Bonder's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Roselyne Besnard

The French type designers Michel (b. 1942) and Rosalyne Besnard (b. 1946) live in Rouen, France. Under the brand Les Besnardtypo, they jointly designed Micmac (Creative Alliance, 1997), ITC Odyssee (1996), ITC Typados (1997, art nouveau), Rom (Creative Alliance, 1998), Bouchon (Letraset, 2000), Huit (Visual Graphics Corporation, 1972), Sargon (Visual Graphics Corporation, 1974: bilined and futuristic), Migraph (Agfa Monotype, 1999), PistolShot LT Std Normal and Light (Linotype, 2003), Nazca (Monotype Imaging, 2005), Sargon (Monotype Imaging, 2006), First One (Monotype Imaging, 2006: a family for teaching the alphabet to children), Mickros (Monotype Imaging, 2007), Pantin (Monotype Imaging, 2007), De Gama (Monotype Imaging, 2008), Pasta (Monotype Imaging, 2008).

Linotype page. FontShop link. Another FontShop link. Klingspor link.

View Roselyne Besnard's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Rosemarie Tissi

Swiss graphic and type designer, b. Schaffhausen, 1937. She works at Odermatt&Tissi in Zurich. and is/was affiliated with Linotype. FontShop link. Typefaces, all published at Engler Text-Bild-Integration AG: Mindanoa (1975), Sinaloa (1972), Sonora (1972). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Roy Rothstein

Cleveland, OH-based type designer actiive in the 1950s and 1960s. He made several photo lettering and metal typefaces. These include Layout Gothic No.1, 2, 3, and Roys Gothic No.2, 3.

Mac McGrew writes: Layout Gothic was an attempt to do in metal some of the things that advertising artists were demanding of photolettering with its new-found 'freedom" of tight spacing. Roy Rothstein, a Cleveland typographer, redesigned several characters for the Alternate Gothics; these were specially cast by ATF about 1959, and other characters were trimmed for very close fitting. Similar heavier gothics had been made about 1951: Roys Gothic No.2 by Rothstein in collaboration with Jack Forman, Roys Gothic No.3 by Rothstein, and Roys Gothic No.4, an adaptation of Helvetica Extra Bold Condensed, imported from Germany. All this was done in the 60-point size; other sizes were furnished photographically. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Russell Bean
[Type Associates]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Russell Talbot

Creator of Bevel Gothic (Photolettering). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Rutherford photo-lettering machine

This machine was developed in New Jersey from 1928 until 1936 for the banknote industry. It feartured master alphabets on glass plates, effectively stating the photo-lettering era. Peter Bain writes: Only a mere handful of the Rutherford machines had been sold and put into use. The Electrographic Corporation, then owner of one of New York City's leading typographers, decided to launch a start-up proposed and staffed by departing Rutherford employees, notably Edward Rondthaler and Harold Horman. The new midtown firm of Photo-Lettering Inc., starting in 1936, took advantage of the underutilized technology, and claimed an early commercialization of phototype. While not text photocomposition, Photo-Lettering was never handlettering as the name implied. Photography freed the typographic image from the historic constraints of metal, allowing flexibility in scale, dimension, and position, variations which had previously required letter-drawing skills. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Salahattin Kanidinc

Type designer who published at Photo-Lettering Inc. His creations include Boldsign, Germanic, Hallmark (connected script), Independent, Palette (a painter's font), and Studio Poptype (retro-futuristic). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Sally-Ann Grover

Type designer for Letraset, who made Block Up (1974, a blocky shaded 3d typeface) and Iguana (1970s, a tall 19-th century style slab serif typeface).

Harold Lohner revived Block Up in 2000. See also here. Salamandre (2012, Claude Pelltier) revived Iguana.

Klingspor link. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Sam Ardell

[More]  ⦿

Samuel Orvell

Designer at Photolettering of Narrative 4. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Samuel Winfield Tommy Thompson

New York-based letterer and type designer, b. 1906, Blue Point, NY, who was also known as "Tommy". [Some sources have 1905]. He had a studio in New York City and was the author of several books on type and lettering. He died in 1967 in New York. His oeuvre includes

  • Baltimore Script (1955). Matrices cut by George Battee. Mac McGrew: Baltimore Script is a fancy style designed by Tommy Thompson and cut by George Battee for Baltimore Type in 1955. The lowercase follows the general style of a script letter hand-written with a broad pen, although the inclination is slight and the letters don't quite connect. Capitals are flourished. It is suitable for stationery, announcements, and greeting cards, but its range of small sizes is hardly enough for advertising use.
  • Collier Heading. McGrew: Collier Heading was designed by Tommy Thompson in 1946 for Collier's magazine. It is an adaptation of an eighteenth-century style known generally as Grecian, and was cut by Monotype in a considerable range of sizes. Other Collier or Collier Heading types have turned up; one was designed by Tommy Thompson for Collier's magazine, but not identified otherwise. It was probably also cut by Monotype. One of these could possibly be the Bert Black mentioned previously.
  • Various weights of Futura (later digitized by URW).
  • Mademoiselle (1953, baltimore Type Foundry). Mac McGrew writes about Mademoiselle: Mademoiselle was designed by Tommy Thompson in 1953 as a display typeface for Mademoiselle magazine. It was cut by Herman Schnorr at Baltimore Type, which also offered fonts for general sale. It is a delicate, narrow modern roman, with long ascenders and short descenders, rather loosely fitted, and works well for display with transitional text faces such as Bulmer and Scotch Roman.
  • Post Headletter (1943). Privately cast for the Saturday Evening Post.
  • Thompson Quillscript (1953, ATF): a 50s version of a chancery hand. McGrew: Thompson Quillscript was designed by Tommy Thompson for ATF about 1952. It is an attractive cursive letter with the appearance of lettering with a broad pen. Letters slope moderately and are not joining. The general effect is less formal than most other such faces. Capitals are rather reserved, but a font of alternate characters, mostly more informal capitals, was available separately until 1968. Compare Heritage, Lydian Cursive, Park Avenue, Raleigh Cursive. This typeface made it to the PhotoLettering collection.
  • The following faces for Photo Lettering: Thompson Buccaneer Thompson Cable, Thompson Coliseum, Thompson Colonial Wide 8, Thompson English, Thompson Federal, Thompson Federal Italic, Thompson Federal Open, Thompson Georgian 2, Thompson Georgian Semi Condensed 2, Thompson Georgian 3, Thompson Georgian 4, Thompson Glasgow Italic 4, Thompson Gross Bold 9, Thompson Headline Casoni, Thompson Logotype, Thompson Pegasus Stencil, Thompson Penscript, Thompson Railway Stencil, Thompson Scribe, Thompson Stencil 8, Thompson Stencil 10, Thompson Trend Extra Cd 3.

Author of these books: The ABC of our Alphabet (1942, London), The Script Letter: Its Form, Construction, and Application (1939, New York), How to render roman letter forms (1946, New York), Basic layout design; a pattern for understanding the basic motifs in design and how to apply them to graphic art problems (1950, New York), Script Lettering for Artist (1969, New York). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Sandi Governale

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Governale Tempo (Plain, Open, Open & Shade) (1972). [Google] [More]  ⦿


This company evolved in 1983 from Dr Boeger Photosatz GmbH (est. ca. 1934). The timeline:

  • 1934: Marius Böger founded the first company to manufacture and market photocopying machines and reprographic devices.
  • 1950: Dr. Böger Duplomat Apparate GmbH was founded. Its objective is the production of diazo (blue-printing) machines, equipment for diffusion transfer processing and photographic reproduction.
  • 1955: One of the company's first innovative products comes onto the market, the first vertical reproduction camera.
  • 1958: Intercop, a Dr. Böger subsidiary, started marketing a range of rapid processing machines, vertical repro cameras and processors for proofs and offset plates.
  • 1969: Dr. Böger Photosatz was founded.
  • 1976-81: Dr. Böger Photosatz develops its Copytronic phototypesetter. This machine worked on the basis of an opto-mechanical principle, and was set out to compete with Berthold's Diatronic. Hundreds of fonts from the headline library were reworked to meet the needs of the new machines. Although a small number of around 10 machines could be built and sold in Germany and Switzerland, many technical problems with the new equipment drained the financial resources. Thus the Copytronic machine is withdrawn from the market. The company survives by producing its succesful reproduction cameras for Agfa Gevaert. After a few difficult years, Dr. Böger Photosatz sets out to develop its digital typesetting system called Scantext. The output device is a CRT-machine with a resolution of 1000 lines per cm. The Copytronic type library is digitized using a video camera with a typical resolution of 512 x 512 pixels to the em quad. Bernd Holthusen proudly describes it as the fastest type digitizing system in the world. From 1971 until the mid 1980s, it designed and manufactured a family of photolettering machines for headline typesetting and offered a library of more that 1000 film fonts for that application. These were popular under the brand name VISUTEK in the UK (In the rest of Europe they were labelled and sold as Copytype, a trademark by Dr. Böger Photosatz GmbH). Additionally they were the creators and makers of a wide range of process cameras and film processing systems marketed worldwide under the Agfa brand
  • 1981: The company produces the phototypesetting system Scantext 1000. By the beginning of 1985 around 750 Bodytypes were available for the Scantext system.
  • 1983: The company evolves into Scangraphic. More than 2000 fonts were digitised by the Scangraphic company under the personal supervision of Bernd Holthusen, principally by Volker Küster (1984-1989), Jelle Bosma (1988-1991) and Albert-Jan Pool (1987-1991). These fonts were produced originally for the proprietary "Scantext" CRT digital output device and subsequently for the Scangraphic family of laser imagesetters. Quoting Pool: By the time we had completed the Ikarus Database in order to be able to covert our headline fonts to Postscript, URW had finished its Type1 converter. Our first PostScript product was a Macintosh-CD Rom with the complete library of headline fonts (those with Sh in the name) on it. The fonts were released in Type1 format for the Macintosh environment starting in 1991.
  • 1984: Scangraphic starts working on its library of headline fonts, using a proprietary high resulution short vector format which enables output sizes up to 90 mm cap height. After developing its own digital outline font format, Scangraphic starts making use of URW's Ikarus technology to produce a library of headline fonts. As from 1989, Ikarus outlines were made to fit the metrics of the Scangraphic library of bodytype fonts in order to replace the proprietary pixel based font format by digital outlines. Thus the basis was laid for converting the complete library of headline and bodytype fonts into the PostScript Type1 format.
  • 1989: The owner/partners sold the business to the large German company Mannesmann AG (and the font collection is sometimes referred to as the Mannesmann-Scangraphic collection), becoming Mannesmann Scangraphic GmbH in Wedel near Hamburg.
  • 1994: Mannesmann breaks the umbilical chord and the company becomes Scangraphic Prepress Technology GmbH.
  • 2004: the company moves from Wedel/Hamburg to Seligenstadt, Germany. The company still operates on the European mainland making and selling high resolution film and plate imaging systems. The font department is no longer in operation.
  • End of 2004: Elsner&Flake buy the font collection, and start selling the fonts under the Elsner&Flake umbrella. The 2500-strong font collection has names that either have a suffix SB (for body types) or SH (for headline types, also called supertypes). Among the tens of examples, we find classics such as Jakob Erbar's Koloss SB.
  • 2006: Ulrich Stiehl publishes a document in which he discusses the collection of fonts. He reports clear correspondences with known font families, examples including Ad Grotesk (=Akzidenz-Grotesk by Berthold), Artscript No 1 (=Künstlerschreibschrift fett by Stempel/Linotype), Black (=Block by Berthold), Chinchilla (=Concorde by Berthold), Cyklop (=City by Berthold), Esquire (=Excelsior by Linotype), Europa Grotesk (=Helvetica by Linotype), Europa Grotesk No. 2 (=Neue Helvetica by Linotype), Flash (=Okay by Berthold), Freeborn (=Frutiger by Linotype), Gentleman (=Glypha by Linotype), Grotesk S (=Neuzeit Buch by Stempel), Madame (=Madison by Stempel), Matrix (=Melior by Linotype), October (=Optima by Linotype), Parlament (=Palatino by Linotype), Paxim (=Palatino by Linotype), September (=Sabon by Linotype), Synchron (=Syntax by Stempel), Vega (=Volkswagen VAG Rundschrift). There are also originals like Volker Küster's Today Sans Serif and Neue Luthersche Fraktur, Zapf Renaissance by Hermann Zapf, and Forlane by Jelle Bosma. Küster, Pool, Zapf and Bosma have nothing to do with the non-original fonts in the collection. The typophile community shrugs Stiehl's complaints off.
  • 2008: The Scangraphic collection can be bought at Elsner&Flake.

A technical discussion by Yves Peeters. MyFonts link. Link to Scangraphic PrePress Technology GmbH in Seligenstadt. Elsner&Flake shop. Home page.

View the Scangraphic typeface library. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

S.E. Norton

Designer of the paper-fold stencil typeface Norton Tape at Photo-Lettering. This typeface was digitized in 2012 by Kimberly Winder for PhotoLettering / House Industries.

He also created Norton Slpastick (a wood simulation face) at PhotoLettering Inc. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Seymour Chwast

Graphic designer born in New York in 1931. Worked with Milton Glaser at Push Pin Studios in New York from 1954. Many of his fonts were sold by Photo Lettering.

He designed

  • Chwast Buffalo Black Condensed (1981, Linotype). Not my favorite black-weight face, oddly serifed. Chwast Buffalo provided the inspiration for Lackawanna Weed (2007, Nick Curtis).
  • Artone (1968, PhotoLettering Inc: psychedelic lettering). Artone was digitized as Loose Caboose NF (2007, Nick Curtis). Iza W's Fofucha family (2007) is based on Chwast's work.
  • Blimp (1970, from issue c84 of Push Pin Graphic). Blimp was the inspiration for Weedy Beasties NF (2007, Nick Curtis) and Weedy Beastless NF (2007, Nick Curtis). See also this Pin Push poster by Alessandra Bautista (2013).
  • Film Sense (1969, Photolettering: with Milton Glaser). Revivals include Newsenseby Adrian Candela (2013).
  • In Ray Cruz's font Bouncing Checks Layers (2014), we find 40 fun hand-0drawn dingbats by Seymour Chwast.

FontShop link. Klingspor link. Linotype link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Shin Oka
[Daylight Fonts]

[More]  ⦿

Shirley Smith

Photo era designer of typefaces. These include the Photolettering fonts Gothica 3, 4 and 5, which are all semi-calligraphic sans designs with flaring. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Small Cap Graphics
[Holly Goldsmith]

Holly Goldsmith has a BA in Art from Brooklyn College. She worked first at (Mergenthaler) Linotype, then at Photo Lettering and World Typeface Center before moving to Los Angeles. In LA, she worked at Xerox's type design department for a few years before starting her own company, Small Cap Graphics, where she is engaged in both graphic design and custom type design, with clients such as Agfa Monotype, ITC, DsgnHaus, Disney Corporation and Margo Chase Design.

She designed Novella (1996, DsgnHaus: an Arts and Crafts font), ITC Bodoni Six (1994, with Jim Parkinson, Sumner Stone, Janice Fishman), ITC Bodoni Twelve (1994, with Sumner Stone, Jim Parkinson and Janice Fishman), ITC Bodoni Seventy-Two (1994, with Sumner Stone, Jim Parkinson, Janice Fishman), Bossa Nova MvB (at MvB Design), MVB Peccadillo (2002, with Alan Dague-Greene), Havergal (1994, Agfa), and ITC Vintage (1996, with Ilene Strizver).

At Bitstream, she designed Melanie, Liorah (2000, connected script), Hank, Missy, Ryan BT (2000, jungle font), Raven, Raven Evermore. She now runs Small Cap Graphics in Los Angeles.

Linotype link. FontShop link. Klingspor link.

View Holly Goldsmith's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

[Dan X. Solo]

Dover Press sold Oakland's Dan X. Solo's digitizations. Dan Solo (b. 1928, d. 2012) has collected over 13,000 sets of metal fonts, starting when he was 9 years old and growing up in Oakland, CA. Finally, in 2002, he stopped doing that and began converting all of his fonts to computer type. Solotype, his company, was established in Alameda, CA. He printed 30 books on fonts (with Dover), including The Solotype catalog of 4,147 display typefaces, and created hundreds of fonts. In 2007, Dan Solo retired from the font business. He died in 2012.

Robert Trogman writes: I know Dan X. Solo personally. He ran a typographic studio in Berkeley for over 30 years. He had a large collection of film fonts, including some of my own. He created thousands of fonts and is now retired and is an avocational prestigitator. Copyrights have run out on most of his fonts. He also protected himself by creating pseudonyms on the questionable font names. Stuart Sandler confirms that many of the fonts in Solo's Dover books are in fact from the Filmotype collection, which Stuart is digitizing right now.

Gene Gable writes: Dan Solo of Solotype in Berkeley was experimenting with photo type as early as 1945 and started doing optical special effects in the early '60s. And a number of the larger display-type shops developed their own techniques. But in terms of opening up new markets for display type (and giving designers more control over type setting), Visual Graphics and Letraset lead the way. These companies were proud of, and promoted, the fact that that their products could be used by non-typesetters with little training.

Bio. He wrote about himself: Dan X. Solo The Solotype Archive was begun in 1942 when I was 14. I was a kid printer for several years before that. At 16, after a quick three months of training, I dropped out of school and went to work full time as a radio actor and announcer in San Francisco. (Easy to get jobs in those days, due to the war-induced manpower shortage.) In 1949 and 1950, I created a magic show which played West Coast theatres with some success. After that, back to broadcasting. By 1962, I was completely burned out on radio, so I decided to see if I could make a living with my collection of antique types, which numbered about a thousand fonts at that time. In 1962, I sent out 4,000 catalogs showing the type to ad agencies all over the U.S. The timing was perfect (no thanks to me) because there was developing at that time a renewed interest in the old types. Business took off immediately. The Solotype collection was one of four commercial collections at the time, but I seemed to have been more aggressive in marketing than the other chaps. (Well, Morgan Press certainly knew how to market.) Two years into the business, I began to collect alphabets on paper for conversion to photo lettering, which was just becoming mainstream in the type business. We closed the shop for a month every year and went on a type hunt, mostly in Europe where there didn't seem to be much competition among collectors. Other typographers couldn't understand how we could do this, but I believe it made people appreciate the resource we offered even more. Over the years, the collection became quite large. When I closed Solotype a couple of years ago, I got rid of about half the archive (because the fonts were dull, or already digitized, or for a variety of other reasons) leaving me with about 6,000 fonts on paper or film. In 1974, I began to supply Dover Publications with mechanicals for books of 100 alphabets on a particular theme. I did 30 of these books over the years, and 30 more of printers' ornaments, borders, and so forth. Sometime in the 1990s, Dover asked me to digitize books of 24 fonts each, to be sold with a disk in the back. I did 12 of these. The Dover relationship came to an end when Haywood Cirker, the owner and my special friend, died and the company was sold to another publisher. Dover felt that they had covered the type field thoroughly. Now in my old age, my wife and I have a mindreading act that is great fun and good for the ego. Even so, when not traveling, I digitize type for relaxation and enjoyment, but have made no effort to sell it. Until now.

Solo's wood type/Western/ headline/ Victorian collection includes Acantha, Bindweed, Dime Museum (2004, a French Clarendon revived by ATF uin 1933 under the name P.T. Barnum), Egyptian Oldstyle, Excelsis, Extravaganza, Rigney, Assay, Baraboo Banner, Beijing, Brevet (after a Victorian typeface from 1887 by Ernst Lauschke), Brussels, Cathedral, Cleopatra, Cognac, Crossroads, Dainty Lady, Dangerfield, Diablo, Dutch Treat, Grecian, Lord Mayor, Malibu, Minnesota, Moulin Rouge, Penny Arcade (1992, a Victorian face after an 1890 oroginal called Mural by Boston Type Foundry), Trixie, Valerie, Valjean, and Zorro. Alaska is based on an 1890 design of Marder, Luse and co. Arcade imitates an 1888 design of Barnhart Brothers&Spindler. Bamboo (oriental simulation face) is based on a 1889 creation of Barnhart Brothers&Spindler. Behrens Antiqua and Behrens schrift are revival of early 20th century faces by Peter Behrens. Eccentric is a digitization of a 1898 arts and crafts typeface by Kingsley/ATF. Hansard is a revival of a display type published in 1887 by MacKellar, Smiths,&Jordan. Pekin is a digitization of a face, first designed by Ernst Lauschke in 1888 and issued by Barnhart Bros.&Spindler foundry in Chicago under the name Dormer, and revived by them in 1923 under the name Pekin. Charles Henry Beeler made a condensed sans serif issued by Mackellar, Smiths&Jordan foundry in 1887: it was digitally revived as Roundhead. Monument is a revival of a 1893 typeface by the Boston Type Foundry, but was also cast at the Central Type Foundry. Vienna Light is a delicate early 1900s type originally created by the German foundry of Schelter&Gieseke. Other designs: Bareback, Campaign (ca. 1970), Cigar Label (1997), Estienne, Farringdon (a western face), Goodfellow (digitization of wood type from 1895 found at Hamilton and probably due to W.H. Page), Harlem Text (blackletter), Houdini (ca. 1992), Memorial, Quadrille 2 (a simplified Tuscan face), Sparticus, Vanities (a Victorian type), Whirligig.

In 2005, MyFonts added Seminary (after a Victorian font from 1885 by Bruce Type Foundry), Margie (formal script based on Marggraff Bold Script by the Dresden foundry vormalig Brüder Butter, 1920s), Fancy Dan, Bamberg (2005, after a condensed wood type from ca. 1850), Fat Face No. 20, French Ionic (quite ugly--based on an 1870 Clarendon derivative by the Cincinnati Type Foundry), Hearst Italic (based on a 1904 typeface by Carl Schraubstadter of the Inland Type Foundry), Hearst Roman (based on a typeface from the Inland Type Foundry allegedly stolen from a hand lettering job done by Goudy, acccording to Goudy himself), Tally Text (early photolettering type of the comic book style), Welcome 1 (based on Van Loey-Nouri's art nouveau typeface from 1900). A list of some digitized fonts:

  • Art Deco: Advertisers Gothic Light, Alex, Beverly Hills, Boul Mich, Capone Light, Chic (after Morris Fuller Benton's Chic, 1927), Clyde, Eagle Bold, Eagle Narrow, Eden Bold, Eden Light, French Flash, Gallia, Graybar Book, Grock, Matra, Modernique (art deco), Parasol, Parisian, Phoenix American, Plaza Suite, Publicity Gothic, Salut, Stymie Obelisk, Zeppelin.
  • Victorian: Anglo, Arboret, Campanile, Chorus Girl, Fancy Celtic, Ferdinand, Floral Latin, Glorietta, Grant Antique, Gutenberg, Hogarth, Jagged, Katherine Bold, Lafayette, Meisteringer, Olympian, Phidian, Ringlet (1998, a Victorian typeface after an 1882 original by Hermann Ihlenburg), Romanesque, Rubens, Stereopticon, Templar, Wedlock, Zinco.
  • Script/Cursive: Amapola, Artists Script, Carpenters Script, Certificate Script, Commercial Script, Conway (an architectural script), Elegance, Engrossing Script, Figaro, Flare, Gloria Script, Hanover, Helvetica Cursive, Holly, Kunsteler Bold, Liberty, Manuscript, Orion Script, Pantagraph Script (+No2, +No3), Park Avenue, Romany Script, Trafton Script, Typo Upright, University Script, Virginia Antique.
  • Art Nouveau: Ambrosia, Argus, Artistik, Auriol, Baldur, Bocklin, Cabaret (2003, as in Murder She Wrote), Carmen, Childs, Edda Black, Excelsior, Francomia, Giraldon, Harrington, Isadora, Metropolitan, Murillo, Oceana, Odessa, Orbit Antique, Palmetto (2005; an art nouveau typeface based on a 1887 typeface called Palm from the A.D. Farmer Foundry), Siegfried, Skjald, Spartana, Titania.
  • Gothic/Medieval: Academy Text, American Uncial, Antique Black, Becker Bold, Bradley, Castlemar, Celebration Text Fancy, Church Text, Engravers Old English, Frederick Text, Freehand, Hingham Text, Initials-Bradley and Caxton, Kanzlei Light, Lautenbach, Lautenbach Fancy Caps, Libra, Morris Black, Nicholini Broadpen, Rhapsodie Swash Caps, Scottford Uncial, Solemnis, Washington Text, Wedding Text.
  • Celtic: Anglo Text, Camden Text, Chappel Text, Cimbrian, Colchester Black, Durer Gothic, Durwent, Fenwick, Genzsch Initials, Gloucester Initials, Gutenberg Gothic, Hansa Gothic, Harrowgate, Kaiser Gothic, Kings Cross, Konisburg, Malvern, Medici Text, Middlesex, Progressive Text, Tudor Text, Warwick, Westminster Gothic, Yonkers.
  • Special-Effects Display Fonts: Azteca Condensed, Buddha (oriental simulation face, after a Schelter&Giesecke type), Burst, Campaign (1970), Chinatown (oriental simulation), Cigar Label (1997-2002), Colonial Dame, Contract Banner (2004, a take on Mezzotint from 1880), Direction, Fillet, Filmstar (1999), Firebug, Headhunter, Hollywood Lights, Igloo Solid, Import, Lariat, Needlepoint, Old Glory, Protest, Rustic, Scimitar (Arabic simulation face), Scoreboard, Skyline, Starburst, Sundown Shadow, Tableau, Tonight, Xerxes.
  • Other: Acantha, Assay, Baraboo Banner, Beijing, Bindweed, Brevet (after a Victorian original by Ernst Laushke, 1887), Brussels, Cathedral, Cleopatra, Cognac, Crossroads, Dainty Lady, Dangerfield, Diablo, Dime Museum, Dutch Treat, Egyptian Oldstyle, Excelsis, Extravaganza, Grecian, Lord Mayor, Malibu, Minnesota, Moulin Rouge, Penny Arcade, Rigney, Trixie, Valerie, Zorro.

Images of selected typefaces: Agency Gothic, Alpha Midnight, Alpha Twilight, Anita Lightface (1977), Art Deco Display Alphabets, Ashley Crawford, Ashley Inline, Astur, Bamberg, Banco, Beans, Blackline, Bobo Bold, Braggadocio, Broadway Engraved, Busorama Bold, Busorama Light, Bust, Charger, Checkmate, Colonel Hoople, Corral, Dudley P Narrow, Dynamo, Earth 9a futuristic / prismatic typeface revived by nick Curtis in 2015 as Terranova NF), Eclipse, Empire, Ewie, Fat Cat, Fatso, Festival, Futura Black, Futura Inline, Gillies Gothic Bold, Greeting Monotone, Grooviest Gothic, Hess Neobold, Hotline, Huxley Vertical, Inkwell Black, Joanna Solotype, Joyce Black, Koloss, Lampoon, Mania, Mania Contour A, Mania Contour B, Margit, Mindy Highlight, Modernistic, Monograms Stencil, Mossman, Neon, Neuland (+Inline), Phosphor, Piccadilly, Pickfair, Polly, Prismania P, Quote, Rhythm Bold, Shady Deal, Sheet Steel, Sinaloa.

The Solotype Catalog is a file with information on Dan Solo's typefaces, annotated with remarks about name equivalences and digitizations. The original file was due to Thibaudeau, but typophiles on alt.binaries.fonts have added to it in 2010. PDF version. Excel version. Text version. See also here.

View Dan Solo's typefaces. Another page on Solotype. Dan Solo's typefaces listed in decreasing order of popularity. View Dan Solo's typefaces. View Dan Solo's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Spyros DellaPortas

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Beads (1975). There is a person by that name running the Palm Motel in Santa Monica, CA, but I cannot say for sure if that is him. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Stan Biggenden

American letter designer who created Orbit-B (1972, VGC), an LED font, now digitized by Bitstream as Orbit-B BT. FontShop link. Zach Whalen on Orbit-B: Orbit-B is less common than either Moore Computer or Data 70, possibly because its MICR influence is more subtle and less arbitrarily intrusive, but it still appears frequently in and around videogames and in contexts where some intimacy is suggested between humans and computers. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Stanley Davis

Graduate of The Cooper Union, who was born in Brooklyn in 1938. He taught at The Newark School of Fine Arts and was art director at L. W. Frohlich in New York. Stan lives in Saugerties, NY.

Designer of Stan Free (VGC, 1973) and the liquid font Amelia (1965, Visual Graphics Corporation). Amelia was later "stolen" by Bitstream and Linotype. Here is what Stan wrote: Bitstream and Linotype have stolen my "Amelia" font (their renditions of it are pathetic). My digitized version of Amelia and other fonts I designed are available at: highwoods@hvc.rr.com.

Bio at Linotype. MyFonts site.

FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Steve Zafarana
[Tail Spin Studio]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Stuart Sandler
[Font Diner (or: Stu's Font Diner)]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Studio Hollenstein
[Albert Hollenstein]

Albert Hollenstein is a Swiss type designer, b. Luzern, 1930, d. Vernazza, 1974. He ran Studio Hollenstein, which specialized in photographic display typefaces. It closed ca. 1978.

Hollenstein designed Pointille (1975, VGC), Siris (Hollenstein Phototypo, 1972), Tivi (Hollenstein Phototypo, 1968), Brasilia (ABM Hollenstein, 1960, with Albert Boton), Primavera (ABM Hollenstein, 1963, with Albert Boton), Rialto (ABM Hollenstein, 1960, with Albert Boton). With Albert Boton, he designed ITC Eras (1976). ITC Eras was copied by many: Ennis (Infinitype), E820 Sans (Softmaker), Incised 726 (Bitstream), ER (itek), Erie (Corel).

Catalog of the serif faces at Hollenstein Phototypo. Hommage by Peter Gabor. FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Sylvester A. Cypress

Designer of the phototype typefaces Montauk (Headliners, a script font) and Polaris (Headliners). Those typefaces can be found in digital format in Joe Treacy's Treacyfaces collection. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Tail Spin Studio
[Steve Zafarana]

Steve Zafarana (b. 1951, Wakefield, MA) Steve began his professional design career at Compugraphic in 1977 where over the next seven years he assisted in the production of their phototype library. In 1984, he moved to Bitstream and helped in the development of that early digital font library, which included standard and custom fonts. In 1994, Steve and four other designers founded the Galapagos Design Group. In 2001, he returned to Bitstream as the graphic designer for the two subsidiaries, MyFonts.com and Pageflex Inc. His studio is Tail Spin Studio (est. 1999, Norwood, MA). His fonts are available from MyFonts.

Steva Zafarana's type designs include


FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

[Sam Ardell]

Foundry in the film type era, est. in the late 1940s by Sam Ardell. Its 1957 catalog shows 408 film types and its 1967 catalog has 1016 typefaces. Some of these types are missing from their 1984 catalog. Peter Bain (Incipit) bought the remaining typefaces in 1994, and they are now in Bain's Incipit collection. [Google] [More]  ⦿


Foundry from the phototype days. [Google] [More]  ⦿

That 70's Type
[Gene Gable]

In 2007, Gene Gable wrote this article for Creative Pro, summarizing the type scene in the 1970s. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Thomas Abold

At H. Berthold AG, Thomas Abold published the phototype typeface Abold (1972). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Thomas J. Nevison

Creator (b. 1938) of Nevison Casual Script (1965, VGC), which now exists in digital form as Nevison Casual EF. Some call the typeface Nevision. FontShop link. Klingspor link. Linotype link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Thomas W. Lincoln

Graphic designer and lettering artist, born in 1939 in Eugene, OR. He studied with Douglas Lynch at the Museum Art School in Portland and later apprenticed with Lynch. Lincoln studied calligraphy with Lloyd Reynolds and Arnold Bank at Reed College. After a stint as an agency art director producing national ads for Pendletons womens fashions, Lincoln moved to New York City, where he joined the studio of Herb Lubalin. In NYC he continued his involvement with academia, exploring film at The New School and an intensive workshop with Milton Glaser. Eventually Lincoln started his own studio (occupying the space on east 32nd Street where New York Magazine was born), combining a design practice with teaching at New Yorks School of Visual Arts. Lincoln has served as Art Director at TCA (Benton & Bowles) in Westport, CT, as Creative Director, Redington, Inc., Stamford, CT, as Principal, Thomas Lincoln Design & Motion Graphics Communication, Westport, CT, as Freelance in residence Art Director, Baden & Co., Eugene, OR, and in 1992 returned to consulting and design through his own design office, Lincoln Design, based in Eugene/Springfield, OR.

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Lincoln Gothic (1965), which won the National Typeface Competition. His clients over the years include Acoustic Sciences Corporation, AT&T, Continental Packaging Co., The Ford Foundation, GE, IBM, PepsiCo, RCA, Showtime, Abrams, Colliers, Harpers Magazine, Macmillan, McGraw-Hill, Random House, Harcourt/ Brace, New York Times, Simon and Schuster, and Viking Press.

In 2006, Bitstream published New Lincoln Gothic, a 24-weight family starting with a hairline weight. This digital version was made in Fontographer from the old typositor strips by Lincoln himself.

In 2011, Canada Type and Thomas Lincoln cooperated in the production of the roman sans family Roma. This typeface was published in 2012 at P22. Lincoln himself tells the story:

My intention in designing Roma was to create a definitive, contemporary sans serif expression of the classic Roman majuscule as depicted in the Trajan Inscription at the base of the Trajan Column in Rome.

The Capitalis Monumentalis letter forms of the Trajan Inscription, which date to 113 Ad, have been described by the noted type scholar, calligrapher and historian, Father Edward Catich, as "the best roman letter designed in the western world, and the one which most nearly approaches the alphabetic ideal." And in the 1902 publication, "The Practice of Typography", Edmund F. Strange stated: "No single designer, or the aggregate influence of all the generations since has been able to alter the form, add to the legibility, or improve the proportion of any single letter there in."

Mr. Strange's pronouncement was true in 1902 and it is true today. Through the years various type designers have been inspired by the Trajan Roman to offer their own interpretations. Most notably, perhaps, Frederick Goudy's Trajan Title (1930), Warren Chappell's Linotype Trajanus (1940) and more recently, Carol Twombly's literal rendition of Adobe Trajan (1989) and John Stevens' spirited Stevens Titling (2011). There have been many other nice interpretations by other contemporary designers, yet it may still be said that none has improved the form, the legibility or the proportion of any single letter---though it can be said that the letters J, K, U, W, Y and Z, nonexistent in the ancient alphabet, have been added.

Less common has been the interpretation of Trajan in sans serif form. Hermann Zapf's Optima (1953), Sumner Stone's ITC Stone (1987) and Ronald Arnholm's Legacy Sans (2000), among other nice sans serifs, reflect characteristics of Trajan but seem influenced by other factors as well, including fonts such as Gill Sans and Syntax. And, while I don't presume to speak for their designers, none of these typefaces seem designed specifically with Trajan in mind.

My own Lincoln Gothic (1965), and its subsequent expansion as New Lincoln Gothic (2006), was a deliberate attempt to interpret the particular characteristics of the Trajan majuscule in a contemporary sans serif face. The most significant change in the later version was the addition of a lower case; a challenge that had simmered on my personal bucket list for several years.

Roma, though, differs from Lincoln Gothic in one significant way: while the terminals of Lincoln Gothic are flat, in Roma the vertices of letters such as A,M,N,V and Z are pointed. I believe this change is the critical difference that moves Roma closer to my objective of honoring the original Trajan. As with Lincoln Gothic, Roma's strokes have an almost imperceptible entasis that terminate in a subtle flare; a vestige of the serif. The importance of this feature is that it imbues the font with a humanist quality. The serif, as Father Catich points out in his book, "The Origin of The Serif", almost certainly derives from a combination of the flat brush and the human hand; it is what ties the letterform directly to human anatomy and craftsmanship, integrating it in a fundamental way with the nature of man---as distinct from the machine.

Klingspor link. FontShop link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Tom Carnase

Type designer Thomas Paul Carnase was born in The Bronx, New York City in 1939. He graduated from New York City Community College in 1959. Carnase started making fonts in the photolettering era, and lived through the transition to digital. In the 1960s, he opens the studio Bonder & Carnase Inc. From 1969 until 1979, he is vice-president and partner of the agency Lubalin, Smith, Carnase Inc. In 1979, he founds the Carnase Computer Typography studio. In 1980, Carnase becomes co-founder and president of the World Typeface Center Inc., an independent type design agency. He manages the in-house magazine Ligature published by the World Typeface Center from 1982 to 1987. Besides type design, Carnase has designed graphics for packaging, exhibitions, corporate identities and logos for numerous clients, including ABC, CBS, Coca-Cola, CondéNast Publications, Doubleday Publishing and NBC. He has held teaching positions at the University of Cincinnati in Ohio, the Pratt Institute in New York, the Herron School of Art in Indiana, the Parson's School of Design in New York, the Cleveland Institute of Art in Ohio, the University of Monterrey in Mexico, and the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York, among others. His fonts include:

  • Fonts at WTC: WTC Carnase Text, WTC Favrile (1985), WTC Goudy (sold by URW++), WTC Our Bodoni (with Massimo Vignelli), WTC Our Futura, WTC 145. Clones of Favrile abound: OPTI Favrile (Castcraft), Fascinate (NovelFonts), Francois (Serials).
  • At LSC (LSC stands for Lubalin Smith Carnase Inc, an agency he co-ran in the 70s), he created a number of typefaces such as LSC Book, LSC Condensed and LSC Caslon No. 223.
  • ITC Busorama, a geometric titling typeface that started with an ad for a bus company. Busorama, despite its innate ugliness, has been copied tens of times. Nick Curtis managed to turn it into an art deco typeface in 1999 with his Ritzy Normal.
  • With Herb Lubalin, he designed L&C Hairline (ca. 1966, VGC) and L&C Stymie Hairline (1973, VGC).
  • At ITC: ITC Manhattan (1970), ITC Avant Garde Gothic (with Herb Lubalin and Ed Benguiat, 1970), ITC Bolt Bold (with Ronne Bonder, 1970), ITC Gorilla (with Ronne Bonder, 1970), ITC Grizzly (with Ronne Bonder, 1970), ITC Grouch (with Ronne Bonder, 1970: this didone headline typeface was mimicked and extended in 2011 by Tomi Haaparanta as Grumpy Black), ITC Machine (with Ronne Bonder, 1970), ITC Pioneer (with Ronne Bonder, 1970), ITC Ronda (with Ronne Bonder, 1970), ITC Tom's Roman (with Ronne Bonder, 1970), ITC Fat Face Western, ITC Pioneer No. 2, ITC Honda, ITC Didi (a high contrast didone revived in 2013 by Jason Anthony Walcott as Domani CP), ITC Bernase Roman, and Milano (with Ronne Bonder).
  • L'Eggs, ca. 1969. A custom font for a line of hosiery to be called L'eggs by designer Roger Ferriter and Tom Carnase.
Author of Type: the best in digital classic text fonts (1995, Graphis, with Baruch Gorkin), about which Hrant Papazian writes: I just went through the Carnase/Gorkin book - I'd forgotten how lousy it is---please don't buy it.

FontShop link. Klingspor link.

View Tom Carnase's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Tom Hollingsworth

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Informal Gothic (1965). Informal Gothic was digitized and expanded by Patrick Griffin (Canada Type) in 2007 as Social Gothic. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Tony Mayers
[ABC Types (was: Absolutetype)]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Tony Stan

New York-based type designer at ITC, 1917-1988. Tony Stan did a version of Jean Jannon's Garamond (ITC Garamond, 1977). Other faces: ITC American Typewriter (1974, with Joel Kaden), ITC Garamond (1977), ITC Cheltenham (1975-1978), ITC Cheltenham Handtooled (with Ed Benguiat), ITC Century (1980), ITC Berkeley Old Style (1983, a Venetian typeface), Pasquale, Ap-Ap.

About ITC Garamond, Andreas Seidel writes: That one is a modern recreation that in my view breathes much of the 1970s feel and is generally considered the least historical "Garamond". The high x-height does not improve readability, as you will have to adjust the line-spacing accordingly. The Garamond wiki is equally negative about ITC Garamond. Happy (2005, Canada Type, Patrick Griffin) is the digital version of one the most whimsical takes on typewriters ever made, an early 1970s Tony Stan film type called Ap-Ap. Some of the original characters were replaced with more fitting ones, but the original ones are still accessible as alternates within the font. We also made italics and bolds to make you Happy-er (quote by Canada Type).

The 1975 revival of Cheltenham by Goodhue (1896) and later by Morris Fuller Benton, resulted in a Cheltenham with increased x-height. Not everyone was pleased with that.

Digital versions of ITC Berkeley Oldstyle besides that of ITC include University Oldstyle (SoftMaker), Californian (Font Bureau), B695 Roman (SoftMaker) and Venetian 519 (Bitstream).

Linotype link. FontShop link. Klingspor link.

View Tony Stan's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Tony Wenman

Designer of Stripes (1972, Letraset, a multiline face), Bottleneck (Scangraphic, 1972, a psychedelic face), Camellia (1972, a thin round face, in digital form at Elsner&Flake, or at URW, where it is called Camellia D (1994)), Buster (3d display typeface with shadows; see Buster EF).

Fontshop link. Linotype link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Trevor Hatchett

Harold Lohner made Good Vibes (2001, based on the analog multiline font Good Vibrations by Trevor Hatchett for Letraset, 1973) and GoodVibesBackbeat (2001). Characters are broken up with tens of vertical lines to achieve an old B/W TV screen effect. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Type Associates
[Russell Bean]

Russell Bean (Type Associates of Pyrmont, Australia, est. 1993) is an Australian type designer (b. Parkes, NSW, 1947). He worked in many ad agencies and later in the studios of the local photolettering houses, redrawing typefaces for filmfont setting as well as hand-composing headlines using photo-mechanical devices.

In the early seventies, he designed a five-weight Ac=vant-Gardish family named Virginia (now also digitized).

He then worked for the Los Angeles studio of Lettergraphics International in charge of lettering, logo design and converting type designs to film fonts. It was at this time (1973) that the Washington Family was completed. Upon his return to Australia that year, he teamed up with a long time colleague to form a design and art group in Sydney.

Russell has been responsible for the creation of many Australian icons, including the Qantas logo. Russell Bean has served on the executive committees of The Australian Type Directors' Club and Australian Graphic Design Association.

Typefaces available from MyFonts include Bougainville (1994-2005, a condensed sans family), Fremantle (1994), Beanwood Script (1997, a calligraphic script codesigned with David Wood), Craigie Halpen, Eumundi Sans [also available in the Agfa Creative Alliance], Eumundi Serif, Linear, Melissa, Rhodamine Blue, Sanguine (2004, handwriting), Semaphone (brush writing), Washington (1973, art deco family--really nice geometric letterforms with at least one hairline weight), and Xaltier.

He designed ITC Christoph's Quill (2004), Billabong (2006, 1950s handlettering), Charleston Caps (2007, art deco) and the comic book lettering typeface Rhapsodie (2006).

In 2007, he added the Threepoints East, North and West sans faces.

About the Avant-Garde-style geometric sans family Virginia (2008), Bean writes: she was the most popular headline typeface around, at least in my home town in the year of her release circa 1970. That was the year my five-weight design won the inaugural (and only) Lettergraphics International Alphabet design competition and shut out 5000 competitors. Alas, Lettergraphics ceased to trade from its LA studios after the mid-80s and Virginia's two-inch film fonts were left to collect dust on the cutting room floor.

The Koomerang family and Karmel (flare-legged retro display) were added in 2008.

In 2009, Bean created Comp Sans 226, Argyle Rough, Empirical (12-style DIN-like sans family), Dotmap (pixel family) and Macquarie Heavy.

In 2010, he made the poster signage typeface Hangtime.

In 2013, he published the hand-printed typeface famiy Progeny.

He is associated with Keith Morris in the typefoundry Bean & Morris.

FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Type Labo
[Yutaka Satoh]

Tokyo-based designer of Paper Clip (1982, VGC) (or I think it is Yutaka, at least). Information-rich web page of Yutaka Satoh, one of the leading independent type designers in Japan. Includes samples of his original fonts. Currently, Japanese only. The hiragana fonts Bokutoh99 and Bokutoh Kuzure may be bought through Font Pavilion.

He started Type Labo. The kana/kanji fonts include Osirase, Kekkon, Hikkosi, Akachan, Dohmo, Tanjohbi, Akemasi, Otohsan, Okahsan, Spring, Summer, Bonus, CVhrist, Bargain, Crear, Birthday, Open, Discount, BokutohKuzure-UH, Bokutoh99-UH, Bokutoh99-UK, BokutohKuzure-UK (1998), Hanpu, Hanpuanito. Free font link page. Links to his pay fonts (Japanese and Latin).

Old link. Another old URL. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Typeface Research Pty Ltd
[Harry C. Pears]

Australian Harry Pears (b. The Quirindi, Australia) is a veteran of the type world. He started his career as a colour camera operator and then as a phototypesetter. He started marketing digital typefaces in Australia, and has designed a few fonts himself. Creator in 2001 of the Celtic look family Lindisfarne Nova (with calligrapher Margaret Layson) at Bitstream (this includes Lindisfarne Nova Incised and Lindisfarne Runes).

Harry is the owner of Typeface Research Pty. Ltd. of Lake Cathie, Australia. Author of Decorate with Type An encyclopedia of decorative and novelty fonts (2011), in which he proposes a new categorization of decorative types.

MyFonts link. Bio at Bitstream. FontShop link. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

[David Moore]

Type foundry that was active during the photo composition era. Creators of typefaces at VGC, such as Moore Computer (1968, an LED face) and TH Alphabet Soup (1975, a VAG Rounded style face). Now, Moore Computer and Moore Swash are both attributed to David Moore. Zach Whalen on Moore Computer: The minimal aesthetic properties of E-13B saw extended influence in a number of type designs created in the late sixties and early seventies, and many of these MICR-based faces saw extensive use in relation to videogames. The typesetting and printing industries were undergoing rapid and dramatic changes during this period, adapting to new technologies like photo- and CRT-based compositors, so a number of companies and design studies were going out of business or changing hands. In addition, the decorative typefaces echoing the style of E-13B were often seen as novelty products, so records about several of these typefaces and fonts are cursory may be unreliable. Nevertheless, the evidence indicates that the first full alphabet based on E-13B was a font called Moore Computer, published by the Visual Graphics Corporation (VGC), possibly as early as 1968. [Google] [More]  ⦿

TypeManufactur (was: GST Georg Salden Typedesign)
[Georg Salden]

Born in Essen, Germany, in 1930, Georg Salden is the nephew of Helmut Salden (1910-1996), a book and font designer in the Netherlands and a resistance fighter against Hitler.

From 1950 until 1954, Georg studied advertising design at the Folkwang School in Essen (1950-1954). Later, he taught typography for five years at Folkwang. Until 1971, he was a freelance graphic designer specializing in typography and calligraphy.

In 1966, he received an award in the international VGC competition in New York for the headline typeface York. He completed three fat weights of York (VGC) and four heavy weightys of Angular (VGC) before 1973.

At Berthold AG in Berlin, he completed the phototypes Transit in 1969 and Daphne in 1970.

From 1971 onwards, he cooperated with six German and 24 international foundries, producing about ten fonts per year, under the name GST (Georg Salden Types) and later Context-GmbH. For example, he did 35 fonts for Fototransit. Between 1972 and 1984, he created these typefaces: Aster 4.2, Polo (7 styles), Bilbao, Caslon (4 styles), Basta (5 styles), Stresemann (8 styles), Parabella, Mäander, Brasil (8 styles), Magnet, Hansa, Bonjour, Tandem, Futuranea (a rounded set of 18 styles; royalties for the name were paid to Bauersche Giesserei), Congress (6 styles), Ready, Salut, Loreley (4 styles), Loretta (4 styles), Gordon (7 styles), Volante, Tap (3 styles), Sketchy (4 styles), Gallopp, 1 Videon, Deutschkurrent, Corvey (2 styles), Klicker and Dalli (2 styles).

In 1977, he converted some of his headline faces into text fonts for the Diatronic, spending a lot of time on the kerning tables.

Before 1988, he drew Basta, Polo, Tap, Turbo, Gordon, Brasil, and Dalli. These were digitized by hand between 1989 and 1992 on the Ikarus system. The families were also expanded. For example, just for Polo, we have these styles: 11, 22, 66, 77, G, Fino, schmal, eng, extracondensed, kyrillisch and griechisch, with old style and lining figures in both Mac PostScript and PC truetype formats. New typefaces in this productive period include Carree, Axiom, Votum, Zitat, Rolls, Essenz, Planet, Trigon, and Deutschkurrent. Videon got four new heavy weights, and Daphne was redesigned for use as a text typeface.

In 2003, he set up Typemanufactur which he managed until 2008 with Daniel Resing and Tanja Link. Typemanufactur sold the GST typeface library. In 2009, Ludwig Uebele took over this company by himself. He takes care of the web presence, the font licensing, web font production, opentype production and all managerial aspects. After the end of all contracts with VGC, Berthold AG and GST/Context GmbH, all rights of the font collection belong to Georg himself.

Nowadays, he is critical of the lack of quality in recently designed typefaces. In FontBlog, we find a discussion of the Polo vs. Meta controversy, in German, with a reply by Erik Spiekermann who says that his FF Meta was influenced by many types, not just Polo, but also Syntax, News Gothic and Akzidenz Grotesk. The success of Polo reaches beyond FF Meta. For example, Walter Brendel's Glasgow Serial is also based on Polo. Typophile discussion.

Also noteworthy is Georg's success in the removal of Revis (2011, Coen Hofmann, URW) from the URW library as it was judged too close to Daphne.

Scans and technical discussions of some of his typefaces:

In 1993, Benjamin Kempas made a 12-minute documentary ion Georg Salden's life and work entitled Der Schriftgelehrte.

Behance link. Fontshop link. Klingspor link. Bio. Wikipedia link. What A Character is a web site dedicated to Salden's fonts. [Google] [More]  ⦿

TypeShop Collection
[Walter Florenz Brendel]

The TypeShop collection was at some point, ca. 2006, part of Elsner&Flake, and its fonts could be licensed via MyFonts. Elsner&Flake provided the history behind this collection and its developer, Brendel: The originator of the big TypeShop Font Collection was Walter Florenz Brendel (1930-1992). As far back as 1972 he had the idea of an electonic and digital system for typeface plotting and cutting as well as automatic modification and reproduction. Before 1972 when type users demanded their type color to be a little lighter or little darker, Brendel as the owner of over 28 typeshops across Europe employing about 600 people, could not meet their demands with the existing typefaces. Consequently he developed a method to satisfy their needs. Brendel was the originator of the concept and the contributor and partner in the development of IKARUS by Dr. Peter Karow. He cut typefaces based on mathematical increments that would allow type weights to be graduated in equal steps. Thanks to his perfectionism, type users can have the luxury of choosing a specific type weight out of seven from as many as 65 font-families in the TypeShop Collection. Mr. Brendel was an accomplished professional type designer. Lingwood, Montreal, Volkswagen, Derringer and Casablanca and many more were his creations. He was a design collaborator for Congress, Litera, Worchester and others. Today all of this fonts complete with a Euro currency symbol are available in four font formats including OpenType.

That view of Brendel is perhaps not held by most type designers, who regard Brendel's collection as highly derivative.

Albert-Jan Pool: Walter Brendel (1933-1992) was the founder of Brendel Informatik, Brendel & Pabst and the Type Shop group of phototypesetting houses. He also co-founded the European Typeface Corporation (ETC) which was connected with Typo Bach, another group of phototypesetting houses. Brendel's Serials were based on existing typeface designs, which had typically been made fit for creating a range of 7 weights from extra light to extra bold by interpolation. The Serials Typeface Collection used to be exclusively available through Brendel's Type Shops, Typo Bach and others. The German type designer Georg Salden created another range of exclusive typefaces, they were only available through the GST group of typesetting houses. Similar to Brendel's Type Shops and Adrian William's Club Type, the GST group also tried to enforce customer loyalty by offering typefaces that were exclusive to their group. As all of these typesetting houses worked for the same advertising agencies, their typeface libraries show many similarities. Some of these similarities were created on purpose, some of them not. Some of them are just copies, some of them are re-engineered designs, some of them are adaptations of existing designs, some of them are originals.

Elsewhere, Elsner&Flake write: Brendel ordered the development of exclusive phototypesetting typefaces in the 70s and the beginning of the 80s for the phototypesetter he himself built, Unitype, which had their basis partially in historical but also in contemporary designs.

For what it is worth, here are the font family names: Volkswagen TS, Clear Gothic TS, Franklin Gothic TS, Old Baskerville TS, Accolade TS, Baskerville TS, Belfast TS, Bernstein TS, Bodoni TS, Broadway TS, Casablanca TS, Casad TS, Castle TS, Colonel TS, Clearface TS, Congress TS, Denver TS, Derringer TS, Diamante TS, Digital TS (square gothic), Dragon TS, Enschede TS, Expressa TS, Florida TS, Formula TS, Garamond TS, Gascogne TS, Glasgow TS, Goudita TS, Goudy TS, Granada TS, Grenoble TS, Hamburg TS, Helium TS, Hoboken TS, Horsham TS, Koblenz TS, Leamington TS, le Asterix TS, Le Obelix TS, Limerick TS, Lingwood TS, Litera TS, Media TS, Melbourne TS, Montreal TS, Napoli TS, Nashville TS, Nevada TS, Ornitons TS, Pasadena TS, Penthouse TS, Plakette TS, Plymouth TS, Priamos TS, Quartz TS, Ragtime TS, Ravenna TS, Riccione TS, Rochester TS, Roundest TS, Salzburg TS, Seagull TS, Toledo TS, Veracruz TS, Verona TS, Wichita TS, Worchester TS.

Name equivalences between the TypeShop collection and other fonts.

View TypeShop's library of typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

[Krzysztof Kochnowicz]

TYPO, or Sign and Typography Studio in English, was founded by Krzysztof Kochnowicz, b. 1955. Kochnowicz started teaching in 1989 at the State College of Fine Arts (now Academy of Fine Arts) in Poznan, Poland. His typefaces include Sylwia (a modern serif), Corner (pixelish), Jeweler (3d face), and Pricker. He created Mecanorma Anatol, a futuristic-looking stencil face. MyFonts link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Typoart GmbH (or: VEB Typoart)
[Jay Rutherford]

Dresden (East Germany)-based font studio that evolved from the former East German centralized press, VEB Typoart. VEB Typoart operated from 1948 until 1989, when it was renamed Typoart GmbH. Typoart GmbH dissolved mysteriously in 1995. MyFonts catalog of digitizations. Timeline as provided by Typoart-Freunde, a project of Jay Rutherford at the Bauhaus University in Weimar (and published in 2007 in a book by the same title, Heinz Wohlers Verlag, Harrlach):

  • 1945: Schriftguß KG (before that, Gebr. Butter) produces type again.
  • 1946: Schelter&Giesecke in Leipzig becomes VEB Druckmaschinenwerk Leipzig.
  • 1948: Schriftguß KG becomes VEB Schriftguß Dresden. This is the true start of Typoart.
  • 1951: the foundry section of VEB Druckmaschinenwerk Leipzig is absorbed by the VEB Schrifguß Dresden. Herbert Thannhaeuser becomes art director. We see the name Typoart.
  • 1952: Herbert Thannhaeuser publishes Papier und Druck, and creates Meister-Antiquq and Technotype.
  • 1957: Typoart is in full production now. An eyecatcher is Albert Kapr's Leipziger Antiqua.
  • 1958: Thannhaeuser publishes his Liberta Antiqua and Garamond Antiqua. The Party decides that all private industrial property now belongs to the state.
  • 1961: Typoart absorbs Ludwig Wagner KG in Leipzig and Norddeutsche Schriftgießerei Berlin. The Berlin wall is built.
  • 1962: There is some negative press about Typoart's domination by Thannhaeuser's designs. VEB Typoart is absorbed by Vereinigung Volkseigener Betrieb (VVB) Polygrafische Industrie.
  • 1963: Thannhaeuser dies. Albert Kapr becomes art director.
  • 1965: The annual production reaches 4,5 million matrices. Purchase of the Digiset machine, built by Firma hell in Kiel, which is the first machine for electronic typesetting.
  • 1967: Sabon Antiqua appears.
  • 1970: Typoart is now owned by SED. In the DDR, all phototype printing is now done in Berlin, Leipzig and Dresden.
  • 1971: Typoart is now producing its own phototype for the Linotron 505. Their prime productions include Maxima (by Karl-Heinz Lange; based on Gert Wunderlich's Linear-Antiqua) and Prillwitz-Antiqua (Albert Kapr).
  • 1973: Albert Kapr publishes Typoart-Typenkunst, in which 19 typefaces are showcased.
  • 1976: Phototype fonts are developed for Diatype, Diacomp (such as Maxima, Liberta, Garamond-Antiqua, Tschörtner-Antiqua, Leipziger-Antiqua), and 2NFA (Russian). Detlef Schäfer becomes head of research and development.
  • 1977: To help with the digital transition, Norbert du Vinage joins Typoart.
  • 1980: New types include Kleopatra, Biga, Zyklop, Quadro and Molli.
  • 1987: Albert Kapr hands the art directorship to Norbert du Vinage. Publication of the first phototype catalog by Typoart.
  • 1989: Publication of Fotosatzschriften, Typoart's typeface program. Typoart folds.
  • 1990: VEB Typoart is changed into a GmbH with 230 employees.
  • 1991: Eckehart Schumacher Gebler acquires all of Typoart's matrices. This collection is kept in the Werkstätten und Museum für Druckkunst Leipzig GmbH. Typoart GmbH and HL Computer (Karl Holzer's company) are joined.
  • 1995: Typoart GmbH still has 100 employees. It offers typefaces in truetype and postscript formats. Albert Kapr dies in Leipzig. The demise of Typoart is mysterious, and not much is known about who owes what to whom. This page mentions the present situation. Andreas Seidel explains that Typoart has digitized lots of its type faces using Ikarus, and that the rights are held by Mr. Holzer, who may be in some financial trouble. He says that no living Typoart designers has received any royalties or public recognition.
Typoart Freunde and Typowiki have partial lists of typefaces. Here is my own:
  • Alte Schwabacher: blackletter by Herbert Lemme.
  • Bembo: Typoart's version is by Erhard Kaiser.
  • Biga: a shaded headline typeface made by Fritz Richter in 1985.
  • Caslon-Gotisch: a blackletter typeface originally created by William Caslon in 1760, it was brought to Leipzig from England in 1904 by Carl Ernst Pöschel.
  • Eckmann: a soft blackletter, dating from 1900.
  • Egyptienne.
  • Erler Versalien (1953, Herbert Thannhaeuser; digital version called Missale Incana (2004, Andreas Seidel)).
  • Fette Antiqua: a headline typeface made by Barbara Cain.
  • Garamond (1955): the metal Typoart version is by Herbert Thannhaeuser. The digital version is Garamond No.5 at Elsner&Flake. See also here. URW published a different digital version, Garamond No. 4. And Infinitype / SoftMaker says that its German Garamond is based on TypoArt's.
  • Fleischmann: a serif based on Fleischmann's historical face. An original cursive by Harald Brödel was added.
  • Halbfette Baskerville: an interpretation of Baskerville by Volker Küster.
  • Hogarth Script: an elegant script based on 18th century copperplate originals by William Hogarth. Font by Harald Brödel. Digital versions at URW, Softmaker (as Hobson), Alexandra Gophmann (cyrillic version, 2005), Linotype and Elsner&Flake. Incredibly, Linotype owns the Hogarth Script trademark.
  • Kis Antiqua: Hildegard Korger's interpretation of this classic Dutch Antiqua by Nikolaus Kis.
  • Kleopatra: a double-line decorative typeface by Erhard Kaiser (1985), digitized in 1989.
  • Leipziger Antiqua: a very legible Antiqua designed by Albert Kapr in 1959, developed for phototypesetting by Hans-Peter Greinke, and further developed in digital form by Tim Ahrens in 2002 as Lapture.
  • Liberta: a house typeface from 1958 made by Herbert Thannhaeuser.
  • Luthersche Fraktur: a blackletter by Volker Küster and Herbert Lemme, digitized in 1989.
  • Magna: a DDR magazine text typeface from 1968, by Herbert Thannhaeuser. In 1975, Albert Kapr added Cyrillic letters. Karl-Heinz Lange developed the phototype. URW, Linotype and Elsner&Flake (who owns the trademark) have a digital version.
  • Maxima: a sans family by Gert Wunderlich (1970). Elsner&Flake (who owns the trademak), Linotype and URW have a digital version.
  • Minima: Karl-Heinz Lange's narrow sans designed for the DDR's telephone directory.
  • Molli: a comic book typeface by Harald Brödel.
  • Neutra: A variant of Clarendon, rendered more legible by Albert Kapr. Used in the DDR for advertising.
  • Nidor: a slab serif by Harald Brödel.
  • Norma-Steinschrift: a house sans.
  • Prillwitz (1987): a didone by Albert Kapr and Werner Schulz. Elsner&Flake have a digital version.
  • Primus: a 1962 workhorse family (with Magna and Timeless) for the magazines in the DDR. Conceived in 1962, it was later adapted in Phototype by Karl-Heinz Lange. However, the Berthold Photypes book of 1982 puts the date of creation at 1950.
  • Publika: a sans typeface developed between 1981 and 1983 by Karl-Heinz Lange.
  • Quadro: a four-line showstopper typeface by Erhard Kaiser.
  • Schmalfette Antiqua: Barbara Cain's very narrow didone.
  • Schwabacher T09, T20 and T48.
  • Stentor: a brush script by Heinz Schumann (1964). Digital versions by Scangraphic, Ralph M. Unger (2013, as Tyton Pro), Elsner&Flake and URW. Rosalia (2004, Ingo Preuss) is based on Stentor.
  • Super Grotesk: a legible sans by Arno Drescher (1930, Schriftuss KG). For a digital version, see FF Super Grotesk.
  • Timeless (1982). See also Elsner&Flake and URW.
  • Walbaum: a didone based on Walbaum's originals.
  • Zyklop: an art nouveau/Jugendstil face.

Personal home page of Jay Rutherford.

View Typoart's typefaces. [Google] [More]  ⦿

[Leslie Usherwood]

Toronto-based type house and foundry run by the most famous of all Canadian type designers, Leslie Usherwood (1932-1983). Usherwood studied at the Beckenham School of Art, and practiced as a lettering artist in the commercial art field for 15 years. Typesettra was created in 1968, and had more than four type designers in the early eighties. In 1977, Typsettra began designing original typefaces for Berthold, Letraset and ITC. Other designers associated with Typsettra included David Anderson. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Ulrich Meyer

French type designer who designed Flora in 1972 (at Hollenstein Phototypo). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Ursula Suess

Ursula Suess was born in 1924 to German parents in Camden, NJ, and grew up in Munich, Germany, where she attended two semesters of design school at the Academy of Fine Art before it burned down during the war. She then studied calligraphy with Anna Simons for two years. She returned to America in 1946 and established herself as a graphic designer working for Oxford University Press, Macmillan Co., Harper, and other publishers. She also taught calligraphy for 20 years at the Westchester Art Workshop, and at the Cooper Union in New York City. In her fifties, she learned to cut gems and became a gem carver. She moved to Green Valley, AZ, in 1998, and has been applying her artistic versatility with clay, water-color and acrylics. In 1972 she designed Book Jacket Italic, one of film type era's most famous typefaces [copied by Phil Martin as Bagatelle]. In 2010, with the help of Patrick Griffin, she released the revised and expanded digital version through Canada Type. At VGC, she also made Rotalic (two weights).

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Varityper: 1946 Catalog
[Ralph C. Coxhead]

The Vari-Typer manual of 1946 was published by Ralph C. Coxhead Corporation, New York City. It contains a number of font specimen for the Varityper machine, predominantly typewriter-style typefaces and type for astrology, chemistry, mathematics and other specialized subjects. A small sample is reproduced here. The original PDF file was created at the University of Wisconsin. [Google] [More]  ⦿

VGC 1966 International Typeface Design Competition

The winners of the 1966 International typeface Design Competition sponsored by VGC (Visual Graphics Corporation) were André Gürtler (first prize, for Egyptian 505), Raphael Boguslav (second prize, for Visa), Stanley Davis (Amelia), Barry Deutsch (Deutsch Black), Walter J. Diethelm (Arrow), Karl-Heinz Domning (Domning Antiqua), Ernst Friz (Friz Quadrata), Giorgio Giaiotto (Giorgio), Zoltan Nagy (Margaret Antikva), Aldo Novarese (third prize, for Exempla), Friedrich Peter (Vivaldi), Georg Salden (York), Jay Schechter (Jay Gothic), Wayne Stettler (Neil Bold), Hans-Jürgen Wolf (Wolf Antiqua). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Victor Caruso

New York-based advertising designer associated with Photo-Lettering Inc. and ITC. His typefaces:

  • ITC Kabel (1976). ITC Kabel has a larger x-height than the original Kabel, designed in 1927 by Rudolf Koch. It has shorter ascenders and descenders as well and has a diamond-shaped dot on the i. It is uglier than Koch's Kabel, which is a strong statement, as Koch's Kabel is already quite an eyesore. Review of ITC Kabel.
  • ITC Bauhaus (1974, with Ed Benguiat). See Dessau and R790 Sans on the SoftMaker MegaFont XXL CD (2002), and Geometric 752 in the Bitstream collection.
  • ITC Clearface (1978). ITC writes in its promotional blurb: The original drawings for the Clearface design were a collaboration between Morris Fuller Benton and his father, Linn Boyd Benton. As the driving force behind American Type Founders (ATF) during the first part of the twentieth century, the Bentons sought to create a new typeface that was utilitarian and easy to read. Most contemporary type designers draw the medium weight of a new design first, and then build the rest of the type family on this foundation. However, the Bentons started with Clearface Bold. They introduced the rest of the Clearface family, one design at a time, over the next six years. As a whole, the family was serviceable, but it lacked the continuity we expect from current typeface designs. In 1978, under license from ATF, ITC commissioned designer Victor Caruso to re-draw the Clearface family to rectify its various design inconsistencies. Starting with the medium weight, Caruso developed a family of four weights with harmonizing italics. Caruso's work refines the Bentons' original design into a unified family that is well suited for both text and display settings. The ITC Clearface design is slightly condensed, making it an excellent choice when space is at a premium. It features small yet sturdy serifs, a large x-height and modest contrast in stroke weight. ITC Clearface also contains several "identifying characters" that distinguish it from other faces, such as the upturned a, old style e and ball-terminal s.
  • ITC Franklin Gothic: in 1902, Morris Fuller Benton created Franklin Gothic at ATF, the forefather of the American Grotesques. In 1979, Victor Caruso added four photocomposition weights: Light, Medium, Bold and Black, all with italics. In 1991, David Berlow added Condensed, Compressed and Extra Compressed widths, all under the label of ITC. Finally, in 2010, Berlow completed ITC Franklin as a single new series of six weights in four widths for a total of 48 styles.
  • Futura Maxi (1960, Photo-Lettering). Created to add more display weights to Futura. Digitized by Photolettering. Also, in 2014, Monotype offers a digital version called PL Fute.
  • ITC Korinna.
  • Friz Quadrata Bold, to complete Ernst Friz's Friz Quadrata.

FontShop link. Klingspor link.

View Victor caruso's typefaces. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Vincent F. Apicella

Vincent V. Apicella, Joanna V. Pomeranza and Nancy G. Wiatt co-authored The Concise Guide to Type Identification (1990, Lund Humphries, London), in which modern day types are classified, listed, and named. It contains equivalences between type names for various type manufacturers. Most importantly, it shows typeface equivalences for various typefaces from the phototype era. [Google] [More]  ⦿

Vincent Pacella

American lettering artist and type designer from New York. Creator of ITC Cushing (1982) and ITC Pacella (1987). MyFonts.com hints that he may have died. According to Linotype, ITC Cushing has a long history. The font was originally designed by J. Stearns Cushing, a Boston-based book printer, and famous American type designer Frederic Goudy expanded it to include an italic weight. Under a special license from the American Type Founders, Vincent Pacella modified the design for ITC and added some additional weights. ITC Cushing is slightly condensed with large, bracketed serifs. Pacella changed the capital letters to better complement the lower case and replaced the sloping serifs of the italics to linear type serifs to produce ITC Cushing. ITC Pacella was fashioned in the tradition of Century Schoolbook, Corona and Nimrod. Both fonts are included in the Linotype library.

In the 1970s, he made a Photolettering Egyptian headline typeface called Blackjack, which was digitized in 2007 by Nick Curtis as Flap Jacks NF.

His 1970s semi-psychedelic typeface Carousel became Nick Curtis's Vinnie Culture NF (2007).

His Pacella Vega Extended 10 (Photolettering, 1960s) was digitized by Nick Curtis as Palo Pinto NF (2010).

MyFonts also credits Pacella with AT Stratford Bold, a thick slab serif.

His PhotoLettering fonts Pacella Barrel and Pacella Colossus inspired Nick Curtis to create the beautiful ultra fat western slab serif Earmark NF (2009).

The Western poster font Pioneer was revived by Nick Curtis as Trailblazer NF (2010).

Bingham (done for PLINC) led Nick Curtis to design the angular octagonal typeface Binghamton NF (2010).

In 2011, Vincent Pacella [posthumous credit?], Ben Kiel and Adam Cruz created the fat slab serif face Goliath, based on Film No. 6206 in the PhotoLettering archive.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Visual Graphics Corporation (or: VGC)

Foundry from the phototypesetting era, located on 138 NE 125th Street in North Miami, FL, with designers such as Ron Arnholm, Arthur Baker, Ray Baker, Stan Biggenden, Stan Davis, Ernst Friz, Louis Minott, John Russell, L. Scolnik, Dave Trooper and Ernst Volker. The company changed its name to VGC Corp. and became a subsidiary of VRG Group N.V.

Inventors of the Photo Typositor.

List of typefaces and designers as compiled by Tim Ryan. This list has errors, as pointed out in this discussion on typophile.

My own list of typefaces. Typefaces in our list whose creators still need to be identified include Bubble (1982) and Rodin (ca. 1974).

The 450-page book Visual Graphics Alphabet Library (1985) shows all of its typefaces. PDF version of their 1972 catalog.

There are two components to the VGC collection, one is the standard collection of typefaces everyone must have (knockoffs, really), and the other one is the collection of originals. Freddy Nader explains: The reason for the VGC/Typositor catalog showing so many standards is this: in photo type days, every type house had to have a basic set of what was known as the "foundry types". These were your basic Garamonds, Baskervilles, Clarendons, etc. They simply did that in order to compete. Back then, the type house worked closely with the person designing the artwork (who usually worked for the publisher or the ad agency), and they were charging per word for display, and per page for text. So the type houses wanted to maintain a kind of continuity with their clients, and tried their hardest to be the exclusive supplier for a number of agencies. The very first photo type house, Photo-Lettering Inc, survived for the longest time on one client (J. Walter Thompson in NYC). As a side note, book publishers tried their best to stay away from photo type because of its very expensive prices. It was a hell of a lot cheaper to stick to metal type than pay the type house per page of layout. So if you look back at the mass paperback industry, it was still using metal type until late into the 1970s. The only switched to film type when competition between type houses became so fierce that the type prices dropped considerably. But film type was used in book for only a short time, then desktop publishing as we know it made it all obsolete.

View some digital typefaces that are derived from the VGC library. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Vladimir Andrich

Main typographer (b. 1915) at AlphaType in Niles, IL. Bitstream states: AlphaType Corporation, a family-owned company, was founded by Al and Beatrice Friedman in the mid-1960s to make high quality but inexpensive phototypesetters for advertising typographers. In 1981 Berthold acquired AlphaType.

He made Cremona in 1982 for Alphatype (now Berthold): a macho typeface to get your point across. Cremona is C820 in the Softmaker library. He created the serif family Vladimir at Alphatype in 1966. Other faces at AlphaType: Allan (1978), American Gothic, Beatrice Script, Contemp, Magna Carta (1974).

At VGC, he published Andrich Minerva in 1965, which won Second Prize in the 1965 VGC National Type Face Design Competition. Designer of Vladimir Script (1966, URW++, Elsner & Flake, Linotype), a calligraphic script downloadable here (URW version of 1995). Vladimir Script is called Violin Script in the Softmaker collection.

MyFonts and Linotype refer to this designer as Vladimir Andrevich. Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

W. Seifert

Creator of typefaces at VGC, such as Cornball (1972), Relief (1972) and Too Much (1974, +Opaque, +Clear, +Shadow). [Google] [More]  ⦿

Walter Florenz Brendel
[TypeShop Collection]

[MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Walter H. Cunz

Director of Stempel, which he joined in 1898, and the Trajanus Press. He shaped the growth of the Stempel and Linotype library after the war and during the advent of photocomposition. Son of Wilhelm Cunz (1869-1951) who was one of the original shareholders in D. Stempel AG, and brother-in-law of its founder, David Stempel (1869-1927). [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Walter J. Diethelm

Born in Zürich, 1913. Died in Zürich, 1986. Designer of Diethelm Antiqua (Haas, 1948-1950; Linotype, 1957), Sculptura (1957), Arrow (1966, VGC, a Peignotian or lapidary face), Abacus, Aktiv, Capitol, and Gloriette.

Digitizations include Sculptura (by Jason Castle in 2005), Seta Reta NF (2010, Nick Curtis, after Arrow), and Diethelm AR (2011, Ari Rafaeli, after Diethelm Antiqua, 1945).

Klingspor link. Swiss type design link. Swiss Type Design on Diethelm Walter. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Wayne J. Stettler

Son of a signpainter, b. 1934, Allentown, PA, d. 2011 Blue Bell, PA. He studied advertising design at the Philadelphia College of Art.

Creator of photype typefaces such as Neil Bold (1966, VGC), which was the source of inspiration for Alejandro Paul's Mobley Sans (Umbrella Type), Neil Bold (2010, Patrick Griffin, Canada Type), Nick Curtis's Elephunky NF (2011), and Jas Rewkiewicz's Armstrong (B&P Foundry). He also created Stettler (1965, VGC). Neil Bold also had an outline version called Open.

Patrick Griffin explains: That typeface was very popular with jazz and blues labels. Photo-Lettering knocked it off within 2 months of its release by VGC. This was Wayne Stettler last typeface ever; some say it's because he saw it knocked off and just gave up on type altogether. Also some people say the only reason it won in that type design contest was to actually try to convince Stettler to get back into type design. It never happened, he went into garment design and manufacturing shortly after that contest.

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Werner Affolter
[Affolter und Gschwind AG]

[More]  ⦿

Westcott & Thomson, Inc. for Fotosetter or Fototronic composition

Photo-type era company in Philadelphia located on 1027 Arch Street. I located an image of their typefaces that are lookalikes/i> (by their own admission) of famous typefaces: Biretta is Bembo, Elegane is Palatino, Galaxy is Uniers, Laurel is Caledonia, Medallion is Melior, Plantina is Plantin, Vega is Helvetica, and Zenith is Optima. [Google] [More]  ⦿

William Beck

Designer of Billy Beck System 1, 2, 3 and 4 (VGC). [Google] [More]  ⦿

William Garth

A major player in the phototypesetting era. He founded Photon Inc and cofounded Compugraphic. One of Compugraphic's first original designs (1979, by Constance Blanchard, Renee le Winter), based on sketches by John Matt (Matt Antique (1980, now available at Bitstream) required a name, and it became Garth Graphic (1979, Compugraphic), to honor Bill Garth after his death. Read about Garth Graphic here. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿

Yutaka Satoh
[Type Labo]

[More]  ⦿

Zoltán Nagy

Hungarian type designer (1920-1998) (some pubs mention a birth date of 1921), who is responsible for most types in Hungary in the 20th century. He studied graphic arts at the Technical University of Budapest, and became chief engineer and art director at Elsö Magyar Betüöntöde. Author of Techniques of Type Design. He also engraved many postage stamps.

His typefaces consist of metal types done at EMB (Elsö Magyar Betüöntöde), a typefoundry in Budapest, and phototypes at VGC:

  • Antikva Margaret (1965, VGC), his most important work. This text family won a third place award at an ITC-sponsored competition in 1966.
  • Ecsetiras (1967, EMB).
  • Kirillitsa (1967, EMB). A heavy grotesk for Cyrillic.
  • Kalligrafia (1968, EMB).
  • Terentius (1961, EMB). An outlined shadow face.
  • Ungarische Grotesk (+breitfett) (1967, EMB). Aka Széles Groteszk (+kövér groteszk).
  • Reklam kurzív (1960, EMB), a signage script.
  • Katerina (1970). This typeface, slightly modified according to requirements of the Ministry, is used on Hungarian passports.
  • Later photo typefaces: Magdalena (1971), Gilgames (1972), Sznoett (1973), Unió (1975), Unio Grotesk (1981, Cyrillic), ITEX Linear (1984), Nexus (1984), Thomas (1984).

Digitizations of his typefaces:

  • ICG did a digital version of Antikva Margaret in 1992, also called Antikva Margaret.
  • In 2005, Ralph M. Unger digitized Ecsetiras at URW as FontForum URW Ecsetiras.
  • In 2011, another digital version of Antikva Margaret appeared, thanks to Nick Curtis, who created Olde Megrat NF.
  • Oszkár Boskovitz is working on the digitization of his oeuvre and has already completed the brush typeface Ecsetirás (2001).

Klingspor link. [Google] [MyFonts] [More]  ⦿